Publications by authors named "Florent Boutitie"

60 Publications

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and morbidity outcomes in early cervical cancer: Results of a multicentre randomised trial (SENTICOL-2).

Eur J Cancer 2021 Mar 23;148:307-315. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Anne-Sophie Bats, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Gynécologie, 20-40 Rue Leblanc, 75908 Paris Cedex 15, France.

Introduction: Pelvic lymph node dissection has been the standard of care for patients with early cervical cancer. Sentinel node (SN) mapping is safe and feasible and may increase the detection of metastatic disease, but benefits of omitting pelvic lymph node dissection in terms of decreased morbidity have not been demonstrated.

Materials And Methods: In an open-label study, patients with early cervical carcinoma (FIGO 2009 stage IA2 to IIA1) were randomly assigned to SN resection alone (SN arm) or SN and pelvic lymph node dissection (SN + PLND arm). SN resection was followed by radical surgery of the tumour (radical hysterectomy or radical trachelectomy). The primary end-point was morbidity related to the lymph node dissection; 3-year recurrence-free survival was a secondary end-point.

Results: A total of 206 patients were eligible and randomly assigned to the SN arm (105 patients) or SN + PLND arm (101 patients). Most patients had stage IB1 lesion (87.4%). No false-negative case was observed in SN + PLND arm. Lymphatic morbidity was significantly lower in the SN arm (31.4%) than in the SN + PLND arm (51.5%; p = 0.0046), as was the rate of postoperative neurological symptoms (7.8% vs. 20.6%, p = 0.01, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with significant lymphoedema between the two groups. During the 6-month postoperative period, the difference in morbidity decreased over time. The 3-year recurrence-free survival was not significantly different (92.0% in SN arm and 94.4% in SN + PLND arm).

Conclusion: SN resection alone is associated with early decreased lymphatic morbidity when compared with SN + PLND in early cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of intravenous alteplase on post-stroke depression in the WAKE UP trial.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: The aim was to study the effect of intravenous alteplase on the development of post-stroke depression (PSD) in acute stroke patients, and to identify predictors of PSD.

Methods: This post hoc analysis included patients with unknown onset stroke randomized to treatment with alteplase or placebo in the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290), in whom a composite end-point of PSD was defined as a Beck Depression Inventory ≥10, medication with an antidepressant, or depression recorded as an adverse event. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of PSD at 90 days. Structural equation modelling was applied to assess the indirect effect of thrombolysis on PSD mediated by the modified Rankin Scale.

Results: Information on the composite end-point was available for 438 of 503 randomized patients. PSD was present in 96 of 224 (42.9%) patients in the alteplase group and 115 of 214 (53.7%) in the placebo group (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.94; p = 0.022; adjusted for age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at baseline). Prognostic factors associated with PSD included baseline medication with antidepressants, higher lesion volume, history of depression and assignment to placebo. While 65% of the effect of thrombolysis on PSD were caused directly, 35% were mediated by an improvement of the mRS.

Conclusions: Treatment with alteplase in patients with acute stroke resulted in lower rates of depression at 90 days, which were only partially explained by reduced functional disability. Predictors of PSD including history and clinical characteristics may help in identifying patients at risk of PSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14797DOI Listing
March 2021

Extent of FLAIR Hyperintense Vessels May Modify Treatment Effect of Thrombolysis: A Analysis of the WAKE-UP Trial.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:623881. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintense vessels (FHVs) on MRI are a radiological marker of vessel occlusion and indirect sign of collateral circulation. However, the clinical relevance is uncertain. We explored whether the extent of FHVs is associated with outcome and how FHVs modify treatment effect of thrombolysis in a subgroup of patients with confirmed unilateral vessel occlusion from the randomized controlled WAKE-UP trial. One hundred sixty-five patients were analyzed. Two blinded raters independently assessed the presence and extent of FHVs (defined as the number of slices with visible FHV multiplied by FLAIR slice thickness). Patients were then separated into two groups to distinguish between few and extensive FHVs (dichotomization at the median <30 or ≥30). Here, 85% of all patients ( = 140) and 95% of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion patients ( = 127) showed FHVs at baseline. Between MCA occlusion patients with few and extensive FHVs, no differences were identified in relative lesion growth ( = 0.971) and short-term [follow-up National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score; = 0.342] or long-term functional recovery [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) <2 at 90 days poststroke; = 0.607]. In linear regression analysis, baseline extent of FHV (defined as a continuous variable) was highly associated with volume of hypoperfused tissue (β = 2.161; 95% CI 0.96-3.36; = 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis adjusted for treatment group, stroke severity, lesion volume, occlusion site, and recanalization, FHV did not modify functional recovery. However, in patients with few FHVs, the odds for good functional outcome (mRS) were increased in recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) patients compared to those who received placebo [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% CI 1.2-24.0], whereas no apparent benefit was observed in patients with extensive FHVs (OR = 1.1; 95% CI 0.3-3.8), -value for interaction was 0.11. While the extent of FHVs on baseline did not alter the evolution of stroke in terms of lesion progression or functional recovery, it may modify treatment effect and should therefore be considered relevant additional information in those patients who are eligible for intravenous thrombolysis. Main trial (WAKE-UP): ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01525290; and EudraCT, 2011-005906-32. Registered February 2, 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.623881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890254PMC
February 2021

Colchicine for Left Ventricular Infarct Size Reduction in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Phase II, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study Protocol - The COVERT-MI Study.

Cardiology 2021 12;146(2):151-160. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Centre d'Investigation Clinique, Inserm 1407, CarMeN Unit Inserm 1060, Hôpital Cardiologique Louis Pradel, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bron, France,

Inflammatory processes have been identified as key mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). They add damage to the myocardium and are associated with clinical adverse events (heart failure and cardiovascular death) and poor myocardial recovery. Colchicine is a well-known alkaloid with potent anti-inflammatory properties. In a proof-of-concept phase II trial, colchicine has been associated with a significant 50% reduction of infarct size (assessed by creatine kinase levels) in comparison to placebo in acute STEMI patients referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The Colchicine in STEMI Patients Study (COVERT-MI) is an ongoing confirmative prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial testing whether a short course oral treatment with colchicine versus placebo decreases myocardial injury in patients presenting with STEMI referred for PPCI. Adult patients, with a first STEMI episode and an initial TIMI flow ≤1, referred for PPCI, will be randomized (n = 194) in a 1:1 ratio to receive an oral bolus of colchicine of 2 mg followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. treatment during 5 days or matching placebo. The primary endpoint will be the reduction in infarct size as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance at 5 ± 2 days between both groups. The main secondary endpoints will be tested between groups in hierarchical order with left ventricular ejection fraction at 5 days, microvascular obstruction presence at 5 days, and absolute adverse left ventricular remodeling between 5 days and 3 months. This academic study is being financed by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRCN-16-0357). Results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology underlying myocardial injury after STEMI. The present study describes the rationale, design, and methods of the trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512772DOI Listing
February 2021

Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients on prior antiplatelet therapy in the WAKE-UP trial.

Neurol Res Pract 2020 20;2:40. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: One quarter to one third of patients eligible for systemic thrombolysis are on antiplatelet therapy at presentation. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients on prescribed antiplatelet therapy in the WAKE-UP trial.

Methods: WAKE-UP was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of MRI-guided intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time. The medication history of all patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial was documented. The primary safety outcome was any sign of hemorrhagic transformation on follow-up MRI. The primary efficacy outcome was favorable functional outcome defined by a score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days after stroke, adjusted for age and baseline stroke severity. Logistic regression models were fitted to study the association of prior antiplatelet treatment with outcome and treatment effect of intravenous alteplase.

Results: Of 503 randomized patients, 164 (32.6%) were on antiplatelet treatment. Patients on antiplatelet treatment were older (70.3 vs. 62.8 years,  <  0.001), and more frequently had a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhagic transformation on follow-up imaging did not differ between patients with and without antiplatelet treatment. Patients on prior antiplatelet treatment were less likely to achieve a favorable outcome (37.3% vs. 52.6%,  = 0.014), but there was no interaction of prior antiplatelet treatment with intravenous alteplase concerning favorable outcome ( = 0.355). Intravenous alteplase was associated with higher rates of favorable outcome in patients on prior antiplatelet treatment with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.106 (95% CI 1.047-4.236).

Conclusions: Treatment benefit of intravenous alteplase and rates of post-treatment hemorrhagic transformation were not modified by prior antiplatelet intake among MRI-selected patients with unknown onset stroke. Worse functional outcome in patients on antiplatelets may result from a higher load of cardiovascular co-morbidities in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42466-020-00087-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678217PMC
November 2020

Symptoms and probabilistic anatomical mapping of lacunar infarcts.

Neurol Res Pract 2020 3;2:21. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The anatomical distribution of acute lacunar infarcts has mainly been studied for supratentorial lesions. In addition, little is known about the association with distinct stroke symptoms, not summarized as classical lacunar syndromes. We aimed to describe the spatial lesion distribution of acute supra- and infratentorial lacunar infarcts and their association with stroke symptoms in patients eligible for thrombolysis.

Methods: All patients enrolled in the WAKE-UP trial (efficacy and safety of magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]-based thrombolysis in wake-up stroke) were screened for lacunar infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The relationship between the anatomical distribution of supra- and infratentorial lacunar infarcts, their demographic characteristics and acute stroke symptoms, defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, were correlated and compared.

Results: Maps of lesion distribution from 224 lacunar infarct patients (76 [33.9%] females, mean age [standard deviation] of 63.4 [11.5] years) were generated using computational image mapping methods. Median infarct volume was 0.73 ml (interquartile range [IQR] 0.37-1.15 ml). Median NIHSS sum score on hospital arrival was 4 (IQR 3-6). 165 (73.7%) patients had lacunar infarcts in the supratentorial deep white or grey matter, while 59 (26.3%) patients had infratentorial lacunar infarcts. Patients with supratentorial lacunar infarcts presented with a significantly lower occurrence of deficits in the NIHSS items gaze ( < 0.001) and dysarthria ( = 0.008), but had more often a paresis of the left arm ( = 0.009) and left leg ( = 0.068) compared to patients with infratentorial infarcts.

Conclusions: The anatomical lesion distribution of lacunar infarcts reveals a distinct pattern and supports an association of localization with different stroke symptoms.

Trial Registration: NCT01525290.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42466-020-00068-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650076PMC
August 2020

Histopathologic Validation of the Sentinel Node Technique for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer Patients.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be an alternative to systematic lymphadenectomy in early cervical cancer. The SLN biopsy is less morbid and has been shown to have high sensitivity for metastasis detection. However, the sensitivity of the SLN technique might be overevaluated because SLNs are examined with ultra-staging, and non-sentinel nodes usually are examined only with routine techniques. This study aimed to validate the negative predictive value (NPV) of the SLN technique by the ultra-staging of SLNs and non-sentinel nodes (NSLNs).

Methods: The SENTICOL 1 study data published in 2011 were used. All nodes (i.e., SLNs and NSLNs) were secondarily subjected to ultra-staging. The ultra-staging consisted of sectioning every 200 µm, in addition to immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the positive slides and 10% of the negative slides were reviewed.

Results: The study enrolled 139 patients, and SLNs were detected in 136 (97.8%) of these patiets. Bilateral SLNs were detected in 104 (76.5%) of the 136 patients. A total of 2056 NSLNs were identified (median, 13 NSLNs per patient; range 1-54). Of the 136 patients with SLNs, 23 were shown to have positive SLNs after serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining. The NSLNs were metastatic in six patients. In the case of bilateral SLN detection, the NPV was 100%, with no false-negatives (FNs).

Conclusions: The pelvic SLN technique is safe and trustworthy for determining the nodal status of patients with early-stage cervical cancer. In the case of optimal mapping with bilateral detection, the NPV was found to be 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09328-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Intravenous alteplase for stroke with unknown time of onset guided by advanced imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

Lancet 2020 11 8;396(10262):1574-1584. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers.

Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903.

Findings: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024).

Interpretation: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32163-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734592PMC
November 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients With Hemorrhagic Transformation After Intravenous Thrombolysis in the WAKE-UP Trial.

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:957. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is an important complication of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase. HT can show a wide range from petechiae to parenchymal hematoma with mass effect with varying clinical impact. We studied clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with HT and evaluated whether different types of HT are associated with functional outcome. We performed a analysis of WAKE-UP, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-guided intravenous alteplase in unknown onset stroke. HT was assessed on follow-up MRI or CT and diagnosed as hemorrhagic infarction type 1 and type 2 (HI1 and HI2, combined as HI), and parenchymal hemorrhage type 1 and type 2 (PH1 and PH2, combined as PH). Severity of stroke symptoms was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline. Stroke lesion volume was measured on baseline diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Primary endpoint was a favorable outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days. Of 483 patients included in the analysis, 95 (19.7%) showed HI and 21 (4.4%) had PH. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified treatment with alteplase (OR, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.28-3.40]), baseline NIHSS score (OR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.17]), DWI lesion volume (OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01-1.05]), baseline glucose levels (OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.00-1.01]) and atrial fibrillation (OR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.57-5.80]) as predictors of any HT. The same parameters predicted HI. Predictors of PH were baseline NIHSS score (OR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.22]) and as a trend treatment with alteplase (OR, 2.40 [95% CI, 0.93-6.96]). PH was associated with lower odds of favorable outcome (OR 0.25, 95% [CI 0.05-0.86]), while HI was not. Our results indicate that HI is associated with stroke severity, cardiovascular risk factors and thrombolysis. PH is a rare complication, more frequent in severe stroke and with thrombolysis. In contrast to HI, PH is associated with worse functional outcome. The impact of HT after MRI-guided intravenous alteplase for unknown onset stroke on clinical outcome is similar as in the trials of stroke thrombolysis within a known early time-window.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483750PMC
August 2020

Impact of Mitral Regurgitation Severity and Left Ventricular Remodeling on Outcome After MitraClip Implantation: Results From the Mitra-FR Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 16;14(4):742-752. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire et Transplantation Cardiaque, Hospices Civils de Lyon and Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to identify a subset of patients based on echocardiographic parameters who might have benefited from transcatheter correction using the MitraClip system in the MITRA-FR (Percutaneous Repair with the MitraClip Device for Severe Functional/Secondary Mitral Regurgitation) trial.

Background: It has been suggested that differences in the degree of mitral regurgitation (MR) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling may explain the conflicting results between the MITRA-FR and the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trials.

Methods: In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the interaction between the intervention and subsets of patients defined based on MR severity (effective regurgitant orifice [ERO], regurgitant volume [RVOL] and regurgitant fraction [RF]), LV remodeling (end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and volumes) and combination of these parameters with respect to the composite of death from any cause or unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 24 months.

Results: We observed a neutral impact of the intervention in subsets with the highest MR degree (ERO ≥30 mm, RVOL ≥45 ml or RF ≥50%) as in patients with milder MR degree. The same was seen in subsets with the milder LV remodeling using either diastolic or systolic diameters or volumes. When parameters of MR severity and LV remodeling were combined, there was still no benefit of the intervention including in the subset of patients with an ERO/end-diastolic volume ratio ≥ 0.15 despite similar ERO and LV end-diastolic volume compared with COAPT patients.

Conclusions: In the MITRA-FR trial, we could not identify a subset of patients defined based on the degree of the regurgitation, LV remodeling or on their combination, including those deemed as having disproportionate MR, that might have benefited from transcatheter correction using the MitraClip system. (Multicentre Study of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair MitraClip Device in Patients With Severe Secondary Mitral Regurgitation [MITRA-FR]; NCT01920698).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.07.021DOI Listing
April 2021

Does the Sentinel Lymph Node Sampling Alone Improve Quality of Life in Early Cervical Cancer Management?

Front Surg 2020 12;7:31. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Service de chirurgie et cancérologie gynécologique et mammaire, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

In this subanalysis of the prospective randomized multicenter SENTICOL 2 study, we compared the quality of life (QoL), in two arms, in association with lower-limb consequences in women with early stage cervical cancer undergoing randomized sentinel lymph node (SLN) sampling alone or SLN sampling and full pelvic lymphadenectomy. 206 patients with an early stage cervical cancer and a negative SLN, were randomized. Every patient had a SLN detection based on a combination of radio-isotope (Nanocis®) and blue dye (Bleu Patenté®) injections. One hundred and One patients, the "standard" group, had complete pelvic lymphadenectomy, 105 patients, the "SLN alone" group, had SLN biopsy without lymphadenectomy. At each visit (V0: preoperative, V1: 1 month, V2: 3 months and V3: 6 months following surgery) the patients completed a Short Form Health Survey (SF36) questionnaire and another questionnaire related to leg lymphedema. SF36 scores variations (compared to the baseline values) were assessed with a standard analysis and by an evaluation of the area under the curve (AUC). Several lower-limb circumferences and signs were also determined. General characteristics of the patients were well-balanced between groups. Physical function and general health dimensions of the SF36 scale were significantly improved at V1 and V2 in the "SLN alone" group. Mental health was also statistically better in the "SLN alone" group at V2. Other dimensions were similar. The two groups had similar evaluation at V3. AUC of SF36 sub-scores was also in favor of the "SLN alone" arm, but the difference was not statistically significant. The analysis about the lymphedema of the legs showed a reduced (but not significant) risk in the "SLN alone" group for the top-of-thigh and the mid-thigh perimeters. Lymphedema symptoms reported by the patients were significantly less severe in the "SLN alone" group. Our study demonstrates a trend for a better quality of life and less severe leg heaviness and leg fatigue when a full pelvic lymphadenectomy is avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.00031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303263PMC
June 2020

Different Mismatch Concepts for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Thrombolysis in Unknown Onset Stroke.

Ann Neurol 2020 06 20;87(6):931-938. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: To explore the prevalence of the perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI)-diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch and response to intravenous thrombolysis in the WAKE-UP trial.

Methods: We performed a prespecified post hoc analysis of ischemic stroke patients screened for DWI-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch in WAKE-UP who underwent PWI. We defined PWI-DWI mismatch as ischemic core volume < 70ml, mismatch volume > 10ml, and mismatch ratio > 1.2. Primary efficacy end point was a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 at 90 days, adjusted for age and symptom severity.

Results: Of 1,362 magnetic resonance imaging-screened patients, 431 underwent PWI. Of these, 57 (13%) had a double mismatch, 151 (35%) only a DWI-FLAIR mismatch, and 54 (13%) only a PWI-DWI mismatch. DWI-FLAIR mismatch was more prevalent than PWI-DWI mismatch (48%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 43-53% vs 26%, 95% CI = 22-30%; p < 0.0001). Screening for either one of the mismatch profiles resulted in a yield of 61% (95% CI = 56-65%). Prevalence of PWI-DWI mismatch was similar in patients with (27%) or without (24%) DWI-FLAIR mismatch (p = 0.52). In an exploratory analysis in the small subgroup of 208 randomized patients with PWI, PWI-DWI mismatch status did not modify the treatment response (p for interaction = 0.73).

Interpretation: Evaluating both the DWI-FLAIR and PWI-DWI mismatch patterns in patients with unknown time of stroke onset will result in the highest yield of thrombolysis treatment. The treatment benefit of alteplase in patients with a DWI-FLAIR mismatch seems to be driven not merely by the presence of a PWI-DWI mismatch, although this analysis was underpowered. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:931-938.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25730DOI Listing
June 2020

Current Smoking Does Not Modify the Treatment Effect of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients-A Analysis of the WAKE-UP Trial.

Front Neurol 2019 22;10:1239. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The "smoking paradox" indicates that patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who smoke at the time of their stroke may have a better prognosis after intravenous thrombolysis than non-smokers. However, findings are inconsistent and data analyzing the effect of smoking on treatment efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis are scarce. We performed a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke (WAKE-UP) trial that randomized AIS patients with unknown time of symptom onset who had diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid attenuation inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch to either alteplase or placebo. Patients were categorized as current smokers or non-smokers (including former smokers and never-smokers). Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as clinical and imaging follow-up data were analyzed according to smoking status. Four hundred and eighty six patients were included in the analysis. Current smokers (133, 27.4%) were younger (60.1 ± 13.0 vs. 67.2 ± 10.3 years; < 0.001) and less often had arterial hypertension (45.0% vs. 56.8%; = 0.02) or atrial fibrillation (3.8% vs. 15.3%; < 0.001). The acute stroke presentation was more often due to large vessel occlusion among current smokers (27.1 vs. 16.2%; = 0.01), and smokers had a trend towards more severe strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score>10 in 27.1% vs. 19.5%; = 0.08). The treatment effect of alteplase, quantified as odds ratio for a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score at 90 days of 0 or 1), did not differ between current smokers and non-smokers (-value for interaction: 0.59). After adjustment for age and stroke severity, neither the proportion of patients with favorable outcome, nor the median mRS score at 90 days differed between current smokers and non-smokers. When additional potential confounders were included in the model, the median mRS score was higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (cOR of better outcome for current smokers vs. non-smokers: 0.664 [0.451-0.978], = 0.04). In patients with mild to moderate MRI-proven AIS and unknown time of symptom onset with DWI-FLAIR mismatch, current smokers had worse functional outcome as compared to non-smokers. Current smoking did not modify the treatment effect of alteplase. Main trial (WAKE-UP): ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01525290; and EudraCT, 2011-005906-32. Registered 02 February 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883001PMC
November 2019

Quantitative Signal Intensity in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery and Treatment Effect in the WAKE-UP Trial.

Stroke 2020 01 30;51(1):209-215. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

From the Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum (B.C., A.N., C.G., G.T.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.

Background and Purpose- Relative signal intensity of acute ischemic stroke lesions in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery relative signal intensity [FLAIR-rSI]) magnetic resonance imaging is associated with time elapsed since stroke onset with higher intensities signifying longer time intervals. In the randomized controlled WAKE-UP trial (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke Trial), intravenous alteplase was effective in patients with unknown onset stroke selected by visual assessment of diffusion weighted imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch, that is, in those with no marked fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity in the region of the acute diffusion weighted imaging lesion. In this post hoc analysis, we investigated whether quantitatively measured FLAIR-rSI modifies treatment effect of intravenous alteplase. Methods- FLAIR-rSI of stroke lesions was measured relative to signal intensity in a mirrored region in the contralesional hemisphere. The relationship between FLAIR-rSI and treatment effect on functional outcome assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 90 days was analyzed by binary logistic regression using different end points, that is, favorable outcome defined as mRS score of 0 to 1, independent outcome defined as mRS score of 0 to 2, ordinal analysis of mRS scores (shift analysis). All models were adjusted for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at symptom onset and stroke lesion volume. Results- FLAIR-rSI was successfully quantified in stroke lesions in 433 patients (86% of 503 patients included in WAKE-UP). Mean FLAIR-rSI was 1.06 (SD, 0.09). Interaction of FLAIR-rSI and treatment effect was not significant for mRS score of 0 to 1 (=0.169) and shift analysis (=0.086) but reached significance for mRS score of 0 to 2 (=0.004). We observed a smooth continuing trend of decreasing treatment effects in relation to clinical end points with increasing FLAIR-rSI. Conclusions- In patients in whom no marked parenchymal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity was detected by visual judgement in the WAKE-UP trial, higher FLAIR-rSI of diffusion weighted imaging lesions was associated with decreased treatment effects of intravenous thrombolysis. This parallels the known association of treatment effect and elapsing time of stroke onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027390DOI Listing
January 2020

Elderly Patients with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Are Undertreated and Have Shorter Survival: The LyREMeNET Study.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 7;110(7-8):653-661. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Service de Gastroentérologie et d'Oncologie Médicale, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France,

Introduction: The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is rising, especially in elderly patients. The elderly cancer population presents considerable challenges, yet little is known about the characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of metastatic NET (mNET) patients.

Methods: The Lyon Real-life Evidence in Metastatic NeuroEndocrine Tumors study (LyREMeNET, NCT03863106) included consecutive mNET patients, diagnosed between January 1990 and December 2017. The exclusion criteria were nonmetastatic NET, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, and mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasms. We aimed to compare patients ≥70 years old to patients <70 years old.

Results: A total of 866 patients were included, 198 (23%) were ≥70 years old. There was no significant difference in characteristics except that elderly patients had synchronous metastasis more frequently. Elderly patients received significantly fewer treatments (median of 2.0 vs. 3.0 lines, respectively, p < 0.0001), were significantly less frequently treated by chemotherapy (32 vs. 54%), targeted therapy (16 vs. 30%), peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (5 vs. 16%), and they underwent significantly less frequently locoregional intervention. Median overall survival was significantly shorter in elderly patients (5.2 vs. 9.6 years). The most frequent cause of death was related to disease progression (71%). Multivariate analysis found that, after adjustment for tumor location, tumor grade, and number of metastatic sites, age remained significantly associated with overall survival (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.26-2.18), indicating a poorer survival in patients ≥70 years old in comparison with younger patients (p = 0.0003).

Conclusion: Patients ≥70 years old have a worse survival, die frequently from their disease, and are undertreated compared to younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503901DOI Listing
October 2019

Analysis of Outcome of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Infarcts of Infratentorial Localization in the WAKE-UP Trial.

Front Neurol 2019 11;10:983. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

In WAKE-UP (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke), patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time were randomized to treatment with intravenous alteplase or placebo, guided by MRI. In this exploratory secondary analysis we compared clinical and imaging data, as well as treatment effects and safety of intravenous thrombolysis between patients with infra- vs. supratentorial stroke. Forty-eight out of 503 randomized patients (9.5%) presented with a stroke involving the cerebellum or brainstem. Patients with infratentorial stroke were younger compared to patients with supratentorial stroke (mean age 60 vs. 66 years), more frequently male (85 vs. 62%), and less severely affected (median NIHSS 4.5 vs. 6.0). There was no heterogeneity for treatment effect between supratentorial (OR 1.67 95% CI 1.11-2.51) and infratentorial (OR 1.31 95% CI 0.41-4.22) sub-groups (test for interaction = 0.70). In patients with infratentorial stroke, favorable outcome [a score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days] was observed in 12/22 patients (54.5%) in the alteplase group and in 13/25 patients (52.0%) in the placebo group ( = 0.59). The primary safety endpoint (death or mRS 4-6 at day 90) occurred in three patients of the alteplase group (13.6%) and three patients in the placebo group (12.0%); = 0.74. WAKE-UP was underpowered for demonstrating treatment effect in subgroup analyses however, based on our current results, there is no evidence to recommend withholding MRI-guided thrombolysis in patients with unknown onset stroke of infratentorial localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749039PMC
September 2019

Percutaneous repair or medical treatment for secondary mitral regurgitation: outcomes at 2 years.

Eur J Heart Fail 2019 12 18;21(12):1619-1627. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire et Transplantation Cardiaque, Hospices Civils de Lyon and Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France.

Aims: The MITRA-FR trial showed that among symptomatic patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, percutaneous repair did not reduce the risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months compared with guideline-directed medical treatment alone. We report the 24-month outcome from this trial.

Methods And Results: At 37 centres, we randomly assigned 304 symptomatic heart failure patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice area >20 mm or regurgitant volume >30 mL), and left ventricular ejection fraction between 15% and 40% to undergo percutaneous valve repair plus medical treatment (intervention group, n = 152) or medical treatment alone (control group, n = 152). The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of all-cause death and unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months. At 24 months, all-cause death and unplanned hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 63.8% of patients (97/152) in the intervention group and 67.1% (102/152) in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.34]. All-cause mortality occurred in 34.9% of patients (53/152) in the intervention group and 34.2% (52/152) in the control group (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.70-1.50). Unplanned hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 55.9% of patients (85/152) in the intervention group and 61.8% (94/152) in the control group (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72-1.30).

Conclusions: In patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, percutaneous repair added to medical treatment did not significantly reduce the risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure at 2 years compared with medical treatment alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1616DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Lacunar Infarcts and Concurrent Embolic Ischemic Lesions.

Clin Neuroradiol 2020 Sep 3;30(3):511-516. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Lacunar infarcts are thought to result from occlusion of small penetrating arteries due to microatheroma and lipohyalinosis, pathognomonic for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Concurrent embolic ischemic lesions indicate a different stroke mechanism. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

Methods: All patients screened for the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290) were reviewed for acute lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic lesions on baseline DWI. Clinical characteristics and outcome were compared between lacunar infarct patients with and without concurrent embolic lesions.

Results: Of 244 patients with an acute lacunar infarct, 20 (8.2%) had concurrent acute embolic infarcts. Compared to patients with a lacunar infarct only, patients with concurrent embolic infarcts were older (mean age 69 years vs. 63 years; p = 0.031), more severely affected (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 5 vs. 4; p = 0.046), and-among those randomized-had worse functional outcome at 90 days (median modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3 vs. 1; p = 0.011).

Conclusion: Approximately 8% of lacunar infarct patients show concurrent embolic lesions suggesting a stroke etiology other than CSVD. These patients are more severely affected and have a worse functional outcome illustrating the need for a thorough diagnostic work-up of possible embolic sources even in patients with an imaging-defined diagnosis of lacunar infarcts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-019-00800-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Functional Outcome of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients With Lacunar Infarcts in the WAKE-UP Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2019 06;76(6):641-649

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Importance: The rationale for intravenous thrombolysis in patients with lacunar infarcts is debated, since it is hypothesized that the microvascular occlusion underlying lacunar infarcts might not be susceptible to pharmacological reperfusion treatment.

Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis among patients with lacunar infarcts.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This exploratory secondary post hoc analysis of the WAKE-UP trial included patients who were screened and enrolled between September 2012 and June 2017 (with final follow-up in September 2017). The WAKE-UP trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time, guided by magnetic resonance imaging. All 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial were reviewed for lacunar infarcts. Diagnosis of lacunar infarcts was based on magnetic resonance imaging and made by consensus of 2 independent investigators blinded to clinical information.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary efficacy variable was favorable outcome defined by a score of 0 to 1 on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days after stroke, adjusted for age and severity of symptoms.

Results: Of the 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial, 108 patients (including 74 men [68.5%]) had imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, whereas 395 patients (including 251 men [63.5%]) had nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with lacunar infarcts were younger than patients with nonlacunar infarcts (mean age [SD], 63 [12] years vs 66 [12] years; P = .003). Of patients with lacunar infarcts, 55 (50.9%) were assigned to treatment with alteplase and 53 (49.1%) to receive placebo. Treatment with alteplase was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome, with no heterogeneity of treatment outcome between lacunar and nonlacunar stroke subtypes. In patients with lacunar strokes, a favorable outcome was observed in 31 of 53 patients (59%) in the alteplase group compared with 24 of 52 patients (46%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67 [95% CI, 0.77-3.64]). There was 1 death and 1 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage according to Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study criteria in the alteplase group, while no death and no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in the placebo group. The distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores 90 days after stroke also showed a nonsignificant shift toward better outcomes in patients with lacunar infarcts treated with alteplase, with an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 0.95-3.93).

Conclusions And Relevance: While the WAKE-UP trial was not powered to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment in subgroups of patients, the results indicate that the association of intravenous alteplase with functional outcome does not differ in patients with imaging-defined lacunar infarcts compared with those experiencing other stroke subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563546PMC
June 2019

A randomized controlled trial to test efficacy and safety of thrombectomy in stroke with extended lesion and extended time window.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 29;14(1):87-93. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

13 Department of Neurology, University of Hamburg, Germany.

Rationale: The benefit of thrombectomy in patients with intracranial large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation has been shown in selected patients in previous randomized controlled trials, but patients with extended ischemic lesions were excluded in the majority of these trials. TENSION aims to demonstrate efficacy and safety of thrombectomy in patients with extended lesions in an extended time window (up to 12 h from onset or from last seen well).

Design: TENSION is an investigator-initiated, randomized controlled, open label, blinded endpoint, European, two-arm, postmarket study to compare the safety and effectiveness of thrombectomy as compared to best medical care alone in stroke patients with extended stroke lesions defined by an Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Scan score of 3-5 and in an extended time window. In an adaptive design study, up to 665 patients will be randomized.

Outcomes: Primary efficacy endpoint will be clinical outcome defined by the modified Rankin Scale at 90-day poststroke. The main safety endpoint will be death and dependency (modified Rankin Scale 4-6) at 90 days. Additional effect measures include adverse events, health-related quality of life, poststroke depression, and costs utility assessment.

Discussion: TENSION may make effective treatment available for patients with severe stroke in an extended time window, thereby improving functional outcome and quality of life of thousands of stroke patients and reducing the individual, societal, and economic burden of death and disability resulting from severe stroke. TENSION is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03094715).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018798558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604397PMC
January 2019

Percutaneous Repair or Medical Treatment for Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.

N Engl J Med 2018 12 27;379(24):2297-2306. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

From Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire et Transplantation Cardiaque (J.-F.O.), Pharmacy Department and Laboratoire Mateis (X.A.), and Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, Clinical Investigation Center and Heart Failure Department, INSERM 1407 (C.B., G.S., N. Mewton), Hospices Civils de Lyon and Claude Bernard University, Lyon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Hôpital Bichat (D.M.-Z., B.I., A.V.), and APHP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (N.K.), Paris, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, Hôpital Pontchaillou, Rennes (G.L., E.D.), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM), Hôpital de la Timone (G.B.), and Hôpital Saint Joseph (N. Michel), Marseille, CHU Nantes, Hôpital Guillaume et René Laennec, Nantes (N.P., J.-N.T., P.G.), Institut Jacques Cartier, Massy (T.L., B.C.), Clinique du Millénaire (C.P.) and CHU Montpellier, Hôpital Arnaud-de-Villeneuve (F.L.), Montpellier, CHU Angers, Angers (F.R.), CHU Toulouse, Hôpital Rangueil, Toulouse (D.C.), Centre Cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis (M.N.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg (P.O.), Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire (CHRU) de Tours, Hôpital Trousseau, Tours (C.S.E.), APHP, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil (E.T.), CHU Bordeaux, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Pessac (L.L.), CHRU Brest, Hôpital de La Cavale Blanche, Brest (M.G.), and Service de Biostatistique-Bioinformatique, Pôle Santé Publique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive, Équipe Biostatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (F.B., D.M.-B.) - all in France; and the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Canada (D.M.-Z.).

Background: In patients who have chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, severe secondary mitral-valve regurgitation is associated with a poor prognosis. Whether percutaneous mitral-valve repair improves clinical outcomes in this patient population is unknown.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients who had severe secondary mitral regurgitation (defined as an effective regurgitant orifice area of >20 mm or a regurgitant volume of >30 ml per beat), a left ventricular ejection fraction between 15 and 40%, and symptomatic heart failure, in a 1:1 ratio, to undergo percutaneous mitral-valve repair in addition to receiving medical therapy (intervention group; 152 patients) or to receive medical therapy alone (control group; 152 patients). The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death from any cause or unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months.

Results: At 12 months, the rate of the primary outcome was 54.6% (83 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 51.3% (78 of 152 patients) in the control group (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.84; P=0.53). The rate of death from any cause was 24.3% (37 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 22.4% (34 of 152 patients) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.77). The rate of unplanned hospitalization for heart failure was 48.7% (74 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 47.4% (72 of 152 patients) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.56).

Conclusions: Among patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, the rate of death or unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 1 year did not differ significantly between patients who underwent percutaneous mitral-valve repair in addition to receiving medical therapy and those who received medical therapy alone. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and Research National Program and Abbott Vascular; MITRA-FR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01920698 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1805374DOI Listing
December 2018

MRI-Guided Thrombolysis for Stroke with Unknown Time of Onset.

N Engl J Med 2018 08 16;379(7):611-622. Epub 2018 May 16.

From Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (G.T., B. Cheng, S.G., A.G., C.G.), the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (J.F.), and ZytoService Deutschland (E.S.), Hamburg, Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Medizinische Universität Graz, Graz (F.F.), Centrum für Schlaganfallforschung Berlin (I.G., K.G.H., K.V., M. Ebinger, M. Endres, J.B.F.) and Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie (K.G.H., L.N., M. Endres), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and Neurologie der Rehaklinik Medical Park Humboldtmühle (M. Ebinger), Berlin, Mediri (J. Gregori, M.G.), the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (M.H.), and Neurologische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg (P. Ringleb), Heidelberg, Fraunhofer MEVIS and University of Bremen, Bremen (M.G.), and Institut für Neuroradiologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck (A.K.) - all in Germany; the Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (C.Z.S., G.A.), the Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (J.M.), and Department of Neurology, Stroke Unit, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg (B.M.) - all in Denmark; Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique (F.B., P. Roy), the Neuroradiology Department, Neurological Hospital, University Lyon (Y.B.), and the Department of Stroke Medicine, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, and Hospices Civils de Lyon (T.-H.C., N.N.), Lyon, and Université Lyon 1 and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biostatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (F.B., P. Roy) - all in France; the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology (B. Cheripelli, K.W.M.) and the Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (I.F.), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (I.F.); Fundació Salut Empordà Hospital, Figueres (J. Guibernau), Stroke Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona (N.P.O.), and the Department of Radiology (J.P., S.P.) and the Stroke Unit (J.S.), Hospital Universitari Doctor Josep Trueta, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona, Girona - all in Spain; the Department of Neurology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (W.S.) - both in the Netherlands; the Department of Imaging and Pathology, University of Leuven (S.S.), the Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven (A.W., R.L.), KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology (A.W., R.L.), and the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain and Disease Research, Laboratory of Neurobiology (A.W., R.L.), Leuven, Belgium; and Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia (V.T.).

Background: Under current guidelines, intravenous thrombolysis is used to treat acute stroke only if it can be ascertained that the time since the onset of symptoms was less than 4.5 hours. We sought to determine whether patients with stroke with an unknown time of onset and features suggesting recent cerebral infarction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would benefit from thrombolysis with the use of intravenous alteplase.

Methods: In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients who had an unknown time of onset of stroke to receive either intravenous alteplase or placebo. All the patients had an ischemic lesion that was visible on MRI diffusion-weighted imaging but no parenchymal hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), which indicated that the stroke had occurred approximately within the previous 4.5 hours. We excluded patients for whom thrombectomy was planned. The primary end point was favorable outcome, as defined by a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale of neurologic disability (which ranges from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A secondary outcome was the likelihood that alteplase would lead to lower ordinal scores on the modified Rankin scale than would placebo (shift analysis).

Results: The trial was stopped early owing to cessation of funding after the enrollment of 503 of an anticipated 800 patients. Of these patients, 254 were randomly assigned to receive alteplase and 249 to receive placebo. A favorable outcome at 90 days was reported in 131 of 246 patients (53.3%) in the alteplase group and in 102 of 244 patients (41.8%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.36; P=0.02). The median score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 1 in the alteplase group and 2 in the placebo group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.23; P=0.003). There were 10 deaths (4.1%) in the alteplase group and 3 (1.2%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 0.92 to 12.52; P=0.07). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 2.0% in the alteplase group and 0.4% in the placebo group (odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 0.57 to 42.87; P=0.15).

Conclusions: In patients with acute stroke with an unknown time of onset, intravenous alteplase guided by a mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging and FLAIR in the region of ischemia resulted in a significantly better functional outcome and numerically more intracranial hemorrhages than placebo at 90 days. (Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Program; WAKE-UP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290; and EudraCT number, 2011-005906-32 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804355DOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of informed consent on patient characteristics in a stroke thrombolysis trial.

Neurology 2017 Sep 25;89(13):1400-1407. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

From Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum (G.T., C.H., B.C., C.G.), and Klinik und Poliklinik für Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum (J.F.), Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Service de Biostatistique (F.B., P.R.) and Department of Neurology (N.N., T.-H.C.), Hospices Civils de Lyon; Université Lyon 1 (F.B., P.R.), Villeurbanne; CNRS, UMR 5558 (F.B., P.R.), Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biostatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne, France; Centrum für Schlaganfallforschung Berlin (CSB) (J.B.F., M. Ebinger, M. Endres) and Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie (M. Ebinger, M. Endres), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurology (C.Z.S.), Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Radiology (S.P., J.P.), Institut de Diagnostic per la Image (IDI), Hospital Dr Josep Trueta, Institut d'Investgació Biomèdica de Girona (IDIBGI), Girona, Spain; Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology, and Leuven Research Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND) (R.L.), KU Leuven-University of Leuven; VIB, Laboratory of Neurobiology (R.L.), Center for Brain & Disease Research, Leuven; Department of Neurology (R.L.), University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium; Institute of Neuroscience & Psychology (K.W.M.) and Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (I.F.), University of Glasgow, UK; Stroke Division (V.T.), Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health; and Department of Neurology (V.T.), Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia.

Objective: To determine whether the manner of consent, i.e., informed consent by patients themselves or informed consent by proxy, affects clinical characteristics of samples of acute stroke patients enrolled in clinical trials.

Methods: We analyzed the manner of obtaining informed consent in the first 1,005 patients from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset running in 6 European countries. Patients providing informed consent by themselves were compared with patients enrolled by proxy consent. Baseline clinical measures were compared between groups.

Results: In 359 (35.7%) patients, informed consent was by proxy. Patients with proxy consent were older (median 71 vs 66 years, < 0.0001) and had a higher frequency of arterial hypertension (58.2% vs 43.4%, < 0.0001). They showed higher scores on the NIH Stroke Scale (median 11 vs 5, < 0.0001) and more frequently aphasia (73.7% vs 20.0%, < 0.0001). The rate of proxy consent varied among countries ( < 0.0001), ranging from 77.1% in Spain to 1.2% in Denmark.

Conclusions: Patients recruited by proxy consent were older, had more severe strokes, and had higher prevalence of aphasia than those with capacity to give personal consent. Variations in the manner of consent across countries may influence trial results.

Clinicaltrialsgov And Clinicaltrialsregistereu Identifiers: NCT01525290 (clinicaltrials.gov); 2011-005906-32 (clinicaltrialsregister.eu).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5649757PMC
September 2017

Reproducibility of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging T rho and T relaxation time measurements of hip cartilage at 3.0T in healthy volunteers.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 04 26;47(4):1022-1033. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, INSERM U1033 et Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Purpose: To assess the T ρ and T values in the hip cartilage of healthy volunteers and to evaluate the reproducibility of these measurements.

Materials And Methods: The right hip joint of 30 asymptomatic volunteers was explored with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitative 3D T ρ- and T -maps sequences were repeated twice with a 30-minute delay (immediate reproducibility). The same protocol was repeated 14 days later (short-term reproducibility). Immediate and short-term reproducibility were estimated using coefficients of variation and correlation concordance coefficients (CCC). The precisions of the measurements were estimated by the ratio of the standard deviations. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the effect of patient's characteristics on T ρ and T values.

Results: Immediate reproducibility was significantly better than short-term reproducibility for T ρ (CCC of 0.75 versus 0.55; P = 0.007) and T (CCC 0.65 versus 0.32; P < 0.001). The precisions of the measurements were estimated between 5.5% and 9.1%. Median T ρ values were 6.0 msec higher in women than in men (P = 0.006), with no significant influence of age, body mass index (BMI), or sports activity. Median T values were not significantly different between men and women (0.4 msec lower in women; P = 0.76). There was no significant influence of age, BMI, or sports activity. T ρ and T values were lower in lateral regions than in medial regions (4.9 msec and 2.5 msec lower respectively; P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Immediate reproducibility of T ρ and T values is better than short-term, with limited effect of 30 minutes decubitus. T ρ values are significantly higher in women.

Level Of Evidence: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1022-1033.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25799DOI Listing
April 2018

Multifaceted intervention to improve obstetric practices: The OPERA cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Aug 19;215:206-212. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Health Services and Performance Research - HESPER EA 7425, F-69008, Lyon, France; Service de Biostatistique-Bioinformatique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France; Université de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, France; Université Lyon 1, F-69100, Villeurbanne, France; CNRS UMR 5558 Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive, Équipe Biostatistique-Santé, F-69100, Villeurbanne, France.

Objective: Suboptimal care contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality. We investigated the effects of a multifaceted program designed to improve obstetric practices and outcomes.

Study Design: A cluster-randomized trial was conducted from October 2008 to November 2010 in 95 French maternity units randomized either to receive an information intervention about published guidelines or left to apply them freely. The intervention combined an outreach visit with a morbidity/mortality conference (MMC) to review perinatal morbidity/mortality cases. Within the intervention group, the units were randomized to have MMCs with or without clinical psychologists. The primary outcome was the rate of suboptimal care among perinatal morbidity/mortality cases. The secondary outcomes included the rate of suboptimal care among cases of morbidity, the rate of suboptimal care among cases of mortality, the rate of avoidable morbidity and/or mortality cases, and the incidence of, morbidity and/or mortality. A mixed logistic regression model with random intercept was used to quantify the effect of the intervention on the main outcome.

Results: The study reviewed 2459 cases of morbidity or mortality among 165,353 births. The rate of suboptimal care among morbidity plus mortality cases was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (8.1% vs. 10.6%, OR [95% CI]: 0.75 [0.50-1.12], p=0.15. However, the cases of suboptimal care among morbidity cases were significantly lower in the intervention group (7.6% vs. 11.5%, 0.62 [0.40-0.94], p=0.02); the incidence of perinatal morbidity was also lower (7.0 vs. 8.1‰, p=0.01). No differences were found between psychologist-backed and the other units.

Conclusions: The intervention reduced the rate of suboptimal care mainly in morbidity cases and the incidence of morbidity but did not succeed in improving morbidity plus mortality combined. More clear-cut results regarding mortality require a longer study period and the inclusion of structures that intervene before and after the delivery room. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02584166).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.06.026DOI Listing
August 2017

Clinical characteristics of unknown symptom onset stroke patients with and without diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch.

Int J Stroke 2018 01 20;13(1):66-73. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

1 Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI-FLAIR mismatch in patients with unknown onset stroke. Methods We analyzed baseline MRI and clinical data from patients with acute ischemic stroke proven by DWI from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. Results Of 699 patients included, 418 (59.8%) presented with DWI-FLAIR mismatch. A shorter delay between last seen well and symptom recognition (p = 0.0063), a shorter delay between symptom recognition and arrival at hospital (p = 0.0025), and history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.19) were predictors of DWI-FLAIR mismatch in multivariate analysis. All other characteristics were comparable between groups. Conclusions There are only minor differences in measured clinical characteristics between unknown symptom onset stroke patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. DWI-FLAIR mismatch as an indicator of stroke onset within 4.5 h shows no relevant association with commonly collected clinical characteristics of stroke patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01525290; URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu . Unique identifier: 2011-005906-32.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493017706245DOI Listing
January 2018

Stroke With Unknown Time of Symptom Onset: Baseline Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data of the First Thousand Patients in WAKE-UP (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke: A Randomized, Doubleblind, Placebo-Controlled Trial).

Stroke 2017 03 7;48(3):770-773. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

From the Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum (G.T., B.C., C.G.) and Klinik und Poliklinik für Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum (J.F.), Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Service de Biostatistique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France (F.B., P.R.); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France (F.B., P.R.); CNRS, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biostatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne, France (F.B., P.R.); Centrum für Schlaganfallforschung Berlin (CSB) (J.B.F., I.G., M. Ebinger, M. Endres) and Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie (M. Ebinger, M. Endres), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (C.Z.S.); Department of Neurology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France (N.N., T.-H.C.); Department of Radiology, Institut de Diagnostic per la Image (IDI), Hospital Dr Josep Trueta, Institut d'Investgació Biomèdica de Girona (IDIBGI), Spain (S.P., J.P.); Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, VIB Center for Brain & Disease Research, and Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium (R.L.); Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology (K.W.M.) and Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (I.F.), University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; and Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia (V.T.).

Background And Purpose: We describe clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset potentially eligible for thrombolysis from a large prospective cohort.

Methods: We analyzed baseline data from WAKE-UP (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke: A Randomized, Doubleblind, Placebo-Controlled Trial), an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset. MRI judgment included assessment of the mismatch between visibility of the acute ischemic lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery.

Results: Of 1005 patients included, diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch was present in 479 patients (48.0%). Patients with daytime-unwitnessed stroke (n=138, 13.7%) had a shorter delay between symptom recognition and hospital arrival (1.5 versus 1.8 hours; =0.002), a higher National Institutes of Stroke Scale score on admission (8 versus 6; <0.001), and more often aphasia (72.5% versus 34.0%; <0.001) when compared with stroke patients waking up from nighttime sleep. Frequency of diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch was comparable between both groups (43.7% versus 48.7%; =0.30).

Conclusions: Almost half of the patients with unknown time of symptom onset stroke otherwise eligible for thrombolysis had MRI findings making them likely to be within a time window for safe and effective thrombolysis. Patients with daytime onset unwitnessed stroke differ from wake-up stroke patients with regards to clinical characteristics but are comparable in terms of MRI characteristics of lesion age.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01525290. URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2011-005906-32.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015233DOI Listing
March 2017

Accuracy of several maternal seric markers for predicting histological chorioamnionitis after preterm premature rupture of membranes: a prospective and multicentric study.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Oct 10;205:133-40. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de gynécologie-obstétrique de la Croix-Rousse, F-69004 Lyon, France; Université de Lyon , Lyon I, Université Claude-Bernard, Lyon, France; INSERM U846, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, F-69500 Bron, France.

Objective: To assess and compare several maternal seric markers for the prediction of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study design A prospective and multicentric observational study was undertaken, including six French tertiary referral centres. Pregnant women over 18 years, with PPROM between 22+0 and 36+6 WG were enrolled. A blood sample was obtained before delivery and analysed for C-Reactive Protein (CRP), InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Matrix-Metalloproteinase 8 and 9 (MMP-8, MMP-9), Triggering receptor on myeloid cells (TREM-1), and Human Neutrophile Peptides (HNP). HCA was determined by histological examination distinguishing maternal from fetal inflammatory response. Placental analyses and biological assays were performed in duplicate. Comparison of maternal seric markers levels in women with or vs. without HCA was performed, using a non-parametric Receiver Operating Characteristic.

Results: 295 women were kept for analysis. The prevalence of HCA was 42.7% (126/295). The concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, HNP and CRP were higher in HCA vs. the non-HCA group (P<0.05) whereas the concentrations of ICAM- 1, IL-6, IL-8 were not different (P>0.05). The ROC curve with the largest AUC was for CRP (AUC; 0.70; 95% CI; 0.64-0.77) and it was significantly higher than those for MMP-8, MMP-9, or HNP (P<0.03).

Conclusion: CRP was the best maternal marker for predicting HCA in women with PPROM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.08.022DOI Listing
October 2016