Publications by authors named "Florence Tanne"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101775. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, pessac & INSERM U1053, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare and chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and characterized by progressive obliterative fibro-inflammation of the biliary tree. Although the natural course is highly variable, PSC is often progressive, leading to biliary cirrhosis and its complications. In addition, PSC is a condition harbouring broad neoplastic potential with increased susceptibility for the development of both biliary and colon cancer. As in other chronic liver diseases, non-invasive methods play a major role in the diagnosis and monitoring of PSC. MR cholangiography is the key exam for the diagnosis and has replaced diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A strict and standardised protocol for carrying out MR cholangiography is recommended. Liver stiffness measured by FibroScan® correlates with the degree of liver fibrosis, has a prognostic value and should be repeated during follow-up. Invasive methods still play an important role, especially ERCP which is indicated for therapeutic purposes or for endo-biliary sample collection in suspected cholangiocarcinoma (following discussion in a multidisciplinary team meeting) and total colonoscopy which is recommended at the initial diagnosis of any PSC and annually in patients with IBD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101775DOI Listing
July 2021

NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF PRIMARY BILIARY CHOLANGITIS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101770. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Saint Joseph & INSERM UMR 1252 IRD SESSTIM Aix Marseille Université, Marseille.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intra-hepatic bile ducts (1). It is characterised biologically by chronic cholestasis associated with the presence of specific autoantibodies, and histologically by lesions of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis. If left untreated it can progress to cirrhosis, portal hypertension and liver failure. Diagnosis, staging and follow-up are largely based on non- or minimally-invasive assessment (blood tests, ultrasound, liver stiffness measurement). Histological examination of the liver and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are sometimes necessary, but their indications remain limited. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the clinicians with what should be known about the non-invasive assessment of PBC and to provide specific recommendations for clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101770DOI Listing
July 2021

Integrative molecular profiling of autoreactive CD4 T cells in autoimmune hepatitis.

J Hepatol 2020 12 8;73(6):1379-1390. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Université de Nantes, CHU Nantes, Inserm, Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie, UMR 1064, ITUN, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: In most autoimmune disorders, crosstalk of B cells and CD4 T cells results in the accumulation of autoantibodies. In autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), the presence of anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) autoantibodies is associated with reduced overall survival, but the associated autoreactive CD4 T cells have not yet been characterised. Herein, we isolated and deeply characterised SLA-specific CD4 T cells in patients with AIH.

Methods: We used brief ex vivo restimulation with overlapping SLA peptides to isolate and phenotype circulating SLA-specific CD4 T cells, and integrative single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) to characterise their transcriptome and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Autoreactive TCRs were cloned and used to identify dominant SLA-derived epitopes. SLA-specific CD4 T cells were tracked in peripheral blood through TCR sequencing to identify their phenotypic niche. We further characterised disease-associated peripheral blood T cells by high-content flow cytometry in 42 patients with AIH and 17 controls with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Results: Autoreactive SLA-specific CD4 T cells were only detected in patients with anti-SLA autoantibodies and had a memory PD-1CXCR5CCR6CD27 phenotype. ScRNA-seq revealed their pro-inflammatory/B-helper profile. SLA and SLA contain dominant T-cell epitopes. Autoreactive TCR clonotypes were predominantly found in the memory PD-1CXCR5CD4 T cells, which were significantly increased in the blood of patients with AIH and supported B-cell differentiation through IL-21. Finally, we identified specific T-cell phenotypes linked to disease activity and IgG level during AIH.

Conclusions: We provide a deep characterisation of rare circulating autoreactive CD4 T cells and identify their peripheral reservoir in AIH. We also propose a specific phenotype of autoreactive T cells related to AIH disease activity, which will be essential to track, delineate, and potentially target these pathogenic cells.

Lay Summary: One principal characteristic of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), like for many other autoimmune diseases, is the accumulation of autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes following their interaction with autoreactive CD4 T lymphocytes. In this study, we identified and characterised with high resolution these CD4 T cells. This will be essential to track, delineate, and potentially target them during AIH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.053DOI Listing
December 2020

The Periscreen Strip Is Highly Efficient for the Exclusion of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Cirrhotic Outpatients.

Am J Gastroenterol 2016 10 13;111(10):1402-1409. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie, CHD-Vendée, La Roche sur Yon, France.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the performance of a new strip (Periscreen) for the rapid diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).

Methods: Ascitic fluid (AF) of cirrhotic patients hospitalized between March 2014 and August 2015 was independently tested by two readers using the new strip, which has four colorimetric graduations (negative, trace, small, and large). SBP was diagnosed on neutrophils in ascites>250/mm. Ascites not related to portal hypertension were excluded.

Results: Overall, 649 patients from 21 French centers were included and 1,402 AF (803 AF samples from 315 outpatients and 599 samples from 334 inpatients) were assessed. Eighty-four AF samples (17 AF in 9 outpatients and 67 AF in 31 inpatients) were diagnosed as SBP. The prevalence of SBP was 6% (2.1% in outpatients vs. 11.2% in inpatients; P<0.001) and 7.2% in patients with symptoms suggestive of SBP (3% in outpatients vs. 11.3% in inpatients; P<0.001). The κ value for inter-reader agreement was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.84) when using the "trace" threshold. Considering discordant results (n=131) as positive to interpret the diagnostic performance of the strip at the "trace" threshold, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 91.7, 57.1, 12.0, and 99.1%, respectively. At this "trace" threshold, sensitivity and NPV were both 100% in outpatients, and 89.5 and 97.9% in inpatients, respectively. At the "small" threshold, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 81.0, 85.9, 25.9 and 98.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: The Periscreen strip is a rapid and highly efficient tool for excluding SBP in the outpatient setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2016.344DOI Listing
October 2016

Chronic hepatitis C: treat or wait? A prospective study on reasons for treatment or nontreatment in the era of first-generation protease inhibitors.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Feb;28(2):164-72

aDepartment of Hepato-Gastroenterology bDepartment of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Brest La Cavale Blanche, Brest cHepatology Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes dDepartment of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Laennec Hospital-GHPSO, Creil, France.

Background And Aims: In many countries, current treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C involves a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, associated with a protease inhibitor for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. More recent and efficient less toxic antiviral treatments are now available for some patients. Thus, the decision to treat or to wait is challenging. The aims of this study were to: (a) estimate the proportion of treated patients, (b) evaluate the reasons for this decision, and (c) examine the patients' points-of-view in treatment decision.

Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at three French referral centers between March and June 2013. Epidemiological and virological data, reasons for treatment or nontreatment, and data on the doctors' and patients' choices were collected.

Results: A total of 255 patients were analyzed. Only 52.6% of patients with fibrosis of 2 or higher were treated. Treatment uptake was reduced in the following groups: previously treated patients, those with poor tolerance during prior treatment, those with heavy alcohol consumption, and those with hepatocellular carcinoma. Of the cirrhotic patients, 55% were not treated: 51.1% had a contraindication, 22.2% had a previous nonresponse. When treatment was refused by the patient, fear of side effects and professional problems were the most frequently cited reasons (90 and 40%, respectively).

Conclusion: Patients were treated primarily according to consensus guidelines. However, only 45% of cirrhotic patients were treated. In 7.6% of the cases, the patient refused therapy. This study enabled us to measure the importance of patient choice in medical decision-making. Well-informed patients expected not only more efficient but also well-tolerated therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000000506DOI Listing
February 2016

Chronic liver injury during obstructive sleep apnea.

Hepatology 2005 Jun;41(6):1290-6

Service d'Hépatologie, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at risk for the development of fatty liver as a result of being overweight. Several data suggest that OSA per se could be a risk factor of liver injury; ischemic hepatitis during OSA has been reported, and OSA is an independent risk factor for insulin resistance. Therefore, we investigated liver damage and potential mechanisms in 163 consecutive nondrinking patients with nocturnal polysomnographic recording for clinical suspicion of OSA. Serum levels of liver enzymes were measured in all patients. Liver biopsy was offered to patients with elevated liver enzymes. Intrahepatic hypoxia was assessed by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on liver biopsy specimens. Severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 50/hr) was seen in 27% of patients; 52% had moderate OSA (AHI 10-50/hr), and 21% had no OSA. Overall, 20% had elevated liver enzymes. Independent parameters associated with elevated liver enzymes were body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.13; CI: 1.03-1.2) and severe OSA (OR: 5.9; CI: 1.2-29). Liver biopsy was performed in 18 of 32 patients with elevated liver enzymes and showed steatohepatitis in 12 cases, associated with fibrosis in 7 cases. Patients with severe OSA were more insulin-resistant according to homeostasis model assessment, had higher percentage of steatosis as well as scores of necrosis and fibrosis, despite similar BMI. Hepatic immunostaining used as an indirect marker of hypoxia was not different between patients with or without severe OSA. In conclusion, severe OSA is a risk factor for elevated liver enzymes and steatohepatitis independent of body weight. Promotion of insulin resistance is probably involved. Further studies are needed to determine whether hypoxia contributes directly to liver injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.20725DOI Listing
June 2005

Is routine pathologic evaluation of hemorrhoidectomy specimens necessary?

Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2004 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):659-61

Service de colo-proctologie, Hôpital Léopold Bellan, 19/21 rue Vercingetorix, 75014 Paris.

Aim: To confirm that systematic histological study of hemorrhoidectomy specimens is useless, as is proposed by the French Society of Coloproctology (Société Nationale Française de Colo-Proctologie) under the sponsorship of the French National Health Accreditation and Evaluation Agency (Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé).

Methods: Retrospective histological analysis of hemorrhoidectomy specimens obtained in a coloproctology unit between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2001.

Results: We found 56 histological abnormalities (0.69%) among 8153 hemorrhoidectomy specimens considered normal at gross examination, with three cases of intraepithelial neoplasia of the anal canal (0.04%) and four cases of severe dysplasia (0.05%). Specimens associated with anal fissure (N = 906) or suppuration (N = 610) did not display more histological lesions. For all patients, the initial surgical resection prevented recurrence.

Conclusion: Routine pathological evaluation of hemorrhoidectomy specimens is not useful and is expensive. All operating procedures in proctology should reflect this attitude. It is nevertheless advisable to select for gross and microscopic evaluation any suspicious areas noticed at the preoperative examination or during the procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0399-8320(04)95044-0DOI Listing
March 2005
-->