Publications by authors named "Flora Jessop"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Abnormal placental CD8 T-cell infiltration is a feature of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia.

J Physiol 2020 12 16;598(23):5555-5571. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Cambridge and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK.

Key Points: Placental pathological abnormalities are more frequently observed in complicated pregnancies than in healthy pregnancies. Infiltration of CD8 T-cells into the placental villous tissue occurred in both fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, whereas CD79α B-cell infiltration was only apparent with reduced fetal growth. Vascularization, fibrin depositions, macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the placenta did not differ between healthy and complicated pregnancies.

Abstract: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and pre-eclampsia are severe, adverse pregnancy outcomes. Alterations in placental histology are frequently reported in these pregnancy complications and are often based upon scoring by pathologists. However, many alterations are also observed in placenta from uncomplicated pregnancies. Moreover, knowledge of disease state may bias assessment. We sought to perform an objective comparison of placental microscopic appearance in normal and complicated pregnancies. Placental villous tissue (n = 823) and edge biopsies (n = 488) from 871 individual, singleton pregnancies were collected after delivery. Cases of small-for-gestational age (SGA) or pre-eclampsia were matched with healthy controls. A subset of the SGA cases displayed signs of FGR. Cases of preterm delivery were also included. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or antibodies for CD8, CD14, CD31, CD79α and elastase. Images were scored by two experienced pathologists for pathological features or analysed by image analysis and stereology. Analyses were performed blind to case-control status and gestational age. Volume fraction of T-cells increased in placentas from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.12-1.90) and FGR (aOR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11-2.43), whereas B-cells only increased in FGR (aOR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05-2.60). Pathological abnormalities in villous tissue were reported in 21.4% (88/411) of complicated pregnancies and 14.3% (52/363) of controls (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.37). There were no differences in the fractions of endothelial cells, fibrin deposition, macrophages and neutrophils when comparing normal and complicated pregnancies. In conclusion, FGR and pre-eclampsia are associated with T-cell infiltration of the placenta and placental pathological abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279532DOI Listing
December 2020

Coeliac disease in children with type 1 diabetes: are current guidelines proving difficult to implement in practice?

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Nov;59(5):600-3

*Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Addenbrooke's Hospital †Department of Histopathology ‡Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Updated European guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) in the paediatric population (the European Society for Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, January 2012) outlined distinct diagnostic algorithms for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In this short report we demonstrate a period prevalence of CD in the T1DM population of 5.8% at a large tertiary centre. In addition to this, using a questionnaire circulated to paediatricians, we assessed present practice in the diagnosis of CD in T1DM 16 months following the European Society for Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guideline publication. Our results indicate that present practice and adherence to guidelines varies substantially. Further dissemination and perhaps simplification of guidelines may be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000000490DOI Listing
November 2014

Perinatal postmortems: what is important to parents and how do they decide?

Birth 2012 Mar 9;39(1):57-64. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RF, UK.

Background: Falling consent rates for postmortems, regardless of age of death, have been widely reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore parental attitudes to, and decision-making about, a perinatal postmortem after termination for fetal abnormality, late miscarriage, or stillbirth.

Methods: A prospective self-completion questionnaire was given to 35 women and their partners. The participants had experienced second or third trimester pregnancy loss in a single fetal medicine and delivery unit in the United Kingdom and were making decisions about having a postmortem. They were asked to complete a questionnaire about their attitudes to, and expectations of, a perinatal postmortem.

Results: Thirty-one questionnaires were received from parents of 17 babies (49% of those asked; 16 from mothers, 15 from fathers). Parents of nine babies (53%) said they would agree to a full postmortem, of three babies to a limited postmortem, and of four babies to an external examination only; one couple were undecided. The most important issues for the parents in this study that related to their decisions about a postmortem centered on the need for information, both for future planning and about what had happened. Moderately important issues related to altruism, which is, improving medical knowledge and helping other parents experiencing similar bereavement. Among the lowest scoring issues were potential barriers, such as concerns about cultural or religious acceptability of a postmortem, funeral delays, and what would happen to the baby's body.

Conclusions: Bereaved parents who participated in this study, where postmortem consent rates were relatively high, thought that their need for knowledge eclipsed assumed barriers when deciding whether or not to have a postmortem for their baby.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2011.00513.xDOI Listing
March 2012

Frequency and clinical significance of placental histological lesions in an unselected population at or near term.

Virchows Arch 2011 Dec 27;459(6):565-72. Epub 2011 Oct 27.

Division of Fetal-Maternal Medicine, Rosie Maternity-Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.

Associations between specific placental histological abnormalities and obstetric outcomes are reported. However, most data are based either on high-risk cases or relate to case-control studies selected from those with abnormal placental histology findings, with the unavoidable biases that these approaches entail. This study reports the frequency of the several common, objective and predefined histological abnormalities of the placenta as identified by pathologists blinded to all clinical information. A total 1,153 women were recruited from an unselected population delivering at 34-43 weeks. Histological findings in common obstetric outcome groups were compared to those of the unselected population, and odds ratios and predictive values were calculated. Normal histological findings were present in 72.1% of pregnancies with normal outcomes and in 79.1%, 66.6%, 80%, and 74.8% of pregnancies affected by pre-eclampsia (PET), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small for gestational age (SGA), respectively. Chronic placental underperfusion was seen more frequently in PIH (odds ratio (OR) 2) and SGA (OR 1.4), while villitis of unknown aetiology was observed more commonly in cases with PIH (OR 3.2). Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy was twice as common in cases with GDM whilst massive perivillous fibrin deposition was much more frequent in those with PET (OR 20.2) and SGA (OR 8.9). Chorangiomata were 13 times more common in pregnancies with PET. However, in all cases, positive predictive values were low, with the majority of cases with histological abnormalities being associated with normal outcome. At term, specific placental histological lesions are significantly more common in complicated pregnancies, but the clinical significance of such lesions in a specific case remains uncertain, since the majority will be identified from clinically uncomplicated normal pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-011-1157-zDOI Listing
December 2011

Relationship between placental morphology and histological findings in an unselected population near term.

Virchows Arch 2011 Jul 12;459(1):11-20. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Division of Fetal-Maternal Medicine, Rosie Maternity-Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK.

Whilst individual histological features are well described, there are no universally agreed criteria as to what constitutes a clinically significant histological lesion of the placenta in an uncomplicated pregnancy, nor has the presence of such histological findings been systematically related to quantitative morphological characteristics of the placenta (such as placental shape, cord insertion and cord coiling). This study aims to explore this relationship and further to describe the incidence of predefined categories of histological lesions of the placenta in an unselected obstetric population recruited prior to delivery. The study is based upon the placental examination of 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies recruited prospectively in a single unit. Placentas were analysed where deliveries occurred between 34-43 weeks. The incidence of normal histological findings and specific histological categories, such as ascending genital tract infection, chronic placental underperfusion, intervillous thrombus and villitis of unknown aetiology, were noted. The relationship between placental morphological indices: coiling index, cord centrality index (distance of cord insertion on the chorionic plate from the centre) and eccentricity (shape of the placenta) and histological lesions was investigated. There were no significant differences between cord centrality and eccentricity between placentas with and without histological lesions except an association between hypercoiling of the umbilical cord and intervillous thrombosis and villitis of unknown aetiology (p = 0.024 and p = 0.009, respectively). The macroscopic morphological features of the placenta cannot predict the presence or absence of the histological placental lesions, nor are these lesions in general associated with differences in cord centrality, placental eccentricity or cord coiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-011-1061-6DOI Listing
July 2011

Attitudes to perinatal postmortem: parental views about research participation.

J Med Ethics 2011 Jun 30;37(6):364-7. Epub 2011 Jan 30.

Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: To study parental attitudes to participating in questionnaire research about perinatal postmortem immediately after late miscarriage, stillbirth and termination for fetal abnormality.

Design: Prospective self-completion questionnaire.

Setting: UK fetal medicine and delivery unit.

Patients: 35 women and their partners after second or third trimester pregnancy loss, making decisions about having a postmortem.

Methods: Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about postmortem decision-making which included questions about their attitudes to taking part in research. Prior to giving full approval for the study, the Research Ethics Committee (REC) requested feedback after 10 questionnaires had been returned.

Results: Responses from the first 10 participants were positive about the research and the REC allowed the study to continue. 31 questionnaires were received from parents of 17 babies (49% of those asked; 16 from mothers, 15 from fathers). Of the 22 participants who answered a question about the impact of participating in this research, 73% stated that completing the questionnaire had helped them feel better about the decision whether or not to consent to postmortem and none reported any adverse effect of completing the questionnaire. Additional comments made by 19 participants supported this finding.

Conclusion: Research into this sensitive area of perinatal medicine where there is a poor outcome is possible and is indeed well received by many parents. RECs should not automatically take a negative stance towards studies of this type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.2010.038505DOI Listing
June 2011

Placental weight, digitally derived placental dimensions at term and their relationship to birth weight.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Oct;23(10):1176-82

Division of Fetal Medicine, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK.

Objective: A few recent studies have investigated the relationship between birth weight and digitally derived placental dimensions, and no standardised methodology has been used. The aims of this study are to compare manually derived placental measurements with those derived digitally and to establish the relationship of birth weight to the placental weight and circumference.

Methods: Three hundred fifty-one consecutive unselected women with singleton pregnancy delivering in a tertiary maternity unit at 37-42 weeks were recruited. Manual and digital placental axis measurements (using calibrated digital imaging and 'Image J' software) were obtained and the circumference derived. The relationship between the two methods was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot analysed. The relationship between z-scores of birth weight, placental weight and placental circumference was investigated.

Results: Manually and digitally obtained placental long axis, short axis and circumference measurements show close correlation (r=0.70, 0.70 and 0.83, respectively). The z score of birth weight is significantly correlated with the z score of placental weight (r=0.59, p<0.001) and z score placental digital circumference (r=0.40, p<0.001). Birth weight:placental weight ratio is 7.20 and birth weight:placental circumference=64.57 g/cm.

Conclusion: There is close though not perfect agreement between the manual and digital placental measurements. Birth weight is strongly correlated with placental weight and circumference at term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767051003615434DOI Listing
October 2010

A case of fulminant septic shock with a rare gram-negative organism (Case Presentation).

Acta Paediatr 2009 Jul;98(7):1079-80; discussion 1220-1

Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Westcliff-on-Sea, Cambridge, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01098.xDOI Listing
July 2009

Treatment of wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor (WT-GIST) with imatinib and sunitinib.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008 Feb;50(2):386-8

Oncology Department, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

We report a rare case of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in a young female. Molecular analysis of the tumor revealed wild-type (WT) KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene status with no mutations characteristic of adult GIST. Despite this she had clinical benefit and evidence of radiological response to sequential treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and sunitinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.21312DOI Listing
February 2008