Publications by authors named "Flaminia De Cristofaro"

10 Publications

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Preoperative Multiparametric Ultrasound and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology evaluation of parotid gland tumors: which is the best technique?

Med Ultrason 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Aims: To evaluate the pre-surgical diagnostic value of Multiparametric Ultrasound (MPUS) and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in differentiating parotid gland tumors, comparing the results with histology.

Materials And Methods: The study enrolled 84 patients with parotid gland lesions surgically treated in a single tertiary center and evaluated by MPUS. Each patient underwent FNAC. Histological examination was considered the gold standard.

Results: Histology identified 62 benign tumors and 22 malignancies. In the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign lesions, B-mode Ultrasound (US), Color-Doppler US, Contrast-Enhanced US (CEUS), Elastography (USE) and FNAC showed the following values of sensitivity: 82%, 81%, 86%, 77%, 73% respectively; specificity: 97%, 61%, 95%, 71%, 97% respectively; PPV: 90%, 43%, 86%, 50%, 89% respectively; NPV: 93%, 90%, 95%, 88%, 91% respectively; and accuracy: 89%, 71%, 90%, 78%, 84% re-spectively.

Conclusions: CEUS proved to be a valid and accurate method for identifying malignant tumors of parotid gland; the combination of B-mode US with CEUS showed similar diagnostic accuracy, but better sensitivity than CEUS taken alone. USE did not improve the diagnostic performance of the B-mode US, alone or in association with CEUS; however, it revealed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation between benign lesions. FNAC demonstrated lower values in comparison with CEUS and with USE. Therefore, according to our study, MPUS could be proposed as a valid alternative to FNAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-3068DOI Listing
June 2021

Targeted Alpha Therapy with Thorium-227.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2020 Aug 20;35(6):437-445. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) can deliver high localized burden of radiation selectively to cancer cells as well as the tumor microenvironment, while minimizing toxicity to normal surrounding cell. Radium-223 (Ra), the first-in-class α-emitter approved for bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown the ability to prolong patient survival. Targeted Thorium-227 (Th) conjugates represent a new class of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for TAT. They are comprised of the α-emitter Th complexed to a chelator conjugated to a tumor-targeting monoclonal antibody. In this review, the authors will focus out interest on this therapeutic agent. In recent studies Th-labeled radioimmunoconjugates showed a relevant stability both in serum and vivo conditions with a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Unlike Ra, the parent radionuclide Th can form highly stable chelator complexes and is therefore amenable to targeted radioimmunotherapy. The authors discuss the future potential role of Th TAT in the treatment of several solid as well as hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2019.3105DOI Listing
August 2020

Extraocular muscle sampled volume in Graves' orbitopathy using 3-T fast spin-echo MRI with iterative decomposition of water and fat sequences.

Acta Radiol Open 2018 Jun 25;7(6):2058460118780892. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Sapienza University, Roma, Italy.

Background: Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for measuring extraocular muscle (EOM) volume enlargement are not ideally suited for routine follow-up of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) because the difficulty of segmenting the muscles at the tendon insertion complicates and lengthens the study protocol.

Purpose: To measure the EOM sampled volume (SV) and assess its correlation with proptosis.

Material And Methods: A total of 37 patients with newly diagnosed GO underwent 3-T MRI scanning with iterative decomposition of water and fat (IDEAL) sequences with and without contrast enhancement. In each patient, the three largest contiguous coronal cross-sectional areas (CSA) on the EOM slices were segmented using a polygon selection tool and then summed to compute the EOM-SV. Proptosis was evaluated with the Hertel index (HI). The relationships between the HI value and EOM-SV and between HI and EOM-CSA were compared and assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient and the univariate regression coefficient. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were calculated.

Results: HI showed a stronger correlation with EOM-SV ( < 0.001; r = 0.712, r= 0.507) than with EOM-CSA ( < 0.001; r = 0.645 and r= 0.329). The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated that the inter-observer agreement was high (0.998). The standard deviation between repeated measurements was 1.9-5.3%.

Conclusion: IDEAL sequences allow for the measurement EOM-SV both on non-contrast and contrast-enhanced scans. EOM-SV predicts proptosis more accurately than does EOM-CSA. The measurement of EOM-SV is practical and reproducible. EOM-SV changes of 3.5-8.3% can be assumed to reflect true volume changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058460118780892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039898PMC
June 2018

MRI rare finding: Absence of the left liver lobe.

Eur J Radiol Open 2017 14;4:50-52. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome "Sapienza", Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy.

We report a rare case of left liver lobe absence in an 80-year-old male patient discovered during an MRI scan. The main imaging features of this condition are briefly reviewed, together with its pathogenesis and the most common associations and differential diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2017.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396858PMC
April 2017

Prospective evaluation of Quasistatic Ultrasound Elastography (USE) compared with Baseline US for parotid gland lesions: preliminary results of elasticity contrast index (ECI) evaluation.

Med Ultrason 2017 Jan;19(1):32-38

Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Aims: To assess the diagnostic value of elasticity contrast index (ECI) elastography, in comparison with conventional ultrasound for the differentiation of benign and malignant parotid lesions.

Material And Methods: Sixty-three consecutive patients with parotid gland tumors, treated surgically at a single tertiary center were enrolled. Ultrasound evaluation consisted of B-mode, color-Doppler and quasistatic ultrasound elastography (USE), conducted with the ECI technique. For each lesion the echogenicity, margins, vascularization, and capsulation were considered to determine benign or malignant lesions. Histology was considered the gold standard.

Results: Using conventional parameters, the observer suggested malignant lesions in 20 cases and benign lesions in 43 cases (accuracy: 61.8%). ECI>3.5 alone was the most accurate parameter (accuracy: 90.5%), with sensitivity of 93.7% and specificity of 89.4%. However, when combined with the other US criteria, no statistically significant diagnostic accuracy improvement was achieved.

Conclusions: Our results show that USE with ECI index measurement can help to discriminate preoperatively benign from malignant lesions, with the exception of pleomorphic adenoma which is stiff. We suggest that USE can be used as an additional tool to conventional US evaluation of salivary gland lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-923DOI Listing
January 2017

Endorectal ultrasonography performance in staging rectal cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

Ann Ital Chir 2014 Nov-Dec;85(6):569-75

Aim: To evaluate accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS) both in staging and restaging rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy treatment.

Methods: In a group of 80 patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively selected 67 patients and divided in two groups: 41 patients affected by a stage I were investigated with a single preoperative endorectal sonography; 26 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (stage II or more) were restaged after neoadjuvant treatment, which consisted of 5,040 cGy in 28 daily fractions associated with continuous infusion of 5-Fluorouracil. All patients underwent surgery and ERUS findings were subsequently compared with histological findings.

Results: Diagnostic accuracy of ERUS in the first group of patients was high: in fact T-staging was accurate in 85% of cases. Results in the second group were significantly less accurate, with a correct T-staging just for 47% of cases. Nodes involvement was correctly evaluated in 86% of cases for the first group and in 63% of cases for the second one.

Conclusions: Endorectal sonography is a valid staging modality for early rectal malignancy. Advanced cancer is treated with neoadjuvant preoperative chemoradiotherapy which is associated with better outcome than postoperative treatment. We found endorectal sonography, based on the layer model of rectal wall, often fails restaging and we think we have to develop new criteria for a correct preoperative assessment after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

Key Words: Endorectal ultrasonography, Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, Rectal cancer, Staging.
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September 2017

A case of symptomatic mass in the right iliac fossa: a Bermuda Triangle which often lies the right diagnosis.

Ann Ital Chir 2014 Feb 24;85(ePub). Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Disease of the iliac fossa can often be accompanied by non-specific symptoms and some of these are exclusively caused by the compression of bulky masses of other neighboring structures. In young women a differential diagnosis is a non trivial task as several possible causes have to be taken into account. Thus, intraligamentary tumors, which are extremely rare finding, are frequently confused with uterus, ovary or intestinal tumors. Even if myomas are the most benign tumors of the female genital tract, broad ligament leiomyomas are an unusual finding in women of reproductive age. These tumors are often asymptomatic until they reach a volume likely to cause symptoms related to the mass pressure. An accurate patient's anamnesis and examination serve as a guide to further examinations. Ultrasound is the first line imaging as it can show ovarian or other pelvic mass and doesn't involve exposure to radiations in young patients, who can be pregnant. We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a broad ligament leiomyoma, which presented as an inguinal mass in a patient with a right iliac fossa pain. We also report our diagnostic process performing the differential diagnosis with other potential pathologies of RIF. In these cases, a preoperative disease classification discriminating the benign or malignant tumor nature is closely linked to the proper patient management.
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February 2014

Chronic radiation-induced proctitis: the 4 % formalin application as non-surgical treatment.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2013 Feb 30;28(2):261-6. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, V.le Regina Elena n 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Radiation proctitis is a known complication following radiation therapy for pelvic malignancy. The majority of cases are treated nonsurgically. Rectal instillation of formalin solution has been described as a successful treatment for chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis resistant to medical treatment. We present our results in patients undergoing treatment with application of 4 % formalin for radiation-induced injury to the rectum.

Methods: All patients were treated under anesthesia by direct application of 4 % formalin solution to the affected rectal areas. Patient gender, initial malignancy, grade of proctitis, need for blood transfusion, previous therapy, number of applications and response to treatment with formalin, complications, and length of follow-up were reviewed.

Results: A total of 15 patients with a mean age of 68.9 (range, 48-77) years were followed for 31.3 (range, 18-51) months. The mean interval from the conclusion of radiotherapy and the onset of symptoms was 6.9 months. The mean duration of hemorrhagic proctitis before formalin application was 7.9 months. Ten patients had only one formalin application and five patients required a second application because of the persistent bleeding. Thirteen patients (87 %) had complete cessation of bleeding. No complications related to the formalin treatment were observed.

Conclusions: According to a revision of the literature and our experience, despite the small number of patients in our trial, we can state that the application of 4 % formalin solution is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis with minimal discomfort and no severe complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-012-1571-yDOI Listing
February 2013

A case of duodenal duplication in an adult.

Hepatogastroenterology 2003 Mar-Apr;50(50):401-3

Servizio di Radiologia, Istituto III Clinica Chirurgica, Italy.

We report a rare case of duodenal duplication, manifested in an adult with aspecific symptoms, whose diagnosis was possible with ultrasound at the beginning and then with gastrointestinal barium study, endoscopic ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT scan; it was confirmed surgically.
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August 2003

Preoperative evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism: role of diagnostic imaging.

Chir Ital 2002 Sep-Oct;54(5):629-34

Department of Surgical Science, La Sapienza University, Rome.

This study analyses the diagnostic value of preoperative diagnostic imaging examinations in the identification and location of pathological parathyroid glands. We examined 77 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism using ultrasonography of the neck and Tc99m-MIBI scintigraphy for preoperative assessment purposes. All patients underwent surgical treatment. We compared the diagnostic imaging results with those furnished by histological examinations. TC99m-MIBI scintigraphy revealed the presence of a pathological parathyroid gland in 74/77 cases (96.1%) compared with 75/77 cases (97.4%) diagnosed by ultrasonography. The two examinations combined detected pathological glands in 100% of cases. The location of the pathological gland was correct in 57 cases (74.0%) at scintigraphy and in 56 cases (72.7%) at ultrasonography. In one case (1.3%) persistent hyperparathyroidism was demonstrated. There were no cases of relapse. In this study preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography and scintigraphy displayed great sensitivity in identifying and locating pathological parathyroid glands. Surgical neck exploration is still the gold standard in the correct location of pathological parathyroid glands measuring less than 5 mm.
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January 2003
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