Publications by authors named "Firdous A Khanday"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidermal growth factor receptor and integrins meet redox signaling through P66shc and Rac1.

Cytokine 2021 Jun 20;146:155625. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, JK 190006, India. Electronic address:

This review examines the concerted role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and integrins in regulating Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through different signaling pathways. ROS as such are not always deleterious to the cells but they also act as signaling molecules, that regulates numerous indespensible physiological fuctions of life. Many adaptor proteins, particularly Shc and Grb2, are involved in mediating the downstream signaling pathways stimulated by EGFR and integrins. Integrin-induced activation of EGFR and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of a class of acceptor sites on EGFR leads to alignment and tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, PLCγ, the p85 subunit of PI-3 K, and Cbl, followed by activation of the downstream targets Erk and Akt/PKB. Functional interactions between these receptors result in the activation of Rac1 via these adaptor proteins, thereby leading to Reactive Oxygen Species. Both GF and integrin activation can produce oxidants independently, however synergistically there is increased ROS generation, suggesting a mutual cooperation between integrins and GFRs for redox signalling. The ROS produced further promotes feed-forward stimulation of redox signaling events such as MAPK activation and gene expression. This relationship has not been reviewed previously. The literature presented here can have multiple implications, ranging from looking at synergistic effects of integrin and EGFR mediated signaling mechanisms of different proteins to possible therapeutic interventions operated by these two receptors. Furthermore, such mutual redox regulation of crosstalk between EGFR and integrins not only add to the established models of pathological oxidative stress, but also can impart new avenues and opportunities for targeted antioxidant based therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155625DOI Listing
June 2021

Jasplakinolide Attenuates Cell Migration by Impeding Alpha-1-syntrophin Protein Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer Cells.

Protein J 2021 Apr 30;40(2):234-244. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Division of Biotechnology, FVSc & AH, SKUAST-K, Shuhama, Srinagar, J&K, India.

Background: Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) is emerging as a novel modulator of the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 binds to F-actin and regulates intracellular localization and activity of various actin organizing signaling molecules. Aberration in syntrophin signaling has been closely linked with deregulated growth connected to tumor development/metastasis and its abnormal over expression has been observed in breast cancer. In the present work the effect of jasplakinolide, an actin-binding cyclodepsipeptide, on the SNTA1 protein activity and SNTA1 mediated downstream cellular events was studied in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

Methods: SNTA1 protein levels and phosphorylation status were determined in MDA-MB-231 cells post jasplakinolide exposure using western blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques respectively. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with WT SNTA1 and DM SNTA1 (Y phospho mutant) and simultaneously treated with jasplakinolide. The effect of jasplakinolide and SNTA1 protein on cell migration was determined using the boyden chamber assay.

Results: Jasplakinolide treatment decreases proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Results suggest that subtoxic doses of jasplakinolide induce morphological changes in MDA-MB-231 cells from flat spindle shape adherent cells to round weakly adherent forms. Mechanistically, jasplakinolide treatment was found to decrease SNTA1 protein levels and its tyrosine phosphorylation status. Moreover, migratory potential of jasplakinolide treated cells was significantly inhibited in comparison to control cells.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that jasplakinolide inhibits cell migration by impairing SNTA1 functioning in breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-021-09963-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Structure-functional implications of longevity protein p66Shc in health and disease.

Ageing Res Rev 2020 11 11;63:101139. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190006, India. Electronic address:

ShcA (Src homologous- collagen homologue), family of adapter proteins, consists of three isoforms which integrate and transduce external stimuli to different signaling networks. ShcA family consists of p46Shc, p52Shc and p66Shc isoforms, characterized by having multiple protein-lipid and protein-protein interaction domains implying their functional diversity. Among the three isoforms p66Shc is structurally different containing an additional CH2 domain which attributes to its dual functionality in cell growth, mediating both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Besides, p66Shc is also involved in different biological processes including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, ageing, cytoskeletal reorganization and cell adhesion. Moreover, the interplay between p66Shc and ROS is implicated in the pathology of various dreadful diseases. Accordingly, here we discuss the recent structural aspects of all ShcA adaptor proteins but are highlighting the case of p66Shc as model isoform. Furthermore, this review insights the role of p66Shc in progression of chronic age-related diseases like neuro diseases, metabolic disorders (non-alcoholic fatty liver, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, vascular endothelial dysfunction) and cancer in relation to ROS. We finally conclude that p66Shc might act as a valuable biomarker for the prognosis of these diseases and could be used as a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101139DOI Listing
November 2020

Syntrophins entangled in cytoskeletal meshwork: Helping to hold it all together.

Cell Prolif 2019 Mar 4;52(2):e12562. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

Syntrophins are a family of 59 kDa peripheral membrane-associated adapter proteins, containing multiple protein-protein and protein-lipid interaction domains. The syntrophin family consists of five isoforms that exhibit specific tissue distribution, distinct sub-cellular localization and unique expression patterns implying their diverse functional roles. These syntrophin isoforms form multiple functional protein complexes and ensure proper localization of signalling proteins and their binding partners to specific membrane domains and provide appropriate spatiotemporal regulation of signalling pathways. Syntrophins consist of two PH domains, a PDZ domain and a conserved SU domain. The PH1 domain is split by the PDZ domain. The PH2 and the SU domain are involved in the interaction between syntrophin and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). Syntrophins recruit various signalling proteins to DGC and link extracellular matrix to internal signalling apparatus via DGC. The different domains of the syntrophin isoforms are responsible for modulation of cytoskeleton. Syntrophins associate with cytoskeletal proteins and lead to various cellular responses by modulating the cytoskeleton. Syntrophins are involved in many physiological processes which involve cytoskeletal reorganization like insulin secretion, blood pressure regulation, myogenesis, cell migration, formation and retraction of focal adhesions. Syntrophins have been implicated in various pathologies like Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy, cancer. Their role in cytoskeletal organization and modulation makes them perfect candidates for further studies in various cancers and other ailments that involve cytoskeletal modulation. The role of syntrophins in cytoskeletal organization and modulation has not yet been comprehensively reviewed till now. This review focuses on syntrophins and highlights their role in cytoskeletal organization, modulation and dynamics via its involvement in different cell signalling networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6496184PMC
March 2019

p66Shc as a switch in bringing about contrasting responses in cell growth: implications on cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Mol Cancer 2015 Apr 8;14:76. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Life Sciences, King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, Bld: 7, Room: 129, Dhahran, 31261, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

p66Shc, a member of the ShcA (Src homologous- collagen homologue) adaptor protein family, is one of the three isoforms of this family along with p46Shc and p52Shc. p66Shc, a 66 kDa protein is different from the other isoforms of the ShcA family. p66Shc is the longest isoform of the ShcA family. p66Shc has an additional CH domain at the N-terminal, called the CH2 domain, which is not not present in the other isoforms. This CH2 domain contains a very crucial S36 residue which is phosphorylated in response to oxidative stress and plays a role in apoptosis. Whereas p52Shc and p46Shc are ubiquitously expressed, p66Shc shows constrained expression. This adaptor protein has been shown to be involved in mediating and executing the post effects of oxidative stress and increasing body of evidence is pinpointing to its role in carcinogenesis as well. It shows proto-oncogenic as well as pro-apoptotic properties. This multitasking protein is involved in regulating different networks of cell signaling. On one hand it shows an increased expression profile in different cancers, has a positive role in cell proliferation and migration, whereas on the other hand it promotes apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions by acting as a sensor of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). This paradoxical role of p66Shc could be attributed to its involvement in ROS production, as ROS is known to both induce cell proliferation as well as apoptosis. p66Shc by regulating intracellular ROS levels plays a crucial role in regulating longevity and cell senescence. These multi-faceted properties of p66Shc make it a perfect candidate protein for further studies in various cancers and aging related diseases. p66Shc can be targeted in terms of it being used as a possible therapeutic target in various diseases. This review focuses on p66Shc and highlights its role in promoting apoptosis via different cell signaling networks, its role in cell proliferation, along with its presence and role in different forms of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-015-0354-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4421994PMC
April 2015

β-Amyloid-evoked apoptotic cell death is mediated through MKK6-p66shc pathway.

Neuromolecular Med 2014 Mar 2;16(1):137-49. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190006, Kashmir, India.

We have previously shown the involvement of p66shc in mediating apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate the novel mechanism of β-Amyloid-induced toxicity in the mammalian cells. β-Amyloid leads to the phosphorylation of p66shc at the serine 36 residue and activates MKK6, by mediating the phosphorylation at serine 207 residue. Treatment of cells with antioxidants blocks β-Amyloid-induced serine phosphorylation of MKK6, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and hence protected cells against β-Amyloid-induced cell death. Our results indicate that serine phosphorylation of p66shc is carried out by active MKK6. MKK6 knock-down resulted in decreased serine 36 phosphorylation of p66shc. Co-immunoprecipitation results demonstrate a direct physical association between p66shc and WT MKK6, but not with its mutants. Increase in β-Amyloid-induced ROS production was observed in the presence of MKK6 and p66shc, when compared to triple mutant of MKK6 (inactive) and S36 mutant of p66shc. ROS scavengers and knock-down against p66shc, and MKK6 significantly decreased the endogenous level of active p66shc, ROS production, and cell death. Finally, we show that the MKK6-p66shc complex mediates β-Amyloid-evoked apoptotic cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12017-013-8268-4DOI Listing
March 2014

P66Shc-rac1 pathway-mediated ROS production and cell migration is downregulated by ascorbic acid.

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2013 Apr 6;33(2):107-13. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

The oxidative role(s) of p66Shc protein has been increasingly expanded over the last decade. However, its relation with the most potent antioxidant molecule, i.e. ascorbic acid has never been studied. We have previously shown that p66Shc mediates rac1 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death. Here we studied the effect of ascorbic acid on the pathway involving p66Shc and rac1. Our results indicate a decrease in the expression of p66Shc in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We studied the effect of ascorbic acid on rac1 expression and its activity. Ascorbic acid has no effect on total rac1 expression; however, rac1 activation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that the decrease in rac1 activity is mediated through ascorbic acid-modulated p66Shc expression. The decrease in rac1 activity was evident in cells transfected with the p66shc mutant (proline motif mutant, at residues P47 to P50). Our studies indicate that p66Shc-mediated ROS upregulation is significantly decreased in the presence of ascorbic acid. Cell migration experiments point towards the inhibition of p66Shc-rac1-mediated migration in the presence of ascorbic acid. Finally, results are suggestive that ascorbic acid-mediated decrease in Shc expression occurs through an increased Shc ubiquitination. Overall, the study brings out the novel role of ascorbic acid in antioxidant signal transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10799893.2013.770527DOI Listing
April 2013

Syntrophin proteins as Santa Claus: role(s) in cell signal transduction.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2013 Jul 21;70(14):2533-54. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Syntrophins are a family of cytoplasmic membrane-associated adaptor proteins, characterized by the presence of a unique domain organization comprised of a C-terminal syntrophin unique (SU) domain and an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that is split by insertion of a PDZ domain. Syntrophins have been recognized as an important component of many signaling events, and they seem to function more like the cell's own personal 'Santa Claus' that serves to 'gift' various signaling complexes with precise proteins that they 'wish for', and at the same time care enough for the spatial, temporal control of these signaling events, maintaining overall smooth functioning and general happiness of the cell. Syntrophins not only associate various ion channels and signaling proteins to the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), via a direct interaction with dystrophin protein but also serve as a link between the extracellular matrix and the intracellular downstream targets and cell cytoskeleton by interacting with F-actin. They play an important role in regulating the postsynaptic signal transduction, sarcolemmal localization of nNOS, EphA4 signaling at the neuromuscular junction, and G-protein mediated signaling. In our previous work, we reported a differential expression pattern of alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) protein in esophageal and breast carcinomas. Implicated in several other pathologies, like cardiac dys-functioning, muscular dystrophies, diabetes, etc., these proteins provide a lot of scope for further studies. The present review focuses on the role of syntrophins in membrane targeting and regulation of cellular proteins, while highlighting their relevance in possible development and/or progression of pathologies including cancer which we have recently demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-012-1233-9DOI Listing
July 2013

E3B1/ABI-1 isoforms are down-regulated in cancers of human gastrointestinal tract.

Dis Markers 2012 ;32(4):273-9

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma), gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa) form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa). A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/DMA-2011-0881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826811PMC
July 2012

Alpha-1-syntrophin protein is differentially expressed in human cancers.

Biomarkers 2011 Feb 24;16(1):31-6. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

We studied the expression of α1-syntrophin (SNTA1) protein in histologically confirmed esophageal, stomach, lung, colon, rectal and breast cancerous tissue samples. Our results suggest a significant decrease in the expression level of SNTA1 protein in both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) compared with their respective controls while a significant increase in expression of SNTA1 protein compared with the normal tissue was observed in breast carcinoma samples. No significant difference in expression of SNTA1 protein was observed in stomach, lung, colon and rectal cancers. Our results suggest that SNTA1 has a role in carcinogenesis and could possibly be used as a novel diagnostic or prognostic marker in esophageal and breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1354750X.2010.522731DOI Listing
February 2011

P66shc and its downstream Eps8 and Rac1 proteins are upregulated in esophageal cancers.

Cell Commun Signal 2010 Jun 18;8:13. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Members of Shc (src homology and collagen homology) family, p46shc, p52shc, p66shc have known to be related to cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Whereas p46shc and p52shc drive the reaction forward, the role of p66shc in cancers remains to be understood clearly. Hence, their expression in cancers needs to be evaluated carefully so that Shc analysis may provide prognostic information in the development of carcinogenesis. In the present study, the expression of p66shc and its associate targets namely Eps8 (epidermal pathway substrate 8), Rac1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1) and Grb2 (growth factor receptor bound protein 2) were examined in fresh tissue specimens from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma using western blot analysis. A thorough analysis of both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma showed p66shc expression to be significantly higher in both types of carcinomas as compared to the controls. The controls of adenocarcinoma show a higher basal expression level of p66shc as compared to the controls of squamous cell carcinoma. The expression level of downstream targets of p66shc i.e., eps8 and rac1 was also found to be consistently higher in human esophageal carcinomas, and hence correlated positively with p66shc expression. However the expression of grb2 was found to be equal in both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The above results suggest that the pathway operated by p66shc in cancers does not involve the participation of Ras and Grb2 as downstream targets instead it operates the pathway involving Eps8 and Rac1 proteins. From the results it is also suggestive that p66shc may have a role in the regulation of esophageal carcinomas and represents a possible mechanism of signaling for the development of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of esophagus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-8-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901305PMC
June 2010

Sos-mediated activation of rac1 by p66shc.

J Cell Biol 2006 Mar 6;172(6):817-22. Epub 2006 Mar 6.

Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The Son of Sevenless 1 protein (sos1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for either the ras or rac1 GTPase. We show that p66shc, an adaptor protein that promotes oxidative stress, increases the rac1-specific GEF activity of sos1, resulting in rac1 activation. P66shc decreases sos1 bound to the growth factor receptor bound protein (grb2) and increases the formation of the sos1-eps8-e3b1 tricomplex. The NH(2)-terminal proline-rich collagen homology 2 (CH2) domain of p66shc associates with full-length grb2 in vitro via the COOH-terminal src homology 3 (C-SH3) domain of grb2. A proline-rich motif (PPLP) in the CH2 domain mediates this association. The CH2 domain competes with the proline-rich COOH-terminal region of sos1 for the C-SH3 domain of grb2. P66shc-induced dissociation of sos1 from grb2, formation of the sos1-eps8-e3b1 complex, rac1-specific GEF activity of sos1, rac1 activation, and oxidative stress are also mediated by the PPLP motif in the CH2 domain. This relationship between p66shc, grb2, and sos1 provides a novel mechanism for the activation of rac1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200506001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2063726PMC
March 2006

Rac1 leads to phosphorylation-dependent increase in stability of the p66shc adaptor protein: role in Rac1-induced oxidative stress.

Mol Biol Cell 2006 Jan 26;17(1):122-9. Epub 2005 Oct 26.

Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The rac1 GTPase and the p66shc adaptor protein regulate intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We examined the relationship between rac1 and p66shc. Expression of constitutively active rac1 (rac1V12) increased phosphorylation, reduced ubiquitination, and increased stability of p66shc protein. Rac1V12-induced phosphorylation and up-regulation of p66shc was suppressed by inhibiting p38MAPK and was dependent on serine 54 and threonine 386 in p66shc. Phosphorylation of recombinant p66shc by p38MAPK in vitro was also partly dependent on serine 54 and threonine 386. Reconstitution of p66shc in p66shc-null fibroblasts increased intracellular ROS generated by rac1V12, which was significantly dependent on the integrity of residues 54 and 386. Overexpression of p66shc increased rac1V12-induced apoptosis, an effect that was also partly dependent on serine 54 and threonine 386. Finally, RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of endogenous p66shc suppressed rac1V12-induced cell death. These findings identify p66shc as a mediator of rac1-induced oxidative stress. In addition, they suggest that serine 54 and threonine 386 are novel phosphorylatable residues in p66shc that govern rac1-induced increase in its expression, through a decrease in its ubiquitination and degradation, and thereby mediate rac1-stimulated cellular oxidative stress and death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e05-06-0570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1345652PMC
January 2006

P66shc regulates endothelial NO production and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation: implications for age-associated vascular dysfunction.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2005 Dec 19;39(6):992-5. Epub 2005 Oct 19.

Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Scaife 620, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The p66shc adaptor protein mediates age-associated oxidative stress. We examined the role of p66shc in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling. Overexpression of p66shc inhibited eNOS-dependent NO production. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of endogenous p66shc led to activation of the proto-oncogene ras, and Akt kinase, with a corresponding increase in phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177 (S1179 on bovine eNOS). In rat aortic rings, down-regulation of p66shc suppressed the vasoconstrictor response to phenyephrine that was abrogated by treatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, and enhanced vasodilation induced by sub-maximal doses of acetylcholine. These findings highlight a pivotal role for p66shc in inhibiting endothelial NO production, and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, that may provide important mechanistic information about endothelial dysfunction seen with aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2005.09.003DOI Listing
December 2005

Hydrogen peroxide regulation of endothelial exocytosis by inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor.

J Cell Biol 2005 Jul;170(1):73-9

Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Although an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage the vasculature, low concentrations of ROS mediate intracellular signal transduction pathways. We hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide plays a beneficial role in the vasculature by inhibiting endothelial exocytosis that would otherwise induce vascular inflammation and thrombosis. We now show that endogenous H(2)O(2) inhibits thrombin-induced exocytosis of granules from endothelial cells. H(2)O(2) regulates exocytosis by inhibiting N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), a protein that regulates membrane fusion events necessary for exocytosis. H(2)O(2) decreases the ability of NSF to hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate and to disassemble the soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex. Mutation of NSF cysteine residue C264T eliminates the sensitivity of NSF to H(2)O(2), suggesting that this cysteine residue is a redox sensor for NSF. Increasing endogenous H(2)O(2) levels in mice decreases exocytosis and platelet rolling on venules in vivo. By inhibiting endothelial cell exocytosis, endogenous H(2)O(2) may protect the vasculature from inflammation and thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200502031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2171382PMC
July 2005

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 regulates endothelial NO production and vascular tone.

Circ Res 2004 Oct 7;95(9):902-10. Epub 2004 Oct 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21214, USA.

The dual-function protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is essential for DNA repair and also governs the reductive activation of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. We examined the role of APE1/ref-1 in regulation of endothelium-dependent tone and systemic blood pressure. APE1/ref-1+/- mice have impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, reduced vascular NO levels, and are hypertensive. APE1/ref-1 upregulates H-ras expression and leads to H-ras-mediated, phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt kinase-dependent calcium sensitization of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), stimulating NO production. The reducing property of APE1/ref-1 is essential for upregulation of H-ras and for the calcium sensitization of eNOS. These findings uncover a novel physiological role for APE1/ref-1 in regulating vascular tone by governance of eNOS activity and bioavailable NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000146947.84294.4cDOI Listing
October 2004

Molecular characterization of MRG19 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Implication in the regulation of galactose and nonfermentable carbon source utilization.

Eur J Biochem 2002 Dec;269(23):5840-50

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Biotechnology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai, India.

We have reported previously that multiple copies of MRG19 suppress GAL genes in a wild-type but not in a gal80 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this report we show that disruption of MRG19 leads to a decrease in GAL induction when S. cerevisiae is induced with 0.02% but not with 2.0% galactose. Disruption of MRG19 in a gal3 background (this strain shows long-term adaptation phenotype) further delays the GAL induction, supporting the notion that its function is important only under low inducing signals. As a corollary, disruption of MRG19 in a gal80 strain did not decrease the constitutive expression of GAL genes. These results suggest that MRG19 has a role in GAL regulation only when the induction signal is weak. Unlike the effect on GAL gene expression, disruption of MRG19 leads to de-repression of CYC1-driven beta-galactosidase activity. MRG19 disruptant also showed a twofold increase in the rate of oxygen uptake as compared with the wild-type strain. ADH2, CTA1, DLD1, and CYC7 promoters that are active during nonfermentative growth did not show any de-repression of beta-galactosidase activity in the MRG19 disruptant. Western blot analysis indicated that MRG19 is a glucose repressible gene and is expressed in galactose and glycerol plus lactate. Experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs indicate that Mrg19p is localized in the nucleus consistent with the presence of a consensus nuclear localization signal sequence. Based on the above results, we propose that Mrg19p is a regulator of galactose and nonfermentable carbon utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03303.xDOI Listing
December 2002
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