Publications by authors named "Firat Duru"

187 Publications

Sex differences and adherence of patients treated with wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: insights from an international multicenter register.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Haemostaseology and Medical Intensive Care, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany.

Aims: Treatment with the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) may protect against sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a bridging therapy until a cardioverter-defibrillator may be implanted. We analyzed in a multicenter setting a consecutive patient cohort wearing WCD to explore sex differences.

Methods And Results: We analyzed 708 consecutive patients, 579 (81.8%) from whom were males and 129 (18.2%) females (age, 60.5±14 vs. 61.6±17 years old; p=0.44). While the rate of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) as a cause of prescription of WCD was significantly higher in males as compared to females (42.7% vs. 26.4%; p=0.001), females received it more frequently due to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) (55.8% vs. 42.7%); p=0.009). The wear time of WCD was equivalent in both groups (21.1±4.3 hours/days in males vs. 21.5±4.4 hours/days in females; p=0.27; and 62.6±44.3 days in males vs. 56.5±39 days in females; p=0.15). Mortality was comparable in both groups at 2-year-follow-up (6.8% in males vs. 9.7% in females; p=0.55). Appropriate WCD shocks and the incidence of ICD implantations were similar in both groups (2.4% in males vs. 3.9% in females; p=0.07) (35.1% in males vs. 31.8% in females; p=0.37), respectively. In age tertile analysis, compliance was observed more in 73-91 years old group as compared to 14-51 years old group (87.8% vs. 68.3%; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Compliance for wearing WCD was excellent regardless of sex. Furthermore, mortality and the incidence of ICD implantations were comparable in both sexes. Appropriate WCD shocks were similar in both sexes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.15648DOI Listing
August 2022

Novel Risk Prediction Model to Determine Adverse Heart Failure Outcomes in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Jul 29;11(13):e024634. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Beijing China.

Background Patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are at risk for life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but progressive heart failure (HF) may occur in later stages of disease. This study aimed to characterize potential risk predictors and develop a model for individualized assessment of adverse HF outcomes in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Longitudinal and observational cohorts with 290 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy from the Fuwai Hospital in Beijing, China, and 99 patients from the University Heart Center in Zurich, Switzerland, with follow-up data were studied. The primary end point of the study was heart transplantation or death attributable to HF. The model was developed by Cox regression analysis for predicting risk and was internally validated. During 4.92±3.03 years of follow-up, 48 patients reached the primary end point. The determinants of the risk prediction model were left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine levels, moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation, and atrial fibrillation. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators did not reduce the occurrence of adverse HF outcomes. Conclusions A novel risk prediction model for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has been developed using 2 large and well-established cohorts, incorporating common clinical parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine levels, tricuspid regurgitation, and atrial fibrillation, which can identify patients who are at risk for terminal HF events, and may guide physicians to assess individualized HF risk and to optimize management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.024634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9333366PMC
July 2022

Barlow disease: effect of mitral valve repair on ventricular arrhythmias in 82 patients in a retrospective long-term study.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2022 Aug 19;63(4):514-520. Epub 2022 May 19.

Cardiovascular Center - Klinik im Park, Zurich, Switzerland -

Background: Patients (pt) with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) due to Barlow disase (BD) have an increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (VA; including ventricular tachycardias VT) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Data on the effect of MV repair on VA are scarce.

Methods: Pre- and postoperative VA in severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with MVP due to BD undergoing surgical mitral valve repair were analyzed. Patients with degenerative mitral valve disease not fulfilling BD criteria were excluded. Information was from charts, ECG/Holter ECG and/or pacemaker/ implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) data. SCD, sustained VT>30 sec and/or ventricular fibrillation necessitating an ICD-shock were considered major events. Event probability was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator throughout the follow-up period of 20.7 years.

Results: There were 82 pts (61% males), mean age at surgery 62±14 years. Bileaflet MVP was present in 54%, mitral annular dysjunction (MAD) in 37% and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% in 12%. MV repair included ring annuloplasty in all and artificial chords in 48%. Mean follow-up was 3.1 years (0.2 to 14.2 years). Postoperative rhythm surveillance by Holter ECG and/or pacemaker was available in 67%. A VA load of ≥10% and/or any VT was noted in 26% before and 32% after surgery (P=0.44). Postoperative VA load was not predicted by MAD, artificial chords, LVEF of <50%, age at surgery >50 years and/or residual ≥moderate MR (all P<0.05), it correlated only with bileaflet MVP (P=0.009). Major events occurred in 3 pts: SCD in 2 pts and ICD for sustained polymorphic VT in 1 pt (incidence 1.2%/year). The event probability of receiving a SCD or an ICD-shock was 4.9%.

Conclusions: VA burden does not seem to change after MV repair in MVP due to BD. The occurrence of major arrhythmic events can not be predicted reliably, thus, patients with MVP due to BD may need lifelong postoperative follow-up, especially in bileaflet MVP which was an independent risk factor for increased VA burden in this retrospective long-term study in a small but well selected patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.22.12239-1DOI Listing
August 2022

Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Transseptal Left Atrial Access to Improve Safety in Patients Undergoing Pulmonary Vein Isolation.

J Clin Med 2022 May 1;11(9). Epub 2022 May 1.

Division of Cardiology and Electrophysiology, GZO Regional Health Center, 8620 Wetzikon, Switzerland.

Background: Endovascular pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has become an important strategy for rhythm control in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Transseptal access is a critical step of this procedure and can result in potentially life-threatening complications. This retrospective study evaluates the safety of standardized, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided transseptal access to the left atrium in consecutive patients who underwent PVI.

Methods: After the implementation of a standardized, TEE-guided procedure for transseptal access, the data of 404 consecutive PVI procedures using radiofrequency ablation and 3D-mapping were prospectively collected over 5 years. TEE-guided transseptal punctures were performed on 375 patients undergoing one to three PVIs. The patient cohort was retrospectively analyzed for major and minor complications, fluoroscopy time, fluoroscopy dose and ablation outcomes.

Results: No single complication related to transseptal access occurred, affirming the safety of the TEE-guided approach. Fluoroscopy time and fluoroscopy dose decreased significantly after 152 procedures. PVI-related minor complications occurred in 11 procedures (2.6%) and included 10 vascular-access-related complications (2.4%) and 1 TEE-related esophageal hematoma (0.2%), which healed spontaneously.

Conclusion: Our single-center study shows that TEE guidance may allow safe transseptal access to the left atrium in patients undergoing PVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104252PMC
May 2022

Right atrial strain and cardiovascular outcome in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Jun;23(7):970-978

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by progressive fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium and associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. This study aims to examine right atrial (RA) deformation in ARVC and understand its association with CV outcomes.

Methods And Results: RA strain was determined in 50 patients with definite ARVC, compared with a matched control group of 50 healthy individuals, and analysed for outcome association over a median follow-up duration of 5 years. A subgroup of 30 ARVC patients with normal RA volume (ARVC-N group) was compared with 30 matched controls (Control-N), and the outcome was analysed separately. RA reservoir, conduit, and pump strain were significantly impaired in ARVC vs. control. Similar observations were made in the N-ARVC subgroup. Reservoir strain was associated with an increased risk of atrial arrhythmia (AA) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, P < 0.01] and CV events (HR 0.92, P < 0.01). Conduit strain also predicted AA (HR 1.02, P < 0.01), while pump strain predicted CV events (HR 1.09, P = 0.02). Reservoir strain improved the fitness of bivariable models for the association of RV end-diastolic area index, RV fractional area change, and RV global longitudinal strain with CV events.

Conclusion: ARVC patients display impaired RA strain even when RA volume is normal. Reservoir and pump strain are associated with an increased risk of CV events. Reservoir strain improved model fitness for the association of RVGLS and other echocardiographic parameters with CV events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeac070DOI Listing
June 2022

Focal atrial tachycardia originating from mirror position of fossa ovalis: A case report.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2022 Mar 19;8(3):151-154. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Division, Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2021.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9039558PMC
March 2022

A new prediction model for ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to develop a model for individualized prediction of incident VA/SCD in ARVC patients.

Methods And Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight patients with a definite diagnosis and no history of sustained VAs/SCD at baseline, aged 38.2 ± 15.5 years, 44.7% male, were enrolled from five registries in North America and Europe. Over 4.83 (interquartile range 2.44-9.33) years of follow-up, 146 (27.7%) experienced sustained VA, defined as SCD, aborted SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. A prediction model estimating annual VA risk was developed using Cox regression with internal validation. Eight potential predictors were pre-specified: age, sex, cardiac syncope in the prior 6 months, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, number of premature ventricular complexes in 24 h, number of leads with T-wave inversion, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs). All except LVEF were retained in the final model. The model accurately distinguished patients with and without events, with an optimism-corrected C-index of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.81] and minimal over-optimism [calibration slope of 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95)]. By decision curve analysis, the clinical benefit of the model was superior to a current consensus-based ICD placement algorithm with a 20.3% reduction of ICD placements with the same proportion of protected patients (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Using the largest cohort of patients with ARVC and no prior VA, a prediction model using readily available clinical parameters was devised to estimate VA risk and guide decisions regarding primary prevention ICDs (www.arvcrisk.com).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac180DOI Listing
April 2022

Validation of an Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Risk-Prediction Model in a Chinese Cohort.

J Clin Med 2022 Apr 1;11(7). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

Background: The novel arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)-associated ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) risk-prediction model endorsed by Cadrin-Tourigny et al. was recently developed to estimate visual VA risk and was identified to be more effective for predicting ventricular events than the International Task Force Consensus (ITFC) criteria, and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) criteria. Data regarding its application in Asians are lacking.

Objectives: We aimed to perform an external validation of this algorithm in the Chinese ARVC population.

Methods: The study enrolled 88 ARVC patients who received implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) from January 2005 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was appropriate ICD therapies. The novel prediction model was used to calculate a priori predicted VA risk that was compared with the observed rates.

Results: During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 57 (64.8%) patients received the ICD therapy. Patients with implanted ICDs for primary prevention had non-significantly lower rates of ICD therapy than secondary prevention (5-year event rate: 0.46 (0.13-0.66) and 0.80 (0.64-0.89); log-rank = 0.098). The validation study revealed the C-statistic of 0.833 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.615-1.000), and the predicted and the observed patterns were similar in primary prevention patients (mean predicted-observed risk: -0.07 (95% CI -0.21, 0.09)). However, in secondary prevention patients, the C-statistic was 0.640 (95% CI 0.510-0.770) and the predicted risk was significantly underestimated (mean predicted-observed risk: -0.32 (95% CI -0.39, -0.24)). The recalibration analysis showed that the performance of the prediction model in secondary prevention patients was improved, with the mean predicted-observed risk of -0.04 (95% CI -0.10, 0.03).

Conclusions: The novel risk-prediction model had a good fitness to predict arrhythmic risk in Asian ARVC patients for primary prevention, and for secondary prevention patients after recalibration of the baseline risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11071973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8999693PMC
April 2022

Sudden cardiac death while waiting: do we need the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator?

Clin Res Cardiol 2022 Mar 19. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular death in industrialized nations. Patients with cardiomyopathy are at increased risk for SCD and may benefit from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The risk of SCD is highest in the first months after myocardial infarction or first diagnosis of severe non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. On the other hand, left ventricular function may improve in a subset of patients to such an extent that an ICD might no longer be needed. To offer protection from a transient risk of SCD, the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is available. Results of the first randomized clinical trial investigating the role of the WCD after myocardial infarction were recently published. This review is intended to provide insight into data from the VEST trial, and to put these into perspective with studies and clinical experience. As a non-invasive, temporary therapy, the WCD may offer advantages over early ICD implantation. However, recent data demonstrate that patient compliance and education play a crucial role in this new concept of preventing SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-022-02003-4DOI Listing
March 2022

Predictors of left atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation referred for catheter ablation.

Cardiol J 2022 14;29(3):413-422. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Left atrial (LA) fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Therefore, we searched for clinical risk factors that confer an increased risk of LA fibrosis, which can influence the treatment strategy.

Methods: We included 94 patients undergoing 3-dimensional electroanatomical voltage mapping-guided catheter ablation of AF. LA low-voltage areas during sinus rhythm as a surrogate parameter of fibrosis were measured with the CARTO3 mapping system and adjusted for LA volumes obtained by computed tomography. Blood tests including N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular function were also analyzed.

Results: Patients were 62.5 ± 11.4 years old, and 29% were female. LA fibrosis was present in 65%, with 50% having a fibrotic area > 5% (≥ Utah-Stage 1). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 53.9 ± 10.5%. Patients with LA fibrosis had higher NT-proBNP levels (869 ± 1056 vs. 552 ± 859 ng/L, p = 0.001) and larger LA volumes (body surface area-corrected 63.3 ± 19.3 vs. 80 ± 27.1 mL/m2, p = 0.003). In univariable analyses, LA fibrosis was significantly associated with female gender, older age, increased LA volumes, hypertension, statin therapy, higher NT-proBNP values, and echocardiographic E/e'. In bivariable analyses, higher NT-proBNP, echocardiographic parameters of diastolic dysfunction, female gender, older age, and higher DR-FLASH scores remained as independent predictors of LA fibrosis.

Conclusions: In this single-center longitudinal study, surrogate parameters of elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures such as higher NT-proBNP levels and higher echocardiographic E/e' values as well as female gender independently predicted the prevalence of LA fibrosis in patients referred for catheter ablation of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2022.0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170329PMC
June 2022

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and Differential Diagnosis with Diseases Mimicking Its Phenotypes.

J Clin Med 2022 Feb 24;11(5). Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Division of Arrhythmias and Electrophysiology, Clinic for Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart muscle disease, which is characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of predominantly the right ventricle (RV). The disease can result in ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical expressivity of ARVC has been continuously evolving. The diagnosis can be challenging due to its variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance and the lack of specific diagnostic criteria. Idiopathic RV outflow tract tachycardia, Brugada Syndrome, athlete's heart, dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, cardiac sarcoidosis, congenital aneurysms and diverticula may mimic clinical phenotypes of ARVC. This review aims to provide an update on the differential diagnosis of ARVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8911116PMC
February 2022

Changes in Exercise Capacity and Ventricular Function in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: The Impact of Sports Restriction during Follow-Up.

J Clin Med 2022 Feb 22;11(5). Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

(1) Background: Physical exercise has been suggested to promote disease progression in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We aimed to investigate the exercise performance and ventricular function of ARVC patients during follow-up, while taking into account their adherence to exercise restriction recommendations. (2) Methods: This retrospective study included 49 patients (33 male, 67%) who had an exercise test at baseline and after 4.2 ± 1.6 years. Of the 49 ARVC patients, 27 (55%) were athletes, while 22 (45%) were non-athletes. Of the athletes, 12 (44%) continued intensive sports activity (non-adherent), while 15 (56%) stopped intensive physical activity upon recommendation (adherent). The maximum workload in Watts (W), percentage of the target workload (W%), and double product (DP) factor were measured for all patients. (3) Results: The non-adherent cohort had a significant decrease in physical performance (W at baseline vs. follow-up, = 0.012; W% at baseline vs. follow-up, = 0.025; DP-factor at baseline vs. follow-up, = 0.012) over time. Left ventricular (LV) function (LV ejection fraction at baseline vs. follow-up, = 0.082) showed a decreasing trend in the non-adherent cohort, while the performance of the adherent cohort remained at a similar level. (4) Conclusions: If intensive sports activities are not discontinued, exercise capacity and left ventricular function of athletes with ARVC deteriorates during follow-up. All patients with ARVC need to strictly adhere to the recommendation to cease intense sports activity in order to halt disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8911196PMC
February 2022

Real life experience with the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in an international multicenter Registry.

Sci Rep 2022 02 25;12(1):3203. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

Patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) may benefit from wearable cardioverter defibrillators (WCD) by avoiding immediate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Different factors play an important role including patient selection, compliance and optimal drug treatment. We aimed to present real world data from 4 centers from Germany and Switzerland. Between 04/2012 and 03/2019, 708 patients were included in this registry. Patients were followed up over a mean time of 28 ± 35.5 months. Outcome data including gender differences and different etiologies of cardiomyopathy were analyzed. Out of 708 patients (81.8% males, mean age 61.0 ± 14.6), 44.6% of patients had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, 39.8% ischemic cardiomyopathy, 7.9% myocarditis, 5.4% prior need for ICD explantation and 2.1% channelopathy. The mean wear time of WCD was 21.2 ± 4.3 h per day. In 46% of patients, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was > 35% during follow-up. The younger the patient was, the higher the LVEF and the lower the wear hours per day were. The total shock rate during follow-up was 2.7%. Whereas an appropriate WCD shock was documented in 16 patients (2.2%), 3 patients received an inappropriate ICD shock (0.5%). During follow-up, implantation of a cardiac implantable electronic device was carried out in 34.5% of patients. When comparing German patients (n = 516) to Swiss patients (n = 192), Swiss patients presented with longer wear days (70.72 ± 49.47 days versus 58.06 ± 40.45 days; p = 0.001) and a higher ICD implantation rate compared to German patients (48.4% versus 29.3%; p = 0.001), although LVEF at follow-up was similar between both groups. Young age is a negative independent predictor for the compliance in this large registry. The most common indication for WCD was non-ischemic cardiomyopathy followed by ischemic cardiomyopathy. The compliance rate was generally high with a decrease of wear hours per day at younger age. Slight differences were found between Swiss and German patients, which might be related to differences in mentality for ICD implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-06007-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8881447PMC
February 2022

Reduced myocardial septal function assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: associated with histological myocardial fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Jul;23(8):1006-1015

Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beilishi Road No. 167, Xicheng District, Beijing 100037, China.

Aims: Echocardiographic studies suggest that strain is related to myocardial fibrosis (MF) and ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) also allows strain analysis, but little is known whether it provides incremental value to late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE). This study aimed to explore the relationship between CMR-FT-derived strain parameters and histopathology MF and VA and its incremental value to LGE in obstructive HCM (HOCM) patients undergoing septal myectomy.

Methods And Results: One hundred and twenty-three symptomatic HOCM patients underwent CMR examination, followed by septal myectomy. The abnormally increased histological MF was defined as higher than the mean + 2 standard deviation (SD) of nine control autopsy subjects who had no history of cardiovascular disease. Septal strain parameters and septal LGE were evaluated at the site of surgical myectomy. Among HOCM patients without LGE, septal circumferential (P = 0.003), longitudinal (P = 0.001), and radial (P = 0.02) strains were significantly impaired in patients with increased histological MF than those without. Histological MF was significantly associated with septal circumferential strain (r = 0.32, P < 0.001), septal longitudinal strain (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and septal radial strain (r = -0.27, P = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, septal longitudinal strain was independently associated with histological MF [β, 0.19 (0.05-0.34); P = 0.01], and VA [odds ratio, 1.10 (1.01-1.19); P = 0.02]. Moreover, septal longitudinal strain was incremental to septal %LGE in detecting increased MF (P = 0.001) and VA (P = 0.048).

Conclusions: Septal longitudinal strain at CMR is independently related to histological MF and occurrence of VA in HOCM patients. Moreover, it provides incremental value over LGE in detecting increased MF and VA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeac032DOI Listing
July 2022

Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator-Measured Step Count for the Surveillance of Physical Fitness during Cardiac Rehabilitation.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 25;21(21). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has a built-in accelerometer, which allows tracking of patients' physical activity by remote monitoring. It is unclear whether WCD-measured physical activity, step count, and heart rate correlate with established tools for the assessment of cardiopulmonary fitness such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT).

Objective: To correlate measurements of patient physical activity through the WCD with a supervised 6MWT during in-patient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to allow their use as surrogate parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness in an out-patient setting.

Methods: Consecutive patients with a history of WCD use treated at our center and an in-patient CR following an index hospitalization were included. Baseline characteristics, measurements of WCD accelerometer (median daily step count, median daily activity level), median daily heart rate, and clinically supervised 6MWT at admission and discharge of CR were obtained.

Results: Forty-one patients with a mean age of 55.5 (±11.5) years were included. Thirty-five patients (85.4%) were male and 28 patients (68%) had a primary prophylactic WCD-indication. The most common underlying heart diseases were ischemic heart disease (24 patients 58.6%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (13 patients, 31.7%). Median CR duration was 20 (IQR 19.75-26.25) days. 6MWT distance increased from a mean of 329 m (±107) to 470 m (±116) during CR ( < 0.0001). The median daily step count and activity level increased significantly, from 5542 steps (IQR 3718-7055) to 8778 (IQR 6229-12,920, < 0.0001) and median 117 10 (IQR 96 10-142 10) threshold value exceedance (TVE) to 146 10 TVE (IQR 110 × 10-169 × 10, < 0.0001), respectively. The median heart rate was 74.9 bpm (IQR 65.8-84.5) and 70.2 (IQR 64.1-77.3, = 0.09) at admission and discharge, respectively. Of all three parameters, median daily step count showed the best correlation to the results of the 6MWT at admission and discharge (r = 0.32, = 0.04 and 0.37, = 0.02, respectively).

Conclusions: Remote monitoring of median daily step count as assessed by the WCD's accelerometer showed positive correlation with the 6MWT and could serve as a surrogate for cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Assessment of daily step count and activity level measured remotely by the WCD could help to tailor optimal exercise instruction for patients not attending CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21217054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588232PMC
October 2021

Efficacy of Catheter Ablation for Atrial Arrhythmias in Patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy-A Multicenter Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 26;10(21). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Atrial arrhythmias are present in up to 20% of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Catheter ablation (CA) is an effective treatment for atrial arrhythmias in the general population. Data regarding CA for atrial arrhythmias in ARVC are scarce. : To assess the safety and efficacy of CA for atrial arrhythmias in patients with ARVC. In this international collaborative effort, all patients with a definite diagnosis of ARVC undergoing CA for atrial fibrillation (AF), focal atrial tachycardia (AT), or cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFl) were extracted from twelve ARVC registries. Demographic, periprocedural, and long-term arrhythmic outcome data were collected. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in the study (age 50.2 ± 16.6 years, male 84%, CHADSVASc 1 (1,2), HAS-BLED 0 (0-2)). The arrhythmia leading to CA was AF in 23 (62%), focal left AT in 5 (14%), and CTI-dependent AFl in 9 (24%). Acute procedural success was achieved in all procedures but one ( = 1 focal left AT; 97% acute success). The median follow-up period was 27 (13-67) months, and 96%, 74%, and 61% of patients undergoing AF ablation were free from any atrial arrhythmia recurrence after a single procedure at 6 months, 12 months, and last follow-up, respectively. After focal AT ablation, freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence was 80%, 80%, and 60% at 6 months, 12 months, and last follow-up, respectively. All patients undergoing CTI ablation were free from atrial arrhythmia recurrences at 6 months, with 89% single-procedural arrhythmic freedom at last follow-up. One major complication (2.7%; PV stenosis requiring PV stenting) occurred. CA is safe and effective in managing atrial arrhythmias in patients with ARVC, with success rates comparable to the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584554PMC
October 2021

Novel plasma biomarkers predicting biventricular involvement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Am Heart J 2022 02 29;244:66-76. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart muscle disease characterized by fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias. Biventricular involvement in ARVC may lead to heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the role of plasma biomarkers soluble (s)ST2, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and GDF-15 in predicting biventricular involvement and adverse outcomes in ARVC.

Methods And Results: ARVC patients from 2 independent cohorts, were studied. The Bejing (Chinese) cohort (n = 108) was the discovery cohort, whereas the Zurich (Swiss) cohort (n = 47) served as validation. All patients had a definite ARVC diagnosis at time of blood withdrawal. Biomarkers were independently correlated with NT-proBNP and left ventricular (LV)-function. ARVC patients with LV involvement had higher levels of sST2 and GDF-15 as compared to controls and patients with isolated right ventricle (RV) involvement. sST2 and GDF-15 were significantly correlated with late gadolinium enhancement in CMR and with adverse heart failure outcomes. Gal-3 was elevated in ARVC patients with and without LV involvement. The combined use of the three biomarkers (sST2, GDF-15 and NT-proBNP) showed the best performance in predicting LV involvement in both cohorts. Plasma drawn from the coronary arteries and coronary sinus indicated a transmyocardial elevation of sST2, but no transmyocardial gradient of GDF-15. After heart transplantation, both sST2 and GDF-15 returned to near-normal levels.

Conclusion: Our study showed that sST2 and GDF-15 may predict biventricular involvement in ARVC. The combined use of sST2, GDF-15 and NT-proBNP showed the best prediction of biventricular involvement in ARVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.10.187DOI Listing
February 2022

Heart Failure in Patients with Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 19;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167A Beilishi Road, Xi Cheng District, Beijing 100037, China.

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a rare inherited cardiomyopathy characterized as fibro-fatty replacement, and a common cause for sudden cardiac death in young athletes. Development of heart failure (HF) has been an under-recognized complication of ACM for a long time. The current clinical management guidelines for HF in ACM progression have nowadays been updated. Thus, a comprehensive review for this great achievement in our understanding of HF in ACM is necessary. In this review, we aim to describe the research progress on epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk stratification and therapeutics of HF in ACM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540844PMC
October 2021

Distinctive characteristics of his bundle potentials in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.

Cardiol J 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: His bundle (HB) potentials vary in amplitude and duration in patients with and without slow pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of HB potentials and to elucidate whether they can provide clues for identification of slow pathway (SP).

Methods: The present research prospectively studied the electrophysiological findings of 162 patients with symptomatic atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) due to slow-fast or fast-slow type and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). Maximal HB potential (HBmax, HB with the highest amplitude) among HB cloud was recorded in both groups. For AVNRT patients, the following were measured: (1) AH interval at the "jump" during programmed atrial stimulation (A2H2, taken as a reflection of SP conduction time); (2) Distance from HBmax to the successful SP ablation site (HBmax-ABL) and from HBmax to the ostium of coronary sinus (HBmax-CSO).

Results: HBmax was 0.29 ± 0.10 mV in AVNRT patients, whereas it was 0.17 ± 0.05 mV in AVRT group (p < 0.0001). Likewise, the HBmax duration was 22 ± 5 ms in AVNRT group and 16 ± 3 ms in AVRT group (p < 0.0001). The area under the ROC curve of HBmax amplitude in AVNRT patients was 0.86 and the optimal HBmax cut-off to predict AVNRT was ≥ 0.22 mV with a sensitivity of 0.78 and specificity of 0.84. HBmax-CSO was positively correlated with HBmax-ABL, and HBmax-ABL was positively correlated with A2H2.

Conclusions: HBmax amplitudes were higher and durations longer in patients with AVNRT, as compared to those with AVRT. Moreover, the distance between HBmax and successful ablation site was positively correlated with the SP conduction time and with the distance from HBmax to the CS ostium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2021.0107DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Diagnostic Score Integrating Atrial Dimensions to Differentiate between the Athlete's Heart and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 10;10(18). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: The 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) have not been tested to differentiate ARVC from the athlete's heart. Moreover, some criteria are not available (myocardial biopsy, genetic testing, morphology of ventricular tachycardia) or subject to interobserver variability (right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities) in clinical practice. We hypothesized that atrial dimensions are useful and robust to differentiate between both entities and proposed a new diagnostic score based upon readily available parameters including echocardiographic atrial dimensions.

Methods: In this observational study, 21 patients with definite ARVC were matched for age, gender and body mass index to 42 athletes. Based on ROC analysis, the following parameters were included in the score: indexed right/left atrial volumes ratio (RAVI/LAVI ratio), NT-proBNP, RVOT measurements (PLAX and PSAX BSA-corrected), tricuspid annular motion (TAM), precordial TWI and depolarization abnormalities according to TFC.

Results: ARVC patients had a higher RAVI/LAVI ratio (1.76 ± 1.5 vs. 0.87 ± 0.2, < 0.001), lower right ventricular function (fac: 29 ± 10.1 vs. 42.2 ± 5%, < 0.001; TAM: 19.8 ± 5.4 vs. 23.8 ± 3.8 mm, = 0.001) and higher serum NT-proBNP levels (345 ± 612 vs. 48 ± 57 ng/L, < 0.001). Our score showed a good performance, which is comparable to the 2010 TFC using those parameters, which are available in routine clinical practice (AUC93%, < 0.001 (95%CI 0.874-0.995) vs. AUC97%, < 0.001 (95%CI 0.93-1.00). A score of 6/12 points yielded a specificity of 91% and an improved sensitivity of 67% for ARVC diagnosis as compared to a sensitivity of 41% for the abovementioned readily available 2010 TFC.

Conclusions: ARVC patients present with significantly larger RA compared to athletes, resulting in a greater RAVI/LAVI ratio. Our novel diagnostic score includes readily available clinical parameters and has a high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate between ARVC and the athlete's heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472715PMC
September 2021

Preclinical short QT syndrome models: studying the phenotype and drug-screening.

Europace 2022 03;24(3):481-493

University of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in developed and developing countries. Inherited cardiac channelopathies are linked to 5-10% of SCDs, mainly in the young. Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare inherited channelopathy, which leads to both atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, syncope, and even SCD. International European Society of Cardiology guidelines include as diagnostic criteria: (i) QTc ≤ 340 ms on electrocardiogram, (ii) QTc ≤ 360 ms plus one of the follwing, an affected short QT syndrome pathogenic gene mutation, or family history of SQTS, or aborted cardiac arrest, or family history of cardiac arrest in the young. However, further evaluation of the QTc ranges seems to be required, which might be possible by assembling large short QT cohorts and considering genetic screening of the newly described pathogenic mutations. Since the mechanisms underlying the arrhythmogenesis of SQTS is unclear, optimal therapy for SQTS is still lacking. The disease is rare, unclear genotype-phenotype correlations exist in a bevy of cases and the absence of an international short QT registry limit studies on the pathophysiological mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis and therapy of SQTS. This leads to the necessity of experimental models or platforms for studying SQTS. Here, we focus on reviewing preclinical SQTS models and platforms such as animal models, heterologous expression systems, human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte models and computer models as well as three-dimensional engineered heart tissues. We discuss their usefulness for SQTS studies to examine genotype-phenotype associations, uncover disease mechanisms and test drugs. These models might be helpful for providing novel insights into the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of this channelopathy and may offer opportunities to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with SQT syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab214DOI Listing
March 2022

High Incidence of Inappropriate Alarms in Patients with Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Findings from the Swiss WCD Registry.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 25;10(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) uses surface electrodes to detect arrhythmia before initiating a treatment sequence. However, it is also prone to inappropriate detection due to artefacts.

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the alarm burden in patients and its impact on clinical outcomes.

Methods: Patients from the nationwide Swiss WCD Registry were included. Clinical characteristics and data were obtained from the WCDs. Arrhythmia recordings ≥30 s in length were analysed and categorized as VT/VF, atrial fibrillation (AF), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) or artefact.

Results: A total of 10653 device alarms were documented in 324 of 456 patients (71.1%) over a mean WCD wear-time of 2.0 ± 1.6 months. Episode duration was 30 s or more in 2996 alarms (28.2%). One hundred and eleven (3.7%) were VT/VF episodes. The remaining recordings were inappropriate detections (2736 (91%) due to artefacts; 117 (3.7%) AF; 48 (1.6%) SVT). Two-hundred and seven patients (45%) had three or more alarms per month. Obesity was significantly associated with three or more alarms per month ( = 0.01, 27.7% vs. 15.9%). High alarm burden was not associated with a lower average daily wear time (20.8 h vs. 20.7 h, = 0.785) or a decreased implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation rate after stopping WCD use (48% vs. 47.3%, = 0.156).

Conclusions: In patients using WCDs, alarms emitted by the device and impending inappropriate shocks were frequent and most commonly caused by artefacts. A high alarm burden was associated with obesity but did not lead to a decreased adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432131PMC
August 2021

The prevalence of left and right bundle branch block morphology ventricular tachycardia amongst patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and sustained ventricular tachycardia: insights from the European Survey on Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

Europace 2022 02;24(2):285-295

Second Department of Medicine-Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Kateřinská 1660/32, 121 08 Nové Město, Prague, Czech Republic.

Aims: In arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) typically displays a left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology while a right bundle branch block (RBBB) morphology is rare. The present study assesses the VT morphology in ACM patients with sustained VT and their clinical and genetic characteristics.

Methods And Results: Twenty-six centres from 11 European countries provided information on 954 ACM patients who had ≥1 episode of sustained VT spontaneously documented during patients' clinical course. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy was defined according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria, and VT morphology according to the QRS pattern in V1. Overall, 882 (92.5%) patients displayed LBBB-VT alone and 72 (7.5%) RBBB-VT [alone in 42 (4.4%) or in combination with LBBB-VT in 30 (3.1%)]. Male sex prevalence was 79.3%, 88.1%, and 56.7% in the LBBB-VT, RBBB-VT, and LBBB + RBBB-VT groups, respectively (P = 0.007). First RBBB-VT occurred 5 years after the first LBBB-VT (46.5 ± 14.4 vs 41.1 ± 15.8 years, P = 0.011). An implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was more frequently implanted in the RBBB-VT (92.9%) and the LBBB + RBBB-VT groups (90%) than in the LBBB-VT group (68.1%) (P < 0.001). Mutations in PKP2 predominated in the LBBB-VT (65.2%) and the LBBB + RBBB-VT (41.7%) groups while DSP mutations predominated in the RBBB-VT group (45.5%). By multivariable analysis, female sex was associated with LBBB + RBBB-VT (P = 0.011) while DSP mutations were associated with RBBB-VT (P < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 103 (51-185) months, death occurred in 106 (11.1%) patients with no intergroup difference (P = 0.176).

Conclusion: RBBB-VT accounts for a significant proportion of sustained VTs in ACM. Sex and type of pathogenic mutations were associated with VT type, female sex with LBBB + RBBB-VT, and DSP mutation with RBBB-VT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab190DOI Listing
February 2022

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Outcome in Takotsubo Syndrome: Data From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 28;10(15):e014059. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology Intensive Care Medicine and Angiology Vincentius-Diakonissen-Hospital Karlsruhe Germany.

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for mortality. The prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) have not yet been investigated in a large patient cohort. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in patients with TTS. Methods and Results Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry, which is a multinational network with 26 participating centers in Europe and the United States. Patients were dichotomized according to the presence or absence of AF at the time of admission. Of 1584 patients with TTS, 112 (7.1%) had AF. The mean age was higher (<0.001), and there were fewer women (=0.046) in the AF than in the non-AF group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (=0.001), and cardiogenic shock was more often observed (<0.001) in the AF group. Both in-hospital (<0.001) and long-term mortality (<0.001) were higher in the AF group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that AF was independently associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.50-3.55; <0.001). Among patients with AF on admission, 42% had no known history of AF before the acute TTS event, and such patients had comparable in-hospital and long-term outcomes compared with those with a history of AF. Conclusions In patients presenting with TTS, AF on admission is significantly associated with increased in-hospital and long-term mortality rates. Whether antiarrhythmics and/or cardioversion are beneficial in TTS with AF should thus be tested in a future trial. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475688PMC
August 2021

Swiss National Registry on Catheter Ablation Procedures: Changing Trends over the Last 20 Years.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 7;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

The Swiss Ablation Registry provides a national database for electrophysiologic studies and catheter ablations. We analyzed the database to provide an in-depth look at changing trends over the last 20 years. During the study period a total of 78622 catheter ablations (age 61.0 ± 1.2 years; 63.7% male) were performed in 29 centers. The number of ablations increased by approximately ten-fold in 20 years. Ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) was the main driver behind this increase, with more than hundred-fold (39.7% of all ablations in 2019). Atrioventricular-nodal-reentrant-tachycardia (AVNRT) and accessory pathways, being the main indications for ablation in 2000 (44.1%/25.1%, respectively), made up of only a small proportion (15.2%/3.5%,) respectively in 2019. Fluoroscopy, ablation, and procedure durations were reduced for all ablations over time. The highest repeat ablations were performed for ventricular tachycardia and AF (24.4%/24.3%). The majority of ablations (63.0%) are currently performed in private hospitals and non-university public hospitals whereas university hospitals had dominated (82.4%) at the turn of the century. A pronounced increase in the number of catheter ablations in Switzerland was accompanied by a marked decrease in fluoroscopy, ablation, and procedure durations. We observed a shift toward more complex procedures in older patients with comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304673PMC
July 2021

The Link Between Sex Hormones and Susceptibility to Cardiac Arrhythmias: From Molecular Basis to Clinical Implications.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 17;8:644279. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, Zurich, Switzerland.

It is well-known that gender is an independent risk factor for some types of cardiac arrhythmias. For example, males have a greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the Brugada Syndrome. In contrast, females are at increased risk for the Long QT Syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms of these gender differences have not been fully identified. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence indicating that sex hormones may have a significant impact on the cardiac rhythm. In this review, we describe in-depth the molecular interactions between sex hormones and the cardiac ion channels, as well as the clinical implications of these interactions on the cardiac conduction system, in order to understand the link between these hormones and the susceptibility to arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.644279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925388PMC
February 2021

Association of coagulation dysfunction with cardiac injury among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 02 24;11(1):4432. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 Dong'an Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Cardiac injury is a common complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the association of cardiac injury with coagulation dysfunction. We enrolled 181 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, and studied the clinical characteristics and outcome of these patients. Cardiac biomarkers high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI), myohemoglobin and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) were assessed in all patients. The clinical outcomes were defined as hospital discharge or death. The median age of the study cohort was 55 (IQR, 46-65) years, and 102 (56.4%) were males. Forty-two of the 181 patients (23.2%) had cardiac injury. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with cardiac injury. Multivariate regression analysis revealed old age and elevated D-dimer levels as being strong risk predictors of in-hospital mortality. Interleukin 6 (IL6) levels were comparable in patients with or without cardiac injury. Serial observations of coagulation parameters demonstrated highly synchronous alterations of D-dimer along with progression to cardiac injury. Cardiac injury is a common complication of COVID-19 and is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of AST, D-dimer and serum ferritin are significantly associated with cardiac injury, whereas IL6 are not. Therefore, the pathogenesis of cardiac injury in COVID-19 may be primarily due to coagulation dysfunction along with microvascular injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83822-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904824PMC
February 2021

Single-cell RNA Sequencing: In-depth Decoding of Heart Biology and Cardiovascular Diseases.

Curr Genomics 2020 Dec;21(8):585-601

1Department of Cardiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; 3University Heart Center Zurich, University Heart Center, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The cardiac system is a combination of a complex structure, various cells, and versatile specified functions and sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. Moreover, cardiac diseases that encompass a wide range of endogenous conditions, remain a serious health burden worldwide. Recent genome-wide profiling techniques have taken the lead in uncovering a new realm of cell types and molecular programs driving physiological and pathological processes in various organs and diseases. In particular, the emerging technique single-cell RNA sequencing dominates a breakthrough in decoding the cell heterogeneity, phenotype transition, and developmental dynamics in cardiovascular science.

Conclusion: Herein, we review recent advances in single cellular studies of cardiovascular system and summarize new insights provided by single-cell RNA sequencing in heart developmental sciences, stem-cell researches as well as normal or disease-related working mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389202921999200604123914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770632PMC
December 2020
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