Publications by authors named "Fiorella Alfinito"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical heterogeneity and predictors of outcome in primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a GIMEMA study of 308 patients.

Blood 2014 Nov 16;124(19):2930-6. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Unità Operativa Oncoematologia, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy;

The clinical outcome, response to treatment, and occurrence of acute complications were retrospectively investigated in 308 primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) cases and correlated with serological characteristics and severity of anemia at onset. Patients had been followed up for a median of 33 months (range 12-372); 60% were warm AIHA, 27% cold hemagglutinin disease, 8% mixed, and 5% atypical (mostly direct antiglobulin test negative). The latter 2 categories more frequently showed a severe onset (hemoglobin [Hb] levels ≤6 g/dL) along with reticulocytopenia. The majority of warm AIHA patients received first-line steroid therapy only, whereas patients with mixed and atypical forms were more frequently treated with 2 or more therapy lines, including splenectomy, immunosuppressants, and rituximab. The cumulative incidence of relapse was increased in more severe cases (hazard ratio 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.57 for Hb ≤6 g/dL; P < .001). Thrombotic events were associated with Hb levels ≤6 g/dL at onset, intravascular hemolysis, and previous splenectomy. Predictors of a fatal outcome were severe infections, particularly in splenectomized cases, acute renal failure, Evans syndrome, and multitreatment (4 or more lines). The identification of severe and potentially fatal AIHA in a largely heterogeneous disease requires particular experienced attention by clinicians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-06-583021DOI Listing
November 2014

Surgery-induced remission of extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases.

J Crohns Colitis 2013 Nov 19;7(10):e504-5. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Gastroenterology - Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery - University "Federico II" of Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2013.05.009DOI Listing
November 2013

Natural killer expansion, human leukocyte antigens-E expression and CD14(+) CD56(+) monocytes in a myelodysplastic syndrome patient.

Eur J Haematol 2013 Sep 28;91(3):265-9. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy; Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and possible evolution to acute leukemia. Occurrence of stem cell defects and of immune-mediated mechanisms was evidenced as relevant for pathophysiology of MDS. Here, we described one case of MDS patient carrying CD14(+) CD56(+) monocytes in bone marrow (BM), in the presence of a defective human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E expression on peripheral blood (PB) cells and of natural killer (NK) cell expansion in PB and BM. The defective HLA-E expression and the NK expansion are proposed to be relevant for the pathogenesis of myelodysplasia in those patients showing CD14(+) CD56(+) monocytes in BM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12152DOI Listing
September 2013

HLA-E and HLA class I molecules on bone marrow and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells of myelodysplatic patients.

Leuk Res 2013 Feb 3;37(2):169-74. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.

Relevance of immune-dysregulation for emergence, dominance and progression of dysplastic clones in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was suggested, but valuable or predictive criteria on this involvement are lacking. We previously reported that reduced T-regulatory cells (Treg) and high CD54 expression on T cell identify a sub-group of patients in whom an immune-pathogenesis might be inferred. Here, we suggest the occurrence of immune-selection of dysplastic clones in a subgroup of MDS patients, with reduced HLA-I and HLA-E on PMN, and propose that an altered immune profile might represent a valuable criterion to classify Low/Int-1 patients on the basis of immune-pathogenesis of MDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2012.09.015DOI Listing
February 2013

Eculizumab treatment modifies the immune profile of PNH patients.

Immunobiology 2012 Jul 3;217(7):698-703. Epub 2011 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Technologies, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is due to pathological expansion of a stem progenitor bearing a somatic mutation of PIG-A gene involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Numerous data suggest a role for immune-mediated mechanisms in the selection/expansion of GPI-defective clone. Haemolytic anaemia in PNH is dependent on the effect of complement against GPI-defective red cells. Eculizumab, an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, is dramatically effective in controlling haemolysis and thrombosis, in reducing fatigue and in improving quality of life of patients. However, this therapy presents new challenges that need to be properly faced. Here, we report the decrease in B, Natural Killer (NK) and regulatory T cells (Treg), an altered cytokine profile of invariant-NKT cells (NKTi) and the increasing of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) receptor in PNH patients before the Eculizumab therapy. Treatment significantly affects some of these alterations: after Eculizumab, the number of B lymphocytes, the cytokine secretion of NKTi and CXCR4 expression on CD8 T cells became similar to healthy donors. No effects were observed on NK and Treg. The amplitude of the GPI-defective compartment remained unchanged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2011.11.009DOI Listing
July 2012

Immune dysregulation and dyserythropoiesis in the myelodysplastic syndromes.

Br J Haematol 2010 Jan 29;148(1):90-8. Epub 2009 Sep 29.

Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis with high risk of leukaemia progression. The relevance of immune-dysregulation for emergence, dominance and progression of dysplastic clones has been suggested, but valuable criteria to obtain insight into these connections are lacking. This study showed significant increase of CD8 lymphocytes and mature B cells in the bone marrow (BM) compared to peripheral blood (PB) of low risk MDS patients. Different BM levels of Regulatory T cells (Treg) identified two sub-groups in these patients; only the sub-group with lower Treg percentage showed BM recruitment of CD8 lymphocytes. Different levels of CD54 on BM CD8 cells revealed two sub-groups of Intermediate-1 (Int-1) patients. The sub-group with higher CD54 expression on BM CD8 showed high levels of this molecule also on CD4 cells. BM recruitment of CD8 lymphocytes in the low risk group and/or the presence of high CD54 expression on BM CD8 in Int-1 patients were associated with more pronounced dyserythropoiesis and erythropoietin treatment. Our data shed light on the involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms in Low and Int-1 risk MDS patients and suggest that BM versus PB levels of immune effectors could represent useful criteria for a more homogeneous grouping of MDS patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07921.xDOI Listing
January 2010

Complement fraction 3 binding on erythrocytes as additional mechanism of disease in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients treated by eculizumab.

Blood 2009 Apr 29;113(17):4094-100. Epub 2009 Jan 29.

Hematology, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) hemolytic anemia is due mainly to deficiency of the complement regulator CD59 on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Eculizumab, an antibody that targets complement fraction 5 (C5), has proven highly effective in abolishing complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis in PNH; however, the hematologic benefit varies considerably among patients. In the aim to understand the basis for this variable response, we have investigated by flow cytometry the binding of complement fraction 3 (C3) on RBCs from PNH patients before and during eculizumab treatment. There was no evidence of C3 on RBCs of untreated PNH patients; by contrast, in all patients on eculizumab (n = 41) a substantial fraction of RBCs had C3 bound on their surface, and this was entirely restricted to RBCs with the PNH phenotype (CD59(-)). The proportion of C3(+) RBCs correlated significantly with the reticulocyte count and with the hematologic response to eculizumab. In 3 patients in whom (51)Cr labeling of RBCs was carried out while on eculizumab, we have demonstrated reduced RBC half-life in vivo, with excess (51)Cr uptake in spleen and in liver. Binding of C3 by PNH RBCs may constitute an additional disease mechanism in PNH, strongly enhanced by eculizumab treatment and producing a variable degree of extravascular hemolysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-11-189944DOI Listing
April 2009

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: significant association with specific HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR alleles in an Italian population.

Hum Immunol 2008 Mar 10;69(3):202-6. Epub 2008 Mar 10.

Dipartimento di Oncologia Sperimentale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori di Napoli, Napoli, Italy.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by the expansion of a PIG-A mutated hematopoietic stem cell. An immune-mediated origin has been suggested for this disease. Because HLA genes represent a susceptibility factor for autoimmunity, we investigated HLA genotype in 42 Italian PNH patients compared with 301 control subjects of the same ethnic origin. A significantly increased frequency of the HLA class I alleles A*0201 (p < 0.05), B*1402 (p < 0.001), and Cw*0802 (p < 0.005), and of the HLA class II DRB1*1501 (p < 0.01) with the linked DQB1*0602 (p
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2008.02.001DOI Listing
March 2008

Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-defective granulocytes from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria patients show increased bacterial ingestion but reduced respiratory burst induction.

Am J Hematol 2007 Feb;82(2):98-107

Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by the emergence of a GPI-defective clonal hematopoiesis. Its clinical features are hemolytic anemia, cytopenia, and thrombosis. Circulating monocytes and granulocytes are largely GPI-defective in PNH patients. This study aims to investigate the granulocyte functional properties in PNH. We analyzed bacterial-dependent intracellular ingestion and the consequent activation of oxidative burst in GPI-defective granulocytes from four neutropenic PNH patients. Our data show a significant increase in the ability of GPI-defective granulocytes to ingest opsonized bacteria. In addition, an impaired respiratory burst effectiveness in response to two independent bacterial stimuli, the N-formyl-MetLeuPhe (fMLP) synthetic bacterial peptide and E. coli, was revealed. The occurrence of neutropenia and the severe impairment of oxidative burst, occurring in chronic granulomatosis disease, were unable to significantly affect phagocytosis. Thus, additional mechanisms, able to differentially affect ingestion ability and respiratory burst effectiveness, have to be hypothesized. The reduced burst effectiveness of GPI-defective granulocytes was maintained after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a pharmacological stimulus able to extensively recruit and to trigger intracellular protein kinase C (PKC). Moreover, blocking of PKC has been observed to severely affect granulocyte respiratory burst with a mild effect on the phagocytosis. These data suggest a role for a modulation of intracellular PKC in the pathogenesis of the impaired granulocyte oxidative burst.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20779DOI Listing
February 2007

T cells from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) patients show an altered CD40-dependent pathway.

J Leukoc Biol 2005 Jul 7;78(1):27-36. Epub 2005 Apr 7.

Cattedra de Immunologia, Dipartimento de Biologia e Pathologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Naples, Italy.

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a haematopoiesis disorder characterized by the expansion of a stem cell bearing a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan-A (PIG-A) gene, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. A number of data suggest the inability of the PIG-A mutation to account alone for the clonal dominance of the GPI-defective clone and for the development of PNH. In this context, additional immune-mediated mechanisms have been hypothesized. We focused on the analysis of T lymphocytes in three PNH patients bearing a mixed GPI(+) and GPI(-) T cell population and showing a marked cytopenia. To analyze the biological mechanisms underlying the control of T cell homeostasis in PNH, we addressed the study of CD40-dependent pathways, suggested to be of crucial relevance for the control of autoreactive T cell clones. Our data revealed significant, functional alterations in GPI(+) and GPI(-) T cell compartments. In the GPI(-) T cells, severe defects in T cell receptor-dependent proliferation, interferon-gamma production, CD25, CD54, and human leukocyte antigen-DR surface expression were observed. By contrast, GPI(+) T lymphocytes showed a significant increase of all these parameters, and the analysis of CD40-dependent pathways revealed a functional persistence of CD154 expression on the CD48(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes. The alterations of the GPI(+) T cell subset could be involved in the biological mechanisms underlying PNH pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0105026DOI Listing
July 2005

GPI-defective monocytes from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients show impaired in vitro dendritic cell differentiation.

J Leukoc Biol 2004 Sep 14;76(3):634-40. Epub 2004 Jun 14.

Cattera di Immunologia, Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Universitá Frederico II, Naples, Italy.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal, acquired hematopoietic disorder characterized by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) glycan-A gene mutation, which impairs the synthesis of the glycosyl-PI (GPI) anchor, thus causing the absence of all GPI-linked proteins on the membrane of the clonal-defective cells. The presence of a consistent GPI-defective monocyte compartment is a common feature in PNH patients. To investigate the functional behavior of this population, we analyzed its in vitro differentiation ability toward functional dendritic cells (DCs). Our data indicate that GPI-defective monocytes from PNH patients are unable to undergo full DC differentiation in vitro after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and recombinant interleukin (IL)-4 treatment. In this context, the GPI-defective DC population shows mannose receptor expression, high levels of the CD86 molecule, and impaired CD1a up-regulation. The analysis of lipopolysaccharide and CD40-dependent, functional pathways in these DCs revealed a strong decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-12 production. Finally, GPI-defective DCs showed a severe impairment in delivering accessory signals for T cell receptor-dependent T cell proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1203607DOI Listing
September 2004

Molecular characterization of six unrelated Italian patients affected by pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency.

Br J Haematol 2003 Sep;122(5):847-51

Division of Hematology, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy.

Pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by haemolytic anaemia, marked basophilic stippling and accumulation of pyrimidine nucleotides within the erythrocytes. The gene encoding for this enzyme (P5'N-1) has been cloned recently, and seven mutations have so far been identified in 11 unrelated families. We describe the haematological and molecular characteristics of six unrelated Italian patients affected by pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency (one from northern and five from southern Italy). The sequence of the complete P5'N-1 gene showed the presence of four different new mutations: a missense mutation AAT-AGT at codon 190 (Asn-Ser), one splicing mutation (IVS9-1 g-c) and two frameshift mutations, DelG576 and InsGG743. Although the molecular defect was homozygous in all patients but one, parents' consanguinity could be confirmed in only one case. InsGG743 was detected in two cases, and DelG576 was found in three patients originating from southern Italy, suggesting a possible geographical distribution of the genetic defect. Haematological data showed the presence of peripheral spherocytosis in all cases, although only one had a concomitant membrane defect. An increase in serum ferritin levels was observed in the splenectomized patients, suggesting that the iron status of these subjects should be monitored and that they should be investigated for potential additional risk factors for iron accumulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04532.xDOI Listing
September 2003

Protein methylation as a marker of aspartate damage in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes: role of oxidative stress.

Eur J Biochem 2002 Apr;269(8):2032-9

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy.

The 'Mediterranean' variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is due to the C563CT point mutation, leading to replacement of Ser with Phe at position 188, resulting in acute haemolysis triggered by oxidants. Previous work has shown increased formation of altered aspartate residues in membrane proteins during cell ageing and in response to oxidative stress in normal erythrocytes. These abnormal residues are specifically recognized by the repair enzyme L-isoaspartate (d-aspartate) protein O-methyltransferase (PCMT; EC 2.1.1.77). The aim of this work was to study the possible involvement of protein aspartate damage in the mechanism linking the G6PD defect and erythrocyte injury, through oxidative stress. Patients affected by G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant) were selected. In situ methylation assays were performed by incubating intact erythrocytes in the presence of methyl-labelled methionine. Altered aspartate residues were detected in membrane proteins by methyl ester quantification. We present here evidence that, in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes, damaged residues are significantly increased in membrane proteins, in parallel with the decay of pyruvate kinase activity, used as a cell age marker. Erythrocytes from patients were subjected to oxidative stress in vitro, by treatment with t-butylhydroperoxide, monitored by a rise in concentration of both methaemoglobin and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. L-Isoaspartate residues increased dramatically in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes in response to such treatment, compared with baseline conditions. The increased susceptibility of G6PD-deficient erythrocytes to membrane protein aspartate damage in response to oxidative stress suggests the involvement of protein deamidation/isomerization in the mechanisms of cell injury and haemolysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02838.xDOI Listing
April 2002