Publications by authors named "Fiona Lalloo"

114 Publications

SDHC phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma: A UK-wide case series.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Objective: Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare, but strongly heritable tumours. Variants in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits are identified in approximately 25% of cases. However, clinical and genetic information of patients with SDHC variants are underreported.

Design: This retrospective case series collated data from 18 UK Genetics and Endocrinology departments.

Patients: Both asymptomatic and disease-affected patients with confirmed SDHC germline variants are included.

Measurements: Clinical data including tumour type and location, surveillance outcomes and interventions, SDHC genetic variant assessment, interpretation, and tumour risk calculation.

Results: We report 91 SDHC cases, 46 probands and 45 non-probands. Fifty-one cases were disease-affected. Median age at genetic diagnosis was 43 years (range: 11-79). Twenty-four SDHC germline variants were identified including six novel variants. Head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL, n = 30, 65.2%), extra-adrenal paraganglioma (EAPGL, n = 13, 28.2%) and phaeochromocytomas (PCC) (n = 3, 6.5%) were present. One case had multiple PPGLs. Malignant disease was reported in 19.6% (9/46). Eight cases had non-PPGL SDHC-associated tumours, six gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) and two renal cell cancers (RCC). Cumulative tumour risk (95% CI) at age 60 years was 0.94 (CI: 0.79-0.99) in probands, and 0.16 (CI: 0-0.31) in non-probands, respectively.

Conclusions: This study describes the largest cohort of 91 SDHC patients worldwide. We confirm disease-affected SDHC variant cases develop isolated HNPGL disease in nearly 2/3 of patients, EAPGL and PCC in 1/3, with an increased risk of GIST and RCC. One fifth developed malignant disease, requiring comprehensive lifelong tumour screening and surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14594DOI Listing
September 2021

Uptake of bilateral-risk-reducing-mastectomy: Prospective analysis of 7195 women at high-risk of breast cancer.

Breast 2021 Aug 26;60:45-52. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Prevent Breast Cancer Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital Manchester Universities Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK; Manchester Breast Centre, Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester Oglesby Cancer Research Building (formerly MCRC), The Christie NHS Foundation Trust 555 Wilmslow Road, M20 4GJ, UK.

Background: Bilateral-Risk-Reducing-Mastectomy-(BRRM) is well described in BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers. However, little is known about the relative uptake, time trends or factors influencing uptake in those at increased breast cancer risk not known to be carriers. The aim of this study is to assess these factors in both groups.

Methods: BRRM uptake was assessed from entry to the Manchester Family History Clinic or from date of personal BRCA1/2 test. Follow up was censored at BRRM, breast cancer diagnosis, death or January 01, 2020. Cumulative incidence and cause specific and competing risk regression analyses were used to assess the significance of factors associated with BRRM.

Results: Of 7195 women at ≥25% lifetime breast cancer risk followed for up to 32 years, 451 (6.2%) underwent pre-symptomatic BRRM. Of those eligible in different risk groups the 20-year uptake of BRRM was 47.7%-(95%CI = 42.4-53.2%) in 479 BRCA1/2 carriers; 9.0% (95%CI = 7.26-11.24%) in 1261 women at ≥40% lifetime risk (non-BRCA), 4.8%-(95%CI = 3.98-5.73%) in 3561 women at 30-39% risk and 2.9%-(95%CI = 2.09-4.09%) in 1783 women at 25-29% lifetime risk. In cause-specific Cox regression analysis death of a sister with breast cancer<50 (OR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.7-3.4), mother<60 (OR = 1.9; 95%CI = 1.5-2.3), having children (OR = 1.4; 95%CI = 1.1-1.8), breast biopsy (OR = 1.4; 95%CI = 1.0-1.8) were all independently associated with BRRM uptake, while being older at assessment was less likely to be associated with BRRM (>50; OR = 0.26,95%CI = 0.17-0.41). Uptake continued to rise to 20 years from initial risk assessment.

Conclusion: We have identified several additional factors that correlate with BRRM uptake and demonstrate continued increases over time. These factors will help to tailor counselling and support for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406355PMC
August 2021

Gene Panel Testing for Breast Cancer Reveals Differential Effect of Prior Probability.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

NW Genomic Laboratory Hub, Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Whilst panel testing of an extended group of genes including is commonplace, these studies have not been subdivided by histiotype or by a priori probability. Patients with a breast cancer diagnosis undergoing extended panel testing were assessed for frequency of actionable variants in breast cancer genes other than by histiotype and Manchester score (MS) to reflect a priori likelihood. Rates were adjusted by prior testing for in an extended series. 95/1398 (6.3%) who underwent panel testing were found to be positive for actionable non- breast/ovarian cancer genes (, , , , , , , , ). As expected, , and were predominant with 80-(5.3%). The highest rate occurred in Grade-3 ER+/HER2- breast cancers-(9.6%). Rates of non-BRCA actionable genes was fairly constant over all likelihoods of but adjusted rates were three times higher with MS < 9 ( = 1.5%, other = 4.7%), but was only 1.6% compared to 79.3% with MS ≥ 40. Although rates of detection of non-BRCA actionable genes are relatively constant across likelihoods this disguises an overall adjusted low frequency in high-likelihood families which have been heavily pre-tested for . Any loss of detection sensitivity for actionable variants in breast cancer panels should lead to bespoke testing being conducted first.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394249PMC
August 2021

Breast cancer incidence and early diagnosis in a family history risk and prevention clinic: 33-year experience in 14,311 women.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nightingale/Prevent Breast Cancer Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.

Purpose: Women at increased familial breast cancer risk have been offered screening starting at an earlier age and increased frequency than national Screening Programmes for over 30 years. There are limited data on longer-term largescale implementation of this approach on cancer diagnosis.

Methods: Women at our institution at ≥ 17% lifetime breast cancer risk have been offered enhanced screening with annual mammography starting at age 35 or 5-years younger than youngest affected relative, with upper age limit 50 for moderate and 60 for high-risk. Breast cancer pathology, stage and receptor status were assessed as well as survival from cancer diagnosis by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: Overall 14,311 women were seen and assessed for breast cancer risk, with 649 breast cancers occurring in 129,119 years follow up (post-prevalent annual incidence = 4.55/1000). Of 323/394 invasive breast cancers occurring whilst on enhanced screening, most were lymph-node negative (72.9%), T1 (≤ 20 mm, 73.2%) and stage-1 (61.4%), 126/394 stage2-4 (32%). 10-year breast cancer specific survival was 91.3% (95% CI 87.4-94.0) better than the 75.9% (95% CI 74.9-77.0) published for England in 2013-2017. As expected, survival was significantly better for women with screen detected cancers (p < 0.001). Ten-year survival was particularly good for those diagnosed ≤ 40 at 93.8% (n = 75; 95% CI 84.2-97.6). Women with lobular breast cancers had worse 10-year survival at 85.9% (95% CI 66.7-94.5). Breast cancer specific survival was good for 119 BRCA1/2 carriers with 20-year survival in BRCA1:91.2% (95% CI 77.8-96.6) and 83.8% (62.6-93.5) for BRCA2.

Conclusions: Targeted breast screening in women aged 30-60 years at increased familial risk is associated with good long-term survival that is substantially better than expected from population data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06333-1DOI Listing
July 2021

No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in and : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 28;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Medical Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown.

Objective: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the and genes.

Methods: Carriers of pathogenic variants of () and () genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity.

Results: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately.

Conclusion: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269121PMC
June 2021

Surveillance recommendations for DICER1 pathogenic variant carriers: a report from the SIOPE Host Genome Working Group and CanGene-CanVar Clinical Guideline Working Group.

Fam Cancer 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

DICER1 syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that predisposes to a wide spectrum of tumors. Developing surveillance protocols for this syndrome is challenging because uncertainty exists about the clinical efficacy of surveillance, and appraisal of potential benefits and harms vary. In addition, there is increasing evidence that germline DICER1 pathogenic variants are associated with lower penetrance for cancer than previously assumed. To address these issues and to harmonize DICER1 syndrome surveillance programs within Europe, the Host Genome Working Group of the European branch of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOPE HGWG) and Clinical Guideline Working Group of the CanGene-CanVar project in the United Kingdom reviewed current surveillance strategies and evaluated additional relevant literature. Consensus was achieved for a new surveillance protocol and information leaflet that informs patients about potential symptoms of DICER1-associated tumors. The surveillance protocol comprises a minimum program and an extended version for consideration. The key recommendations of the minimum program are: annual clinical examination from birth to age 20 years, six-monthly chest X-ray and renal ultrasound from birth to age 6 years, and thyroid ultrasound every 3 years from age 8 to age 40 years. The surveillance program for consideration comprises additional surveillance procedures, and recommendations for DICER1 pathogenic variant carriers outside the ages of the surveillance interval. Patients have to be supported in choosing the surveillance program that best meets their needs. Prospective evaluation of the efficacy and patient perspectives of proposed surveillance recommendations is required to expand the evidence base for DICER1 surveillance protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-021-00264-yDOI Listing
June 2021

The Impact of Gallium DOTA PET/CT in Managing Patients With Sporadic and Familial Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 7;12:654975. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Barts and the London HPB Centre, Royal London Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (panNETs) arise sporadically or as part of a genetic predisposition syndrome. CT/MRI, endoscopic ultrasonography and functional imaging using Octreoscan localise and stage disease. This study aimed to evaluate the complementary role of Gallium (Ga)-DOTA PET/CT in managing patients with panNETs.

Design: A retrospective study conducted across three tertiary UK NET referral centres.

Methods: Demographic, clinical, biochemical, cross-sectional and functional imaging data were collected from patients who had undergone a Ga-DOTA PET/CT scan for a suspected panNET.

Results: We collected data for 183 patients (97 male): median (SD) age 63 (14.9) years, 89.1 9.3% (n=163 vs. 17) alive dead (3 data missing), 141 sporadic 42 familial (MEN1, n=36; 85.7%) panNETs. Non-functional functional tumours comprised 73.2 21.3% (n=134 39) (10 missing). Histological confirmation was available in 89% of individuals (n=163) but tumour grading (Ki67 classiifcation) was technically possible only in a smaller cohort (n=143): grade 1, 50.3% (n=72); grade 2, 46.2% (n=66) and grade 3, 3.5% (n=5) (40 histopathological classification either not technically feasible or biopsy not perfomed). 60.1% (n=110) were localised, 14.2% (n=26) locally advanced and 23.5% (n=43) metastatic (4 missing). 224 Ga-DOTA PET/CT scans were performed in total for: diagnosis/staging 40% (n=88), post-operative assessment/clinical surveillance 53% (n=117) and consideration of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) 8% (n=17) (2 missing). PET/CT results confirmed other imaging findings (53%), identified new disease sites (28.5%) and excluded suspected disease (5%). Overall, Ga-DOTA PET/CT imaging findings provided additional information in 119 (54%) patients and influenced management in 85 (39%) cases.

Conclusion: Ga-DOTA PET/CT imaging more accurately stages and guides treatment in patients with sporadic/familial panNETs with newly diagnosed/recurrent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.654975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215358PMC
June 2021

Clinical utility of testing for PALB2 and CHEK2 c.1100delC in breast and ovarian cancer.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Purpose: To investigate the contribution of PALB2 pathogenic gene variants (PGVs, PALB2_PGV) and the CHEK2 c.1100delC (CHEK2_1100delC) PGV to familial breast and ovarian cancer, and PALB2_PGV associated breast cancer pathology.

Methods: Outcomes of germline PALB2_PGV and CHEK2_1100delC testing were recorded in 3,127 women with histologically confirmed diagnoses of invasive breast cancer, carcinoma in situ, or epithelial nonmucinous ovarian cancer, and 1,567 female controls. Breast cancer pathology was recorded in PALB2_PGV cases from extended families.

Results: Thirty-five PALB2 and 44 CHEK2_1100delC PGVs were detected in patients (odds ratio [OR] PALB2 breast-ovarian = 5.90 [95% CI: 1.92-18.36], CHEK2 breast-ovarian = 4.46 [95% CI: 1.86-10.46], PALB2 breast = 6.16 [95% CI: 1.98-19.21], CHEK2 breast = 4.89 [95% CI: 2.01-11.34]). Grade 3 ER-positive HER2-negative, grade 3 and triple negative (TN) tumors were enriched in cases with PALB2 PGVs compared with all breast cancers known to our service (respectively: 15/43, 254/1,843, P = 0.0005; 28/37, 562/1,381, P = 0.0001; 12/43, 204/1,639, P < 0.0001). PALB2_PGV likelihood increased with increasing Manchester score (MS) (MS < 15 = 17/1,763, MS 20-39 = 11/520, P = 0.04) but not for CHEK2_1100delC (MS < 15 = 29/1,762, MS 20-39 = 4/520). PALB2 PGVs showed perfect segregation in 20/20 first-degree relatives with breast cancer, compared with 7/13 for CHEK2_1100delC (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: PALB2 PGVs and CHEK2_1100delC together account for ~2.5% of familial breast/ovarian cancer risk. PALB2 PGVs are associated with grade 3, TN, and grade 3 ER-positive HER2-negative breast tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01234-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Extended gene panel testing in lobular breast cancer.

Fam Cancer 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Purpose: Lobular breast cancer (LBC) accounts for ~ 15% of breast cancer. Here, we studied the frequency of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in an extended panel of genes in women affected with LBC.

Methods: 302 women with LBC and 1567 without breast cancer were tested for BRCA1/2 PGVs. A subset of 134 LBC affected women who tested negative for BRCA1/2 PGVs underwent extended screening, including: ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51D, and TP53.

Results: 35 PGVs were identified in the group with LBC, of which 22 were in BRCA1/2. Ten actionable PGVs were identified in additional genes (ATM(4), CDH1(1), CHEK2(1), PALB2(2) and TP53(2)). Overall, PGVs in three genes conferred a significant increased risk for LBC. Odds ratios (ORs) were: BRCA1: OR = 13.17 (95%CI 2.83-66.38; P = 0.0017), BRCA2: OR = 10.33 (95%CI 4.58-23.95; P < 0.0001); and ATM: OR = 8.01 (95%CI 2.52-29.92; P = 0.0053). We did not detect an increased risk of LBC for PALB2, CDH1 or CHEK2.

Conclusion: The overall PGV detection rate was 11.59%, with similar rates of BRCA1/2 (7.28%) PGVs as for other actionable PGVs (7.46%), indicating a benefit for extended panel genetic testing in LBC. We also report a previously unrecognised association of pathogenic variants in ATM with LBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-021-00241-5DOI Listing
March 2021

High likelihood of actionable pathogenic variant detection in breast cancer genes in women with very early onset breast cancer.

J Med Genet 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

Background: While the likelihood of identifying constitutional breast cancer-associated , and pathogenic variants (PVs) increases with earlier diagnosis age, little is known about the correlation with age at diagnosis in other predisposition genes. Here, we assessed the contribution of known breast cancer-associated genes to very early onset disease.

Methods: Sequencing of , and c.1100delC was undertaken in women with breast cancer diagnosed ≤30 years. Those testing negative were screened for PVs in a minimum of eight additional breast cancer-associated genes. Rates of PVs were compared with cases ≤30 years from the Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic vs Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study.

Results: Testing 379 women with breast cancer aged ≤30 years identified 75 PVs (19.7%) in , 35 (9.2%) in , 22 (5.8%) in and 2 (0.5%) c.1100delC. Extended screening of 184 PV negative women only identified eight additional actionable PVs. PVs were more common in women aged 26-30 years than in younger women (p=0.0083) although the younger age group had rates more similar to those in the POSH cohort. Out of 26 women with ductal carcinoma (DCIS) alone, most were high-grade and 11/26 (42.3%) had a PV (=6, =2, =2, =1). This PV yield is similar to the 61 (48.8%) PVs identified in 125 women with triple-negative breast cancer. The POSH cohort specifically excluded pure DCIS which may explain lower PV rates in this group (1.7%).

Conclusion: The rates of , and PVs are high in very early onset breast cancer, with limited benefit from testing of additional breast cancer-associated genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107347DOI Listing
March 2021

Uptake of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 17;148:124-133. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; MGZ- Medical Genetics Center, Munich, Germany; The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT), The Polyposis Registry, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, UK; European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG), C/o Lindsays, Caledonian Exchange, 19A Canning Street, Edinburgh, EH3 8HE, United Kingdom.

Purpose: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years.

Results: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery.

Conclusion: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Germline FFPE inherited cancer panel testing in deceased family members: implications for clinical management of unaffected relatives.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 May 2;29(5):861-871. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Clinical Genetics Service, Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Where previously, germline genetic testing in deceased affected relatives was not possible due to the absence of lymphocytic DNA, the North-West-Genomic-Laboratory Hub (NWGLH) has developed and validated next-generation sequencing based gene panels utilising formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue DNA from deceased individuals. This technology has been utilised in the clinical setting for the management of unaffected relatives seen in the Clinical Genetics Service (CGS). Here we assess the clinical impact. At the time of data collection, the NWGLH had analysed 180 FFPE tissue samples from deceased affected individuals: 134 from breast and/or ovarian cancer cases for germline variants in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and 46 from colorectal, gastric, ovarian and endometrial cancer cases for germline variants in a panel of 13 genes implicated in inherited colorectal cancer and gastric cancer conditions. Successful analysis was achieved in 140/180 cases (78%). In total, 29 germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in autosomal dominant cancer predisposition genes where the gene was pertinent to the cancer family history (including BRCA1/BRCA2, the mismatch-repair genes and APC). Of the 180 cases, the impact of the result on clinical management of unaffected relatives was known in 143 cases. Of these, the results in 54 cases (38%) directly impacted the clinical management of relatives seen by the CGS. This included changes to risk assessments, screening recommendations and the availability of predictive genetic testing to unaffected relatives. Our data demonstrate how FFPE testing in deceased relatives is an accurate and informative tool in the clinical management of patients referred to the CGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00817-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110779PMC
May 2021

Uptake and efficacy of bilateral risk reducing surgery in unaffected female and carriers.

J Med Genet 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

Background: Women testing positive for pathogenic variants have high lifetime risks of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer. The effectiveness of risk reducing surgery (RRS) has been demonstrated in numerous previous studies. We evaluated long-term uptake, timing and effectiveness of risk reducing mastectomy (RRM) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in healthy carriers.

Methods: Women were prospectively followed up from positive genetic test (GT) result to censor date. χ² testing compared categorical variables; Cox regression model estimated HRs and 95% CI for BC/ovarian cancer cases associated with RRS, and impact on all-cause mortality; Kaplan-Meier curves estimated cumulative RRS uptake. The annual cancer incidence was estimated by women-years at risk.

Results: In total, 887 women were included in this analysis. Mean follow-up was 6.26 years (range=0.01-24.3; total=4685.4 women-years). RRS was performed in 512 women, 73 before GT. Overall RRM uptake was 57.9% and RRSO uptake was 78.6%. The median time from GT to RRM was 18.4 months, and from GT to RRSO-10.0 months. Annual BC incidence in the study population was 1.28%. Relative BC risk reduction (RRM versus non-RRM) was 94%. Risk reduction of ovarian cancer (RRSO versus non-RRSO) was 100%.

Conclusion: Over a 24-year period, we observed an increasing number of women opting for RRS. We showed that the timing of RRS remains suboptimal, especially in women undergoing RRSO. Both RRM and RRSO showed a significant effect on relevant cancer risk reduction. However, there was no statistically significant RRSO protective effect on BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107356DOI Listing
February 2021

Advances in genetic technologies result in improved diagnosis of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal and endometrial cancers.

J Med Genet 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Division of Cancer Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

Background: Testing cancers for mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a quick and inexpensive means of triaging individuals for germline Lynch syndrome testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumour dMMR and the prevalence of Lynch syndrome in patients referred to the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, which serves a population of 5.6 million.

Methods: Tumour testing used IHC for MMR proteins with targeted and promotor methylation testing followed by germline mutation and somatic testing as appropriate.

Results: In total, 3694 index tumours were tested by IHC (2204 colorectal cancers (CRCs), 739 endometrial cancers (ECs) and 761 other), of which 672/3694 (18.2%) had protein loss, including 348 (9.4%) with MLH1 loss. MLH1 loss was significantly higher for 739 ECs (15%) vs 2204 CRCs (10%) (p=0.0003) and was explained entirely by higher rates of somatic promoter hypermethylation (87% vs 41%, p<0.0001). Overall, 65/134 (48.5%) patients with MLH1 loss and no hypermethylation or c.1799T>A had constitutional pathogenic variants. Of 456 patients with tumours showing loss of MSH2/MSH6, 216 (47.3%) had germline pathogenic variants in either gene. Isolated PMS2 loss was most suggestive of a germline MMR variant in 19/26 (73%). Of those with no germline pathogenic variant, somatic testing identified likely causal variants in 34/48 (71%) with MLH1 loss and in in 40/47 (85%) with MSH2/MSH6 loss.

Conclusions: Reflex testing of EC/CRC leads to uncertain diagnoses in many individuals with dMMR following IHC but without germline pathogenic variants or hypermethylation. Tumour mutation testing is effective at decreasing this by identifying somatic dMMR in >75% of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107542DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-Term Evaluation of Women Referred to a Breast Cancer Family History Clinic (Manchester UK 1987-2020).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 9;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Nightingale Breast Screening Centre & Prevent Breast Cancer Unit Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M23 9LT, UK.

Clinics for women concerned about their family history of breast cancer are widely established. A Family History Clinic was set-up in Manchester, UK, in 1987 in a Breast Unit serving a population of 1.8 million. In this review, we report the outcome of risk assessment, screening and prevention strategies in the clinic and propose future approaches. Between 1987-2020, 14,311 women were referred, of whom 6.4% were from known gene families, 38.2% were at high risk (≥30% lifetime risk), 37.7% at moderate risk (17-29%), and 17.7% at an average/population risk who were discharged. A total of 4168 (29.1%) women were eligible for genetic testing and 736 carried pathogenic variants, predominantly in and but also other genes (5.1% of direct referrals). All women at high or moderate risk were offered annual mammographic screening between ages 30 and 40 years old: 646 cancers were detected in women at high and moderate risk (5.5%) with a detection rate of 5 per 1000 screens. Incident breast cancers were largely of good prognosis and resulted in a predicted survival advantage. All high/moderate-risk women were offered lifestyle prevention advice and 14-27% entered various lifestyle studies. From 1992-2003, women were offered entry into IBIS-I (tamoxifen) and IBIS-II (anastrozole) trials (12.5% of invitees joined). The NICE guidelines ratified the use of tamoxifen and raloxifene (2013) and subsequently anastrozole (2017) for prevention; 10.8% women took up the offer of such treatment between 2013-2020. Since 1994, 7164 eligible women at ≥25% lifetime risk of breast cancer were offered a discussion of risk-reducing breast surgery and 451 (6.2%) had surgery. New approaches in all aspects of the service are needed to build on these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763143PMC
December 2020

Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in female heterozygotes of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Genet Med 2021 04 1;23(4):705-712. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026395PMC
April 2021

Specialist oncological surgery for removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers may reduce primary peritoneal cancer risk to very low levels.

Int J Cancer 2021 03 11;148(5):1155-1163. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) is highly effective for the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers (PVCs), but does not completely eliminate future risk of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). The requirement to completely remove fallopian tubes at RRBSO and carefully exclude occult cancer/serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions may not have been appreciated historically. We calculated rates of HGSOC and PPC in confirmed BRCA1/2 PVCs registered on the regional database in those who did (cases) and did not (controls) undergo RRBSO after genetic testing. Expected annual rates of ovarian/peritoneal cancer were 1% for BRCA1 ≥ 35 years and 0.5% for BRCA2 ≥ 45 years. Follow-up before 35/45 years was "risk free" and lead time excluded RRBSO <35 years and <45 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Women were followed from personal mutation report (controls) or RRBSO (cases) to death, ovarian/peritoneal cancer or last follow-up, whichever was sooner. In total, 891 cases (BRCA1 = 468, BRCA2 = 423) and 1302 controls had follow-up ≥35 years (BRCA1 = 736) and ≥45 years (BRCA2 = 566), respectively, over a total of 7261.1 risk eligible years (mean = 8.15 years). Twenty-one occult ovarian cancers were found at RRBSO (2.4%), 16 at stage 1. Post RRBSO, 56.97 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected but only 3 were observed (HR = 0.053; 95% CI = 0.013-0.14), with combined Kaplan-Meier analysis HR = 0.029 (95% CI = 0.009-0.100, P < .001). Risk reduction was greater in specialist (HR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.001-0.13) compared to non-specialist centres (HR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02-0.37) (P = .07). In controls, 23.35 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected with 32 observed (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.95-1.91). RRBSO <35/<45 years reduces the risk of ovarian/peritoneal cancer by 95% in BRCA1/2 PVCs and may be greater in specialist centres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839461PMC
March 2021

Assessment of mismatch repair deficiency in ovarian cancer.

J Med Genet 2021 Oct 11;58(10):687-691. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Medicine, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Background: Hereditary causes of ovarian cancer include Lynch syndrome, which is due to inherited pathogenic variants affecting one of the four mismatch repair genes involved in DNA repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumour mismatch repair deficiency and prevalence of Lynch syndrome in high-risk women referred to the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine with ovarian cancer over the past 20 years.

Methods: Women with ovarian cancer diagnosed before the age of 35 years and/or with a suggestive personal or family history of Lynch syndrome cancers underwent tumour testing with immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair deficiency and, where indicated, promoter methylation testing followed by constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome.

Results: In total, 261 ovarian cancers were tested and 27 (10.3%; 95% CI 6.9% to 14.7%) showed mismatch repair deficiency by immunohistochemistry. Three of 7 with MLH1 loss showed promoter hypermethylation, and 18 of the remaining 24 underwent constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome. A further 15 women with mismatch repair proficient tumours underwent constitutional testing because of a strong family history of Lynch syndrome cancers. Pathogenic variants were identified in 9/33 (27%) women who underwent constitutional testing, aged 33-59 years (median 48 years), including one whose tumour was mismatch repair proficient. Most Lynch syndrome tumours were of endometrioid histological subtype.

Conclusions: Tumour mismatch repair deficiency identified by immunohistochemistry is a useful prescreen for constitutional testing in women with ovarian cancer with personal or family histories suggestive of Lynch syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107270DOI Listing
October 2021

Eflornithine plus Sulindac for Prevention of Progression in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

N Engl J Med 2020 09;383(11):1028-1039

From the Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (C.A.B., J.C.); the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (E.D., F.G.K., V.H.R.); the Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (P.L.); the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix (N.J.S.), and Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals, Tucson (A. Cohen) - both in Arizona; the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (F.B., A. Castells); the Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn (R.H., C.P.S.), and the National Center for Hereditary Tumor Syndromes (R.H., C.P.S.), Bonn, Germany; Northern Genetics Service, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne (J.B., A.H.), and Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Saint Mary's Hospital, Manchester (F.L.) - both in the United Kingdom; Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (S. Gallinger, R.G.); the Division of Population Sciences, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School - all in Boston (R.L., S.S.); the Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (E.M.S.); Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, and the Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla (S. Gupta); Huntsman Cancer Center, Salt Lake City (P.K.); the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (G.G.G., A.K.R.); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (F.A.S.); University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium (E.V.C.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (F.F.W.); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (P.E.W.); University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (W.M.G.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (M.F.); and the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (J.M.W.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown.

Methods: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease.

Results: A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups.

Conclusions: In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1916063DOI Listing
September 2020

Risk-Reducing Gynecological Surgery in Lynch Syndrome: Results of an International Survey from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to _ and carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years).

Conclusions: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of , and variants but less so for carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408942PMC
July 2020

BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers and endometrial cancer risk: A cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2020 09 19;136:169-175. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK; Division of Evolution and Genomic Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Background: An association between BRCA pathogenic variants and an increased endometrial cancer risk, specifically serous-like endometrial cancer, has been postulated but remains unproven, particularly for BRCA2 carriers. Mechanistic evidence is lacking, and any link may be related to tamoxifen exposure or testing bias. Hysterectomy during risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is, therefore, of uncertain benefit. Data from a large, prospective cohort will be informative.

Methods: Data on UK BRCA pathogenic variant carriers were interrogated for endometrial cancer diagnoses. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated in four distinct cohorts using national endometrial cancer rates; either from 1/1/1980 or age 20, prospectively from date of personal pathogenic variant report, date of family pathogenic variant report or date of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Somatic BRCA sequencing of 15 serous endometrial cancers was performed to detect pathogenic variants.

Results: Fourteen cases of endometrial cancer were identified in 2609 women (1350 BRCA1 and 1259 BRCA2), of which two were prospectively diagnosed. No significant increase in either overall or serous-like endometrial cancer risk was identified in any of the cohorts examined (SIR = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-3.33; no cases of serous endometrial cancer diagnosed). Results were unaffected by the BRCA gene affected, previous breast cancer or tamoxifen use. No BRCA pathogenic variants were detected in any of the serous endometrial cancers tested.

Conclusions: Women with a BRCA pathogenic variant do not appear to have a significant increased risk of all-type or serous-like endometrial cancer compared with the general population. These data provide some reassurance that hysterectomy is unlikely to be of significant benefit if performed solely as a preventive measure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441309PMC
September 2020

Mainstreaming germline BRCA1/2 testing in non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer in the North West of England.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 11 10;28(11):1541-1547. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors improve survival in BRCA-mutant high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. As a result, germline and somatic BRCA1/2 testing has become standard practice in women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. We outline changes in testing and detection rates of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs) in cases of non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during three eras, spanning 12 years, within the North West of England, and compare the uptake of cascade testing in families identified by oncology-led mainstreaming versus regional genetics clinics. Eras included: Period 1 (20% risk threshold for testing): between January 2007 and May 2013; Period 2 (10% risk threshold for testing): between June 2013 and October 2017 and; Period 3 (mainstream testing): between November 2017 and November 2019. A total of 1081 women underwent germline BRCA1/2 testing between January 2007 and November 2019 and 222 (20.5%) were found to have a PV. The monthly testing rate increased by 3.3-fold and 2.5-fold between Periods 1-2 and Periods 2-3, respectively. A similar incidence of germline BRCA1/2 PVs were detected in Period 2 (17.2%) and Period 3 (18.5%). Uptake of cascade testing from first-degree relatives was significantly lower in those women undergoing mainstream testing compared with those tested in regional genetics clinics (31.6% versus 47.3%, P = 0.038). Mainstream testing allows timely detection of germline BRCA1/2 status to select patients for PARP inhibitors, but shortfalls in the uptake of cascade testing in first-degree relatives requires optimisation to broaden benefits within families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0692-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575602PMC
November 2020

Disease expression in juvenile polyposis syndrome: a retrospective survey on a cohort of 221 European patients and comparison with a literature-derived cohort of 473 SMAD4/BMPR1A pathogenic variant carriers.

Genet Med 2020 09 13;22(9):1524-1532. Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, and Research Group Human Genomics, Department of Research, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare, autosomal-dominantly inherited cancer predisposition caused in approximately 50% of cases by pathogenic germline variants in SMAD4 and BMPR1A. We aimed to gather detailed clinical and molecular genetic information on JPS disease expression to provide a basis for management guidelines and establish open access variant databases.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, questionnaire-based European multicenter survey on and established a cohort of SMAD4/BMPR1A pathogenic variant carriers from the medical literature.

Results: We analyzed questionnaire-based data on 221 JPS patients (126 kindreds) from ten European centers and retrieved literature-based information on 473 patients. Compared with BMPR1A carriers, SMAD4 carriers displayed anemia twice as often (58% vs. 26%), and exclusively showed overlap symptoms with hemorrhagic telangiectasia (32%) and an increased prevalence (39% vs. 13%) of gastric juvenile polyps. Cancer, reported in 15% of JPS patients (median age 41 years), mainly occurred in the colorectum (overall: 62%, SMAD4: 58%, BMPR1A: 88%) and the stomach (overall: 21%; SMAD4: 27%, BMPR1A: 0%).

Conclusion: This comprehensive retrospective study on genotype-phenotype correlations in 694 JPS patients corroborates previous observations on JPS in general and SMAD4 carriers in particular, facilitates recommendations for clinical management, and provides the basis for open access variant SMAD4 and BMPR1A databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0826-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462743PMC
September 2020

Uptake of pre-symptomatic testing for and is age, gender, offspring and time-dependent.

J Med Genet 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Clinical Genetics Service, Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

Background: Genetic testing for pathogenic variants (PVs) has been available in North West England since 1995. We assessed uptake of pre-symptomatic testing in 1564 families with PVs over a 24.5year follow-up (FU) period.

Methods: First-degree relatives (FDRs) in families with or PVs were eligible from date of index family report if unaffected by a relevant cancer and alive at report date. FDRs were censored as not having undergone a pre-symptomatic test at diagnosis of a relevant cancer, date of death, age 93 or 30/03/2019. Time to uptake of pre-symptomatic testing was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves, by gender and children.

Results: 2554 male and 3115 female FDRs were eligible. Overall uptake was 775 (30.3%) in men and 1935 (62.1%) in women. This increased at 15 years to 33.6% and 67.9%, and continued to rise until 24 years (p<0.001). For women, the 29-year to 39-year age group had the highest uptake at 10 years FU (72.5%; p<0.01), whereas the 50-year to 59-year age group was highest in men (37.2%; p<0.01). Women <18 years at the time of familial variant identification had lower initial uptake, but this rose to >80% by 15 years. Uptake was higher in parous women (p<0.001) and in men with daughters (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: Uptake of / pre-symptomatic testing is age, gender and time-dependent, and higher in women with children and men with daughters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106544DOI Listing
April 2020

Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK (CanVIG-UK): an exemplar national subspecialty multidisciplinary network.

J Med Genet 2020 12 13;57(12):829-834. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK

Advances in technology have led to a massive expansion in the capacity for genomic analysis, with a commensurate fall in costs. The clinical indications for genomic testing have evolved markedly; the volume of clinical sequencing has increased dramatically; and the range of clinical professionals involved in the process has broadened. There is general acceptance that our early dichotomous paradigms of variants being pathogenic-high risk and benign-no risk are overly simplistic. There is increasing recognition that the clinical interpretation of genomic data requires significant expertise in disease-gene-variant associations specific to each disease area. Inaccurate interpretation can lead to clinical mismanagement, inconsistent information within families and misdirection of resources. It is for this reason that 'national subspecialist multidisciplinary meetings' (MDMs) for genomic interpretation have been articulated as key for the new NHS Genomic Medicine Service, of which Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK (CanVIG-UK) is an early exemplar. CanVIG-UK was established in 2017 and now has >100 UK members, including at least one clinical diagnostic scientist and one clinical cancer geneticist from each of the 25 regional molecular genetics laboratories of the UK and Ireland. Through CanVIG-UK, we have established national consensus around variant interpretation for cancer susceptibility genes via monthly national teleconferenced MDMs and collaborative data sharing using a secure online portal. We describe here the activities of CanVIG-UK, including exemplar outputs and feedback from the membership.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691806PMC
December 2020

Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer in Women with and without Pathogenic Variants in , and Genes in Women with Very Early-Onset (<36 Years) Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Feb 7;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Early age at diagnosis of breast cancer is a known risk factor for hereditary predisposition and some studies show a high risk of contralateral breast cancer in carriers diagnosed at very young ages. However, little is published on the risk of carriers. 397 women with breast cancer diagnosed <36 years of age were obtained from three sources: (i) a population-based study of 283 women diagnosed sequentially from 1980-1997 in North-West England, (ii) referrals to the Genomic Medicine Department at St Mary's Hospital from 1990-2018, and (iii) individuals from (i) and the Family History Clinic at Wythenshawe Hospital South Manchester who tested negative for pathogenic variants (PV) in all three genes. Sequencing of , and genes was carried out alongside tests for copy number for PV on all referred women. Rates of contralateral breast cancer were censored at death, last assessment, or risk-reducing mastectomy. In total, 47 , 218 , and 132 PV carriers were identified with breast cancer diagnosed aged 35 years and under, as well as a representative sample of 261 not known to carry a PV in , , and . Annual rates of contralateral breast cancer (and percentage of synchronous breast cancers) were : 7.03% (4.3%), : 3.57% (1.8%), and : 2.63% (1.5%). In non-PV carriers, contralateral rates in isolated presumed/tested non-carrier cases with no family history were 0.56%, and for those with a family history, 0.69%. Contralateral breast cancer rates are substantial in , and PV carriers diagnosed with breast cancer aged 35 and under. Women need to be advised to help make informed decisions on contralateral mastectomy, guided by life expectancy from their index tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072300PMC
February 2020

Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer: Clinical, Molecular, and Screening Features in a Cohort of 185 Affected Individuals.

Eur Urol Oncol 2020 12 9;3(6):764-772. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine and NW Laboratory Genetics Hub, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumour predisposition syndrome characterised by predisposition to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata and renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Objective: To define the clinical findings, molecular genetics, and prognosis in a cohort of 69 families with a fumarate hydratase (FH) pathogenic variant and/or clinical features of HLRCC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Clinical and molecular findings were obtained for 185 individuals from 69 families from four UK regional genetics clinics.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Ages at confirmed diagnoses, last dates of follow-up, and molecular results were attained for probands and relatives. To study the effect of potential ascertainment bias, phenotypes of probands and their affected relatives were compared.

Results And Limitations: A germline FH variant (19 novel and 21 known, >50% missense variants) was identified in 68/69 probands and 90 relatives. Cutaneous leiomyomata occurred in 90/185 (48.6%) individuals (mean age 45.9 yr) and uterine leiomyomata in 33/107 (30.8%) females (mean age 35.0 yr). Of 185 individuals, 23 (12.4%) had a confirmed renal tumour, and histopathology where known (n = 18) was variable: seven clear cell RCCs, nine papillary RCCs (six of type 2), one collecting duct tumour, and one tumour with oncocytic cystic morphology. Mean age at symptomatic RCC diagnosis was 44.0 yr and median survival was 21.0 mo. Eighty-one individuals underwent 187 renal imaging surveillance scans; three stage 1 RCCs were detected. Mean survival of individuals diagnosed with stage 1/2 RCC was significantly longer than those diagnosed with stage 3/4 RCC (p = 0.0004).

Conclusions: Management of HLRCC is challenging as RCC occurs in a minority of cases but is highly aggressive. This large multicentre series has identified novel features and evidence that renal screening in HLRCC detects early-stage RCCs.

Patient Summary: We show that hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is associated with a 21% lifetime risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 95% confidence interval 8.2-37.1), and renal imaging screening detects early-stage RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2019.11.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Guidelines for the management of hereditary colorectal cancer from the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG)/Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI)/United Kingdom Cancer Genetics Group (UKCGG).

Gut 2020 03 28;69(3):411-444. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Genetic Medicine, Central Manchester University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Heritable factors account for approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and almost 30% of the population in the UK have a family history of CRC. The quantification of an individual's lifetime risk of gastrointestinal cancer may incorporate clinical and molecular data, and depends on accurate phenotypic assessment and genetic diagnosis. In turn this may facilitate targeted risk-reducing interventions, including endoscopic surveillance, preventative surgery and chemoprophylaxis, which provide opportunities for cancer prevention. This guideline is an update from the 2010 British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (BSG/ACPGBI) guidelines for colorectal screening and surveillance in moderate and high-risk groups; however, this guideline is concerned specifically with people who have increased lifetime risk of CRC due to hereditary factors, including those with Lynch syndrome, polyposis or a family history of CRC. On this occasion we invited the UK Cancer Genetics Group (UKCGG), a subgroup within the British Society of Genetic Medicine (BSGM), as a partner to BSG and ACPGBI in the multidisciplinary guideline development process. We also invited external review through the Delphi process by members of the public as well as the steering committees of the European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). A systematic review of 10 189 publications was undertaken to develop 67 evidence and expert opinion-based recommendations for the management of hereditary CRC risk. Ten research recommendations are also prioritised to inform clinical management of people at hereditary CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034349PMC
March 2020
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