Publications by authors named "Fiona Flett"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural basis for DNA 3'-end processing by human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1.

Nat Commun 2018 01 2;9(1):24. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Institute of Quantitative Biology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh, EH9 3BF, UK.

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) is a DNA 3'-end processing enzyme that repairs topoisomerase 1B-induced DNA damage. We use a new tool combining site-specific DNA-protein cross-linking with mass spectrometry to identify Tdp1 interactions with DNA. A conserved phenylalanine (F259) of Tdp1, required for efficient DNA processing in biochemical assays, cross-links to defined positions in DNA substrates. Crystal structures of Tdp1-DNA complexes capture the DNA repair machinery after 3'-end cleavage; these reveal how Tdp1 coordinates the 3'-phosphorylated product of nucleosidase activity and accommodates duplex DNA. A hydrophobic wedge splits the DNA ends, directing the scissile strand through a channel towards the active site. The F259 side-chain stacks against the -3 base pair, delimiting the junction of duplexed and melted DNA, and fixes the scissile strand in the channel. Our results explain why Tdp1 cleavage is non-processive and provide a molecular basis for DNA 3'-end processing by Tdp1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02530-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750209PMC
January 2018

Differential Enzymatic O/O Labeling for the Detection of Cross-Linked Nucleic Acid-Protein Heteroconjugates.

Anal Chem 2017 11 13;89(21):11208-11213. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Institute of Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh EH9 3FF, Scotland, U.K.

Cross-linking of nucleic acids to proteins in combination with mass spectrometry permits the precise identification of interacting residues between nucleic acid-protein complexes. However, the mass spectrometric identification and characterization of cross-linked nucleic acid-protein heteroconjugates within a complex sample is challenging. Here we establish a novel enzymatic differential O/O-labeling approach, which uniquely labels heteroconjugates. We have developed an automated data analysis workflow based on OpenMS for the identification of differentially isotopically labeled heteroconjugates against a complex background. We validated our method using synthetic model DNA oligonucleotide-peptide heteroconjugates, which were subjected to the labeling reaction and analyzed by high-resolution FTICR mass spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01625DOI Listing
November 2017

Click chemistry generated model DNA-peptide heteroconjugates as tools for mass spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2015 Oct;87(19):9595-9

Institute of Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh EH9 3FF, Scotland, United Kingdom.

UV cross-linking of nucleic acids to proteins in combination with mass spectrometry is a powerful technique to identify proteins, peptides, and the amino acids involved in intermolecular interactions within nucleic acid-protein complexes. However, the mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked nucleic acid-protein heteroconjugates in complex mixtures and MS/MS characterization of the specific sites of cross-linking is extremely challenging. As a tool for the optimization of sample preparation, ionization, fragmentation, and detection by mass spectrometry, novel synthetic DNA-peptide heteroconjugates were generated to act as mimics of UV cross-linked heteroconjugates. Click chemistry was employed to cross-link peptides to DNA oligonucleotides. These heteroconjugates were fully characterized by high resolution FTICR mass spectrometry and by collision-induced dissociation (CID) following nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA moiety to a single nucleotide monophosphate. This allowed the exact site of the cross-linking within the peptide to be unambiguously assigned. These synthetic DNA-peptide heteroconjugates have the potential to be of use for a variety of applications that involve DNA-peptide heteroconjugates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02047DOI Listing
October 2015

Separation of DNA oligonucleotides using denaturing urea PAGE.

Methods Mol Biol 2013 ;1054:173-85

Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) allows the separation of linear single-stranded DNA molecules based on molecular weight. This method can be used to analyze or purify short synthesized DNA oligonucleotides or products from enzymatic reactions.In this chapter we describe how to prepare and how to run these high concentration polyacrylamide gels. We detail how to transfer a gel onto Whatman paper and how to dry it. Radiolabelled oligonucleotides are visualized by PhosphorImager technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-565-1_11DOI Listing
March 2014

Development of an insect-cell-based assay for detection of kinase inhibition using NF-kappaB-inducing kinase as a paradigm.

Biochem J 2009 Apr;419(1):65-73

Biological Reagents & Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

Identification of small-molecule inhibitors by high-throughput screening necessitates the development of robust, reproducible and cost-effective assays. The assay approach adopted may utilize isolated proteins or whole cells containing the target of interest. To enable protein-based assays, the baculovirus expression system is commonly used for generation and isolation of recombinant proteins. We have applied the baculovirus system into a cell-based assay format using NIK [NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB)-inducing kinase] as a paradigm. We illustrate the use of the insect-cell-based assay in monitoring the activity of NIK against its physiological downstream substrate IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) kinase-1. The assay was robust, yielding a signal/background ratio of 2:1 and an average Z' value of >0.65 when used to screen a focused compound set. Using secondary assays to validate a selection of the hits, we identified a compound that (i) was non-cytotoxic, (ii) interacted directly with NIK, and (iii) inhibited lymphotoxin-induced NF-kappaB p52 translocation to the nucleus. The insect cell assay represents a novel approach to monitoring kinase inhibition, with major advantages over other cell-based systems including ease of use, amenability to scale-up, protein expression levels and the flexibility to express a number of proteins by infecting with numerous baculoviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20081646DOI Listing
April 2009

Microscale solution isoelectric focusing as an effective strategy enabling containment of hemeoglobin-derived products for high-resolution gel-based analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum proteome.

J Proteome Res 2007 Sep 14;6(9):3780-7. Epub 2007 Aug 14.

Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom.

The high hemeozoin (beta-hemeatin) content of Plasmodium falciparum lysates imposes severe limitations on the analysis of the malarial proteome, in particular compromising the loading capacities of two-dimensional gels. Here we report on the adaptation of a recently developed solution-phase isoelectric focusing-based fractionation technique as a prefractionation strategy for efficient containment of hemeoglobin-derived products and complexity reduction, to facilitate the high-resolution gel-based quantitative analysis of plasmodial lysates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr070278rDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2632839PMC
September 2007

New pleiotropic effects of eliminating a rare tRNA from Streptomyces coelicolor, revealed by combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of liquid cultures.

BMC Genomics 2007 Aug 2;8:261. Epub 2007 Aug 2.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.

Background: In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics.

Results: At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the DeltabldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in reorganising metabolism after rapid growth. Many of the 147 genes were "function unknown", and may represent unknown aspects of Streptomyces biology. Only two of the 147 genes contain a TTA codon, but some effects of bldA could be traced to TTA codons in regulatory genes or polycistronic operons. Several proteins were affected post-translationally by the bldA deletion. There was a statistically significant but weak positive global correlation between transcript and corresponding protein levels. Different technical limitations of the two approaches were a major cause of discrepancies in the results obtained with them.

Conclusion: Although deletion of bldA has very conspicuous effects on the gross phenotype, the bldA molecular phenotype revealed by the "dualomic" approach has shown that only about 2% of the genome is affected; but this includes many previously unknown effects at a variety of different levels, including post-translational changes in proteins and global cellular physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2000904PMC
August 2007

An asparagine oxygenase (AsnO) and a 3-hydroxyasparaginyl phosphotransferase (HasP) are involved in the biosynthesis of calcium-dependent lipopeptide antibiotics.

Microbiology (Reading) 2007 Mar;153(Pt 3):768-776

School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK.

Nonribosomal peptides contain a wide range of unusual non-proteinogenic amino acid residues. As a result, these complex natural products are amongst the most structurally diverse secondary metabolites in nature, and possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. beta-Hydroxylation of amino acid precursors or peptidyl residues and their subsequent processing by downstream tailoring enzymes are some of the most common themes in the biosynthetic diversification of these therapeutically important peptides. Identification and characterization of the biosynthetic intermediates and enzymes involved in these processes are thus pivotal in understanding nonribosomal peptide assembly and modification. To this end, the putative asparaginyl oxygenase- and 3-hydroxyasparaginyl phosphotransferase-encoding genes hasP and asnO were separately deleted from the calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor. Whilst the parent strains produce a number of 3-hydroxyasparagine- and 3-phosphohydroxyasparagine-containing CDAs, the DeltahasP mutants produce exclusively non-phosphorylated CDAs. On the other hand, DeltaasnO mutants produce several new Asn-containing CDAs not present in the wild-type, which retain calcium-dependent antimicrobial activity. This confirms that AsnO and HasP are required for the beta-hydroxylation and phosphorylation of the Asn residue within CDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.2006/002725-0DOI Listing
March 2007

Active-site modifications of adenylation domains lead to hydrolysis of upstream nonribosomal peptidyl thioester intermediates.

J Am Chem Soc 2004 Apr;126(16):5032-3

Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester, UK.

Site-directed mutagenesis of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) adenylation (A) domains was investigated as a means to engineer new calcium-dependent antibiotics (CDA) in Streptomyces coelicolor. Single- and double-point mutants of the CDA NRPS module 7, A-domain were generated, which were predicted to alter the specificity of this domain from Asp to Asn. The double-point mutant produced a new peptide CDA2a-7N containing Asn at position 7 as expected. However, in both the single- and the double-point mutants, significant hydrolysis of the CDA-6mer intermediate was evident. One explanation for this is that the mutant module 7 A-domain activates Asn instead of Asp; however, the Asn-thioester intermediate is only weakly recognized by the upstream C-domain acceptor site (a), allowing a water molecule to intercept the hexapeptidyl intermediate in the donor site (d).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja048778yDOI Listing
April 2004

Structure, biosynthetic origin, and engineered biosynthesis of calcium-dependent antibiotics from Streptomyces coelicolor.

Chem Biol 2002 Nov;9(11):1175-87

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Sackville Street, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK.

The calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA), from Streptomyces coelicolor, is an acidic lipopeptide comprising an N-terminal 2,3-epoxyhexanoyl fatty acid side chain and several nonproteinogenic amino acid residues. S. coelicolor grown on solid media was shown to produce several previously uncharacterized peptides with C-terminal Z-dehydrotryptophan residues. The CDA biosynthetic gene cluster contains open reading frames encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases, fatty acid synthases, and enzymes involved in precursor supply and tailoring of the nascent peptide. On the basis of protein sequence similarity and chemical reasoning, the biosynthesis of CDA is rationalized. Deletion of SCO3229 (hmaS), a putative 4-hydroxymandelic acid synthase-encoding gene, abolishes CDA production. The exogenous supply of 4-hydroxymandelate, 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate, or 4-hydroxyphenylglycine re-establishes CDA production by the DeltahmaS mutant. Feeding analogs of these precursors to the mutant resulted in the directed biosynthesis of novel lipopeptides with modified arylglycine residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1074-5521(02)00252-1DOI Listing
November 2002