Publications by authors named "Filipe C Matheus"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional interplay between adenosine A receptor and NMDA preconditioning in fear memory and glutamate uptake in the mice hippocampus.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 Mar 7;180:107422. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociências, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) administered at subtoxic dose plays a protective role against neuronal excitotoxicity, a mechanism described as preconditioning. Since the activation of adenosinergic receptors influences the achievement of NMDA preconditioning in the hippocampus, we evaluated the potential functional interplay between adenosine A and A receptors (AR and AR) activities and NMDA preconditioning. Adult male Swiss mice received saline (NaCl 0.9 g%, i.p.) or a nonconvulsant dose of NMDA (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and 24 h later they were treated with the one of the ligands: AR agonist (CCPA, 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or antagonist (DPCPX, 3 mg/kg, i.p.), AR agonist (CGS21680, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or antagonist (ZM241385, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and subjected to contextual fear conditioning task. Binding properties and content of AR and glutamate uptake were assessed in the hippocampus of mice subjected to NMDA preconditioning. Treatment with CGS21680 increased the time of freezing during the exposure of animals to the new environment. NMDA preconditioning did not affect the freezing time of mice per se, but it prevented the response observed after the activation of AR. Furthermore, the activation of AR by CGS21680 after the preconditioning blocked the increase of glutamate uptake induced by NMDA preconditioning. The immunodetection of AR in total hippocampal homogenates showed no significant differences evoked by NMDA preconditioning and did not alter AR maximum binding for the selective ligand [H]CGS21680. These results demonstrate changes in AR functionality in mice following NMDA preconditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2021.107422DOI Listing
March 2021

Periodontitis and Alzheimer's Disease: A Possible Comorbidity between Oral Chronic Inflammatory Condition and Neuroinflammation.

Front Aging Neurosci 2017 10;9:327. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil.

Periodontitis is an oral chronic infection/inflammatory condition, identified as a source of mediators of inflammation into the blood circulation, which may contribute to exacerbate several diseases. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although inflammation is present in both diseases, the exact mechanisms and crosslinks between periodontitis and AD are poorly understood. Therefore, this article aims to review possible comorbidity between periodontitis and AD. Here, the authors discuss the inflammatory aspects of periodontitis, how this oral condition produces a systemic inflammation and, finally, the contribution of this systemic inflammation for worsening neuroinflammation in the progression of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5649154PMC
October 2017

Angiotensin II type 1/adenosine A receptor oligomers: a novel target for tardive dyskinesia.

Sci Rep 2017 05 12;7(1):1857. Epub 2017 May 12.

Unitat de Farmacologia, Departament de Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina, IDIBELL-Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious motor side effect that may appear after long-term treatment with neuroleptics and mostly mediated by dopamine D receptors (DRs). Striatal DR functioning may be finely regulated by either adenosine A receptor (AR) or angiotensin receptor type 1 (ATR) through putative receptor heteromers. Here, we examined whether AR and ATR may oligomerize in the striatum to synergistically modulate dopaminergic transmission. First, by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrated a physical ATR-AR interaction in cultured cells. Interestingly, by protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we described that a stable heterotetrameric interaction may exist between ATR and AR bound to antagonists (i.e. losartan and istradefylline, respectively). Accordingly, we subsequently ascertained the existence of ATR/AR heteromers in the striatum by proximity ligation in situ assay. Finally, we took advantage of a TD animal model, namely the reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movement (VCM), to evaluate a novel multimodal pharmacological TD treatment approach based on targeting the ATR/AR complex. Thus, reserpinized mice were co-treated with sub-effective losartan and istradefylline doses, which prompted a synergistic reduction in VCM. Overall, our results demonstrated the existence of striatal ATR/AR oligomers with potential usefulness for the therapeutic management of TD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-02037-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431979PMC
May 2017

Agmatine attenuates reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia in mice: Role of oxidative stress, nitric oxide and glutamate NMDA receptors.

Behav Brain Res 2016 10 13;312:64-76. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil; Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88049-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Dyskinesia consists in a series of trunk, limbs and orofacial involuntary movements that can be observed following long-term pharmacological treatment in some psychotic and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, respectively. Agmatine is an endogenous arginine metabolite that emerges as neuromodulator and a promising agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders by modulating nitric oxide (NO) pathway, glutamate NMDA receptors and oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the effects of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different agmatine doses (10, 30 or 100mg/kg) against the orofacial dyskinesia induced by reserpine (1mg/kg,s.c.) in mice by measuring the vacuous chewing movements and tongue protusion frequencies, and the duration of facial twitching. The results showed an orofacial antidyskinetic effect of agmatine (30mg/kg, i.p.) or the combined administration of sub-effective doses of agmatine (10mg/kg, i.p.) with the NMDA receptor antagonists amantadine (1mg/kg, i.p.) and MK801 (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 0.1mg/kg, i.p.). Reserpine-treated mice displayed locomotor activity deficits in the open field and agmatine had no effect on this response. Reserpine increased nitrite and nitrate levels in cerebral cortex, but agmatine did not reverse it. Remarkably, agmatine reversed the decrease of dopamine and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels caused by reserpine in the striatum. However, no changes were observed in striatal immunocontent of proteins related to the dopaminergic system including tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, pDARPP-32[Thr75], dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. These results indicate that the blockade of NO pathway, NMDAR and oxidative stress are possible mechanisms associated with the protective effects of agmatine against the orofacial dyskinesia induced by reserpine in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2016.06.014DOI Listing
October 2016

The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(1):e0147293. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-970, Brazil.

Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147293PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721870PMC
August 2016

Decreased synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies short-term memory deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

Behav Brain Res 2016 Mar 18;301:43-54. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88049-900, SC, Brazil; Centro de Neurociências Aplicadas (CeNAp), Hospital Universitário (HU), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dopaminergic degeneration in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). However, motor symptoms in PD are often preceded by short-term memory deficits, which have been argued to involve deregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We now used a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat PD model to explore if alterations of synaptic plasticity in DLS and mPFC underlie short-term memory impairments in PD prodrome. The bilateral injection of 6-OHDA (20μg/hemisphere) in the DLS caused a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (>80%) and decreased monoamine levels in the striatum and PFC, accompanied by motor deficits evaluated after 21 days in the open field and accelerated rotarod. A lower dose of 6-OHDA (10μg/hemisphere) only induced a partial degeneration (about 60%) of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with no gross motor impairments, thus mimicking an early premotor stage of PD. Notably, 6-OHDA (10μg)-lesioned rats displayed decreased monoamine levels in the PFC as well as short-term memory deficits evaluated in the novel object discrimination and in the modified Y-maze tasks; this was accompanied by a selective decrease in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the mPFC, but not in DLS, without changes of synaptic transmission in either brain regions. These results indicate that the short-term memory dysfunction predating the motor alterations in the 6-OHDA model of PD is associated with selective changes of information processing in PFC circuits, typified by persistent changes of synaptic plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.12.011DOI Listing
March 2016

Moderate-Intensity Physical Exercise Protects Against Experimental 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Hemiparkinsonism Through Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element Pathway.

Neurochem Res 2016 Feb 1;41(1-2):64-72. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Laboratório Experimental de Doenças Neurodegenerativas (LEXDON), Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88049-900, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Introduction: Exercise improves the motor symptoms of patients with Parkinson disease in a palliative manner. Existing evidence demonstrates that exercise induces neuroprotection based on the neurotrophic properties. We investigated the effect of exercise on mitochondrial physiology and oxidative stress in an animal model of hemiparkinsonism.

Methods: C57BL/6 mice completed a 6-week exercise program on a treadmill. We injected 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 4 μg/2 μl) into the midstriatum. The animals progressively developed bradykinesia and R(-)-apomorphine-induced rotations that were attenuated by exercise. Transcriptional activation of protective genes is mediated by the antioxidant response element (ARE). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) binds to ARE. We investigated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in the striatum of animals.

Results: Exercise protected 6-OHDA-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunolabeling and activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in the nigrostriatal pathway. Exercise stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in the striatum of animals that was more resistant to oxidant 6-OHDA and nitric oxide donor (±)-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine.

Conclusions: In mice, exercise activated Nrf2-ARE signaling in the nigrostriatal pathway that was protective against the development of hemiparkinsonism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-015-1709-8DOI Listing
February 2016

Temporal Dissociation of Striatum and Prefrontal Cortex Uncouples Anhedonia and Defense Behaviors Relevant to Depression in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2016 08 12;53(6):3891-3899. Epub 2015 Jul 12.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, 88049-900, Brazil.

The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) processes motor and non-motor functions and undergoes extensive dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). The nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration also affects other brain areas including the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), which has been associated with the appearance of anhedonia and depression at pre-motor phases of PD. Using behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological approaches, we investigated the temporal dissociation between the role of the DLS and PFC in the appearance of anhedonia and defense behaviors relevant to depression in rats submitted to bilateral DLS lesions with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 10 μg/hemisphere). 6-OHDA induced partial dopaminergic nigrostriatal damage with no gross motor impairments. Anhedonic-like behaviors were observed in the splash and sucrose consumption tests only 7 days after 6-OHDA lesion. By contrast, defense behaviors relevant to depression evaluated in the forced swimming test and social withdrawal only emerged 21 days after 6-OHDA lesion when anhedonia was no longer present. These temporally dissociated behavioral alterations were coupled to temporal- and structure-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers such as dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and dopamine transporter, leading to altered dopamine sensitivity in DLS and PFC circuits, evaluated electrophysiologically. These results provide the first demonstration of a dissociated involvement of the DLS and PFC in anhedonic-like and defense behaviors relevant to depression in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, which was linked with temporal fluctuations in dopaminergic receptor density, leading to altered dopaminergic system sensitivity in these two brain structures. This sheds new light to the duality between depressive and anhedonic symptoms in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9330-zDOI Listing
August 2016

Adenosine A1 receptor activation modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning phenotype in the brain.

Behav Brain Res 2015 Apr 31;282:103-10. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is induced by subtoxic doses of NMDA and it promotes a transient state of resistance against subsequent lethal insults. Interestingly, this mechanism of neuroprotection depends on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R), since blockade of A1R precludes this phenomenon. In this study we evaluated the consequences of NMDA preconditioning on the hippocampal A1R biology (i.e. expression, binding properties and functionality). Accordingly, we measured A1R expression in NMDA preconditioned mice (75mg/kg, i.p.; 24h) and showed that neither the total amount of receptor, nor the A1R levels in the synaptic fraction was altered. In addition, the A1R binding affinity to the antagonist [(3)H] DPCPX was slightly increased in total membrane extracts of hippocampus from preconditioned mice. Next, we evaluated the impact of NMDA preconditioning on A1R functioning by measuring the A1R-mediated regulation of glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices and on behavioral responses in the open field and hot plate tests. NMDA preconditioning increased glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices without altering the expression of glutamate transporter GLT-1. Interestingly, NMDA preconditioning also induced antinociception in the hot plate test and both effects were reversed by post-activation of A1R with the agonist CCPA (0.2mg/kg, i.p.). NMDA preconditioning or A1R modulation did not alter locomotor activity in the open field. Overall, the results described herein provide new evidence that post-activation of A1R modulates NMDA preconditioning-mediated responses, pointing to the importance of the cross-talk between glutamatergic and adenosinergic systems to neuroprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.12.056DOI Listing
April 2015

Role of agmatine in neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy.

Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2014 Jun 1;6:341-59. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

Agmatine, a cationic polyamine synthesized after decarboxylation of L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, is an endogenous neuromodulator that emerges as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, there is increasing number of preclinical studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of exogenous agmatine administration on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, nociception, morphine tolerance, memory, Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease, traumatic brain injury related alterations/disorders and epilepsy. The aim of this review is to summarize the knowledge about the effects of agmatine in CNS and point out its potential as new pharmacological treatment for diverse neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, some molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of agmatine will be discussed.
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June 2014

Mechanisms involved in abdominal nociception induced by either TRPV1 or TRPA1 stimulation of rat peritoneum.

Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Aug 1;714(1-3):332-44. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, Toxicological Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Center of Natural and Exact Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil.

Abdominal pain is a frequent symptom of peritoneal cavity irritation, but little is known about the role of the receptors for irritant substances, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), in this painful condition. Thus, we investigated the abdominal nociception caused by peritoneal stimulation with TRPV1 (capsaicin) and TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) agonists and their mechanisms in rats. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either capsaicin or AITC (0.03-10 mg/kg) induced short-term (up to 20 min) and dose-dependent abdominal nociception, and also produced c-fos expression in spinal afferents of the dorsal horn. TRPV1 antagonism prevented (94 ± 4% inhibition) nociception induced by capsaicin but not by AITC. In contrast, the TRPA1 antagonism almost abolished AITC-induced nociception (95 ± 2% inhibition) without altering the capsaicin response. Moreover, nociception induced by either capsaicin or AITC was reduced by the desensitisation of TRPV1-positive sensory fibres with resiniferatoxin (73 ± 18 and 76 ± 15% inhibitions, respectively) and by the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant (56 ± 5 and 53 ± 8% inhibitions, respectively). Likewise, the i.p. injections of capsaicin or AITC increased the content of substance P in the peritoneal fluid. Nevertheless, neither the mast cell membrane stabiliser cromoglycate, nor the H1 antagonist promethazine, nor depletion of peritoneal macrophages affected abdominal nociception induced either by capsaicin or AITC. Accordingly, neither capsaicin nor AITC increased the histamine content in the peritoneal fluid or provoked peritoneal mast cell degranulation in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that TRPV1 and TRPA1 stimulation in the peritoneum produces abdominal nociception that is mediated by sensory fibres activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.07.029DOI Listing
August 2013

Atorvastatin improves cognitive, emotional and motor impairments induced by intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in rats, an experimental model of Parkinson's disease.

Brain Res 2013 Jun 30;1513:103-16. Epub 2013 Mar 30.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Affective disorders and memory impairments precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the currently approved antiparkinsonian agents do not alleviate the non-motor symptoms as well as the underlying dopaminergic neuron degeneration. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of PD and that the anti-inflammatory actions of statins are related to their neuroprotective properties against different insults in the CNS. The present data indicates that the oral treatment with atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day), once a day during 7 consecutive days, was able to prevent short-term memory impairments and depressive-like behavior of rats assessed in the social recognition and forced swimming tests at 7 and 14 days, respectively, after a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (1mg/nostril). Importantly, at this time no significant alterations on the locomotor activity of the animals were observed in the open field test. Moreover, atorvastatin was found to protect against the long-lasting motor deficits evaluated in activity chambers and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta observed at 21 days after i.n. MPTP administration. At this time, despite the absence of spatial memory deficits in the water maze and in concentrations of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 in striatum and hippocampus following i.n. MPTP administration, atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant increase in the striatal and hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor (NGF). These findings reinforce and extend the notion of the neuroprotective potential of atorvastatin and suggest that it may represent a new therapeutic tool for the management of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2013.03.029DOI Listing
June 2013

Effects of ethanolic extract and naphthoquinones obtained from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa on short-term and long-term memory: involvement of adenosine A₁ and A₂A receptors.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2013 Apr 31;112(4):229-35. Epub 2012 Dec 31.

Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Previous studies from our group have indicated important biological properties of the ethanolic extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa (Iridaceae), a native plant widely distributed in northern Brazil, including antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract and its two naphthoquinones (eleutherine and isoeleutherine) on the short- and long-term memory of adult rodents were assessed in social recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Acute pre-training oral administration of the ethanolic extract improved the short-term social memory in rats as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. Moreover, the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of the extract of Cipura paludosa and the adenosine receptor antagonists caffeine (non-selective), DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and ZM241385 (adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) improved the social recognition memory of rats. In the inhibitory avoidance task, the co-administration of sub-effective doses of the extract with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, improved the short- and long-term memory of mice. Finally, the acute oral administration of eleutherine and isoeleutherine facilitated the inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. These results demonstrate for the first time the cognitive-enhancing properties of the extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa in rodents and suggest a possible involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12022DOI Listing
April 2013

Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in mice infused with a single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

Behav Brain Res 2012 Dec 17;235(2):263-72. Epub 2012 Aug 17.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

We have recently demonstrated that rodents treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in olfactory, cognitive, emotional and motor functions associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain structures conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine, an endogenous arginine metabolite, has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated treatment with agmatine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) during 5 consecutive days increased the survival rate (from 40% to 80%) of 15-month-old C57BL/6 female mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril), improving the general neurological status of the surviving animals. Moreover, pretreatment with agmatine was found to attenuate short-term social memory and locomotor activity impairments observed at different periods after i.n. MPTP administration. These behavioral benefits of exogenous agmatine administration were accompanied by a protection against the MPTP-induced decrease of hippocampal glutamate uptake and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of aging mice, without altering brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. These results provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that agmatine represents a potential therapeutic tool for the management of cognitive and motor symptoms of PD, together with its neuroprotective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.08.017DOI Listing
December 2012

Intranasal administration of neurotoxicants in animals: support for the olfactory vector hypothesis of Parkinson's disease.

Neurotox Res 2012 Jan 15;21(1):90-116. Epub 2011 Oct 15.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Trindade, Florianópolis, SC, 88049-900, Brazil.

The causes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown, but there is evidence that exposure to environmental agents, including a number of viruses, toxins, agricultural chemicals, dietary nutrients, and metals, is associated with its development in some cases. The presence of smell loss and the pathological involvement of the olfactory pathways in the early stages of PD are in accord with the tenants of the olfactory vector hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that some forms of PD may be caused or catalyzed by environmental agents that enter the brain via the olfactory mucosa. In this article, we provide an overview of evidence implicating xenobiotics agents in the etiology of PD and review animal, mostly rodent, studies in which toxicants have been introduced into the nose in an attempt to induce behavioral or neurochemical changes similar to those seen in PD. The available data suggest that this route of exposure results in highly variable outcomes, depending upon the involved xenobiotic, exposure history, and the age and species of the animals tested. Some compounds, such as rotenone, paraquat, and 6-hydroxydopamine, have limited capacity to reach and damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system via the intranasal route. Others, such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), readily enter the brain via this route in some species and influence the function of the nigrostriatal pathway. Intranasal infusion of MPTP in some rodents elicits a developmental sequence of behavioral and neurochemical changes that closely mimics that seen in PD. For this reason, such an MPTP rodent model appears to be an ecologically valid means for assessing novel palliative treatments for both the motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. More research is needed, however, on this and other ecologically valid models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-011-9281-8DOI Listing
January 2012

Anxiety in Parkinson's disease: a critical review of experimental and clinical studies.

Neuropharmacology 2012 Jan 31;62(1):115-24. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting about 1% of the population older than 60 years. Classically, PD is considered as a movement disorder, and its diagnosis is based on the presence of a set of cardinal motor signs that are the consequence of a pronounced death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There is now considerable evidence showing that the neurodegenerative processes leading to sporadic PD begin many years before the appearance of the characteristic motor symptoms, and that additional neuronal fields and neurotransmitter systems are also involved in PD, including olfactory structures, amygdala, caudal raphe nuclei, locus coeruleus, and hippocampus. Accordingly, adrenergic and serotonergic neurons are also lost, which seems to contribute to the anxiety in PD. Non-motor features of PD usually do not respond to dopaminergic medication and probably form the major current challenge in the clinical management of PD. Additionally, most studies performed with animal models of PD have investigated their ability to induce motor alterations associated with advanced phases of PD, and some studies begin to assess non-motor behavioral features of the disease. The present review attempts to examine results obtained from clinical and experimental studies to provide a comprehensive picture of the neurobiology and current and potential treatments for anxiety in PD. The data reviewed here indicate that, despite their high prevalence and impact on the quality of life, anxiety disorders are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in PD patients. Moreover, there are currently few clinical and pre-clinical studies underway to investigate new pharmacological agents for relieving these symptoms, and we hope that this article may inspire clinicians and researchers devote to the studies on anxiety in PD to change this scenario. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.08.039DOI Listing
January 2012

The intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): a new rodent model to test palliative and neuroprotective agents for Parkinson's disease.

Curr Pharm Des 2011 ;17(5):489-507

Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88049-900, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population older than 60 years. Classically, PD is considered to be a motor system disease and its diagnosis is based on the presence of a set of cardinal motor signs that are consequence of a pronounced death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Nowadays there is considerable evidence showing that non-dopaminergic degeneration also occurs in other brain areas which seems to be responsible for the deficits in olfactory, emotional and memory functions that precede the classical motor symptoms in PD. Dopamine-replacement therapy has dominated the treatment of PD and although the currently approved antiparkinsonian agents offer effective relief of the motor deficits, they have not been found to alleviate the non-motor features as well as the underlying dopaminergic neuron degeneration and thus drug efficacy is gradually lost. Another major limitation of chronic dopaminergic therapy is the numerous adverse effects such as dyskinesias, psychosis and behavioral disturbance. The development of new therapies in PD depends on the existence of representative animal models to facilitate the evaluation of new pharmacological agents before they are applied in clinical trials. We have recently proposed a new experimental model of PD consisting of a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of the proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 1 mg/nostril) in rodents. Our findings demonstrated that rats and mice treated intranasally with MPTP suffer impairments in olfactory, cognitive, emotional and motor functions conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of PD. Such infusion causes time-dependent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb and SNc, resulting in significant dopamine depletion in different brain areas. We have also identified some pathogenic mechanisms possibly involved in the neurodegeneration induced by i.n. administration of MPTP including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, activation of apoptotic cell death mechanisms and glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Therefore, the present review attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the i.n. MPTP model and to highlight recent findings from our group showing its potential as a valuable rodent model for testing novel drugs that may provide alternative or adjunctive treatment for both motor and non-motor symptoms relief with a reduced side-effect profile as well as the discovery of compounds to modify the course of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161211795164095DOI Listing
August 2011

Single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in C57BL/6 mice models early preclinical phase of Parkinson's disease.

Neurotox Res 2010 Feb 21;17(2):114-29. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Many studies have shown that deficits in olfactory and cognitive functions precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that olfactory testing may contribute to the early diagnosis of this disorder. Although the primary cause of PD is still unknown, epidemiological studies have revealed that its incidence is increased in consequence of exposure to certain environmental toxins. In this study, most of the impairments presented by C57BL/6 mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of the proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (1 mg/nostril) were similar to those observed during the early phase of PD, when a moderate loss of nigral dopamine neurons results in olfactory and memory deficits with no major motor impairments. Such infusion decreased the levels of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb, striatum, and substantia nigra by means of apoptotic mechanisms, reducing dopamine concentration in different brain structures such as olfactory bulb, striatum, and prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. These findings reinforce the notion that the olfactory system represents a particularly sensitive route for the transport of neurotoxins into the central nervous system that may be related to the etiology of PD. These results also provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that the i.n. administration of MPTP represents a valuable mouse model for the study of the early stages of PD and for testing new therapeutic strategies to restore sensorial and cognitive processes in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-009-9087-0DOI Listing
February 2010

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Eremanthus erythropappus leaves.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2008 Jun;60(6):771-7

Departamento Farmacêutico, Faculdade de Farmácia e Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36016-330, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

The chemical composition of the essential oil from air-dried leaves of Eremanthus erythropappus was studied. The main compounds were beta-pinene (23.24%), beta-caryophyllene (22.92%), beta-myrcene (10.03%) and germacrene D (9.40%). The essential oil had an LD50 of 2.90 g kg(-1) in mice. Doses of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) inhibited 10.69% and 27.06% of acetic-acid-induced writhing in mice, respectively. In the formalin-induced nociception test in mice, the essential oil inhibited the first phase of paw licking by 29.13% (400 mg kg(-1)) and the second phase by 32.74% (200 mg kg(-1)) and 37.55% (400 mg kg(-1)). In the hot-plate test in mice, doses of 200 mg kg(-1) and 400 mg kg(-1) significantly increased the reaction time after 30, 60 and 90 min of treatment. Doses of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats by 15.18% and 36.61%, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) administered 4 h before intrapleural injection of carrageenan significantly reduced exudate volume (by 20.20% and 48.70%, respectively) and leucocyte mobilization (by 5.88% and 17.29%, respectively). These results demonstrate that E. erythropappus has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, supporting the use of this plant in folk medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.60.6.0013DOI Listing
June 2008