Publications by authors named "Filip M G Tack"

65 Publications

Speciation, transportation, and pathways of cadmium in soil-rice systems: A review on the environmental implications and remediation approaches for food safety.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 8;156:106749. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, & CAS-HKU Joint Laboratory of Metallomics on Health and Environment, & Beijing Metallomics Facility, & National Consortium for Excellence in Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in paddy fields is a serious health concern because of its high toxicity and widespread pollution. Recently, much progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms involved in Cd uptake, transport, and transformation from paddy soils to rice grains, aiming to mitigate the associated health risk; however, these topics have not been critically reviewed to date. Here, we summarized and reviewed the (1) geochemical distribution and speciation of Cd in soil-rice systems, (2) mobilization, uptake, and transport of Cd from soil to rice grains and the associated health risks, (3) pathways and transformation mechanisms of Cd from soil to rice grains, (4) transporters involved in reducing Cd uptake, transport, and accumulation in rice plants, (5) factors governing Cd bioavailability in paddy, and (6) comparison of remediation approaches for mitigating the environmental and health risks of Cd contamination in paddy fields. Briefly, this review presents the state of the art about the fate of Cd in paddy fields and its transport from soil to grains, contributing to a better understanding of the environmental hazards of Cd in rice ecosystems. Challenges and perspectives for controlling Cd risks in rice are thus raised. The summarized findings in this review may help to develop innovative and applicable methods for controlling Cd accumulation in rice grains and sustainably manage Cd-contaminated paddy fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106749DOI Listing
July 2021

Modification of ordered mesoporous carbon for removal of environmental contaminants from aqueous phase: A review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 30;418:126266. Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of water bodies by potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants has aroused extensive concerns worldwide. Thus it is significant to develop effective adsorbents for removing these contaminants. As a new member of carbonaceous material families (activated carbon, biochar, and graphene), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with larger specific surface area, ordered pore structure, and higher pore volume are being evaluated for their use in contaminant removal. In this paper, modification techniques of OMC were systematically reviewed for the first time. These include nonmetallic doping modification (nitrogen, sulfur, and boron) and the impregnation of nano-metals and metal oxides (iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, magnesium, and rare earth element). Reaction conditions (solution pH, reaction temperature, sorbent dosage, and contact time) are of critical importance for the removal performance of contaminants onto OMC. In addition, the pristine and modified OMC have been investigated for the removal of a range of contaminants, including cationic/anionic toxic elements and organic contaminants (synthetic dye, phenol, and others), and involving different and specific mechanisms of interaction with contaminants. The future research directions of the application of pristine and modified OMC were proposed. Overall, this review can provide sights into the modification techniques of OMC for removal of environmental contaminants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126266DOI Listing
May 2021

The term "heavy metal(s)": History, current debate, and future use.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 24;789:147951. Epub 2021 May 24.

Ghent University, Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147951DOI Listing
October 2021

Zn phytoextraction and recycling of alfalfa biomass as potential Zn-biofortified feed crop.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 10;760:143424. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Zn is an essential micronutrient for living organisms and, in that capacity, it is added to animal feed in intensive livestock production to promote growth and eliminate diseases. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) may have the potential to compensate and substitute the need for chemical Zn additives in feeds as a Zn-biofortified feed crop when grown on Zn-enriched soils. Thus, this possibility was investigated with a greenhouse experiment using three soils with Zn concentrations (mg kg) of 189 (soil A), 265 (soil B) and 1496 (soil C). Ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinate acid (EDDS) and Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at different rates (0 as control, 0.5, 2 and 5 mmol kg) were applied as soil additives to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of alfalfa. The results showed that Zn was highly transferable in alfalfa tissues in the three soils even without additives. EDDS was more effective than NTA in enhancing Zn phytoextraction by alfalfa. The maximum Zn accumulation in the third cutting shoots was obtained with the EDDS concentration of 5 mmol kg in soil A and of 2 mmol kg in soil B, with a 462% and 162% increase compared with controls, respectively. However, the higher EDDS concentration resulted in a significant reduction in biomass production. In soil C, all EDDS concentrations resulted in similar Zn accumulations in the third shoot. To improve the phytoextraction efficacy of Zn while minimizing its phytotoxicity on alfalfa, the rate of 2 mmol kg EDDS proved to be optimal for soil B, and 0.5 mmol kg EDDS for soils A and C. Findings suggest that phytoextraction of Zn-enriched soil can be combined with Zn biofortification, thus allowing to recycle Zn into biomass that can, to an extent, substitute Zn feed additives. This study provided a primary data set for the combination of Zn-biofortification and Zn-phytoextraction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143424DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of aging and weathering on immobilization of trace metals/metalloids in soils amended with biochar.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 Sep;22(9):1790-1808

Korea Biochar Research Center & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. and Department of Environmental Engineering, China Jiliang University, No. 258 Xueyuan Street, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, P. R. China.

Biochar is an effective amendment for trace metal/metalloid (TMs) immobilization in soils. The capacity of biochar to immobilize TMs in soil can be positively or negatively altered due to the changes in the surface and structural chemistry of biochar after soil application. Biochar surfaces are oxidized in soils and induce structural changes through physical and biochemical weathering processes. These changes in the biochar surface and structural chemistry generally increase its ability to immobilize TMs, although the generation of dissolved black carbon during weathering may increase TM mobility. Moreover, biochar modification can improve its capacity to immobilize TMs in soils. Over the short-term, engineered/modified biochar exhibited increased TM immobilization capacity compared with unmodified biochar. In the long-term, no large distinctions in such capacities were seen between modified and unmodified biochars due to weathering. In addition, artificial weathering at laboratories also revealed increased TM immobilization in soils. Continued collection of mechanistic evidence will help evaluate the effect of natural and artificial weathering, and biochar modification on the long-term TM immobilization capacity of biochar with respect to feedstock and synthesis conditions in contaminated soils.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0em00057dDOI Listing
September 2020

A multi-proxy magnetic approach for monitoring large-scale airborne pollution impact.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 10;743:140718. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Group Soil Spatial Inventory Techniques, Department of Environment, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

The interpretive utility of environmental magnetic proxies for investigating airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution impact is restricted by differences in soil composition, land cover and land use. For soil magnetic applications, land use strongly influences magnetic particle distribution down the soil profile, even in homogeneous soil environments. Here, an adaptive approach is engineered to provide accurate magnetic proxy information for pollution monitoring across different land use types. In an 81-km area between two industrial harbours, the irregular distribution of forests, arable lands, pasture and residential areas prevented robustly relating topsoil magnetic susceptibility data to known pollution impacts. Although normalized topsoil susceptibility values showed improved potential for deriving airborne pollution impacts, optimal results were obtained by depth-integrating magnetic susceptibility logs, revealing long-term impacts of both active and decommissioned industrial facilities. Complementing soil magnetic observations, active and passive (bio)magnetic monitoring allowed discriminating short-term pollution patterns and evaluating changes in PM impact across the study area. Hereby, active PM receptors (strawberry leaves and plastic coated cardboards (PCCs)) provided promising results, yet passive receptors allowed estimating pollution impacts more efficiently. For the latter, species-independent grass leaf sampling reflected airborne PM depositional patterns most accurately, whereas wiped anthropogenic surfaces proved too sensitive to wash-off.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140718DOI Listing
November 2020

Leaching behavior of Cd, Zn and nutrients (K, P, S) from a contaminated soil as affected by amendment with biochar.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 6;245:125561. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

In Campine region in Flanders (Belgium) there are contaminated sites with Cd and Zn due to atmospheric deposition from industry. Flanders is also known for its large surpluses of nitrogen and phosphorous coming from intense livestock production. To solve both issues, the potential of biochar to sorb metals and nutrients was investigated. Experiments were conducted to examine whether biochar could reduce the leaching of nutrients (K, P and S) and metals (Cd and Zn) into the soil solution. Most biochars caused an increase in pH of approximately 1 unit which is often the main driver of the metal immobilization. Nutrient concentrations in the leachate of soil amended with oak-based biochar were lower compared to the blank soil. For the other amendments, however, the results were higher due to the nutrients leached from the applied products. The result of this experiment emphasize the potential of biochar to immobilize nutrients and metals in soil water systems, thus keeping the nutrients longer available for the plant and reducing the metal toxicity. However, the amount of metals immobilized was lower than expected. Further research is required to determine whether biochar from livestock products could act as a slow release fertilizer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125561DOI Listing
April 2020

CLEAR2018 Conference & SIL2018 Conference - Sediment internal processes and pollution remediation.

Sci Total Environ 2020 02 27;705:135812. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135812DOI Listing
February 2020

Application of biochars and solid fraction of digestate to decrease soil solution Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in contaminated sandy soils.

Environ Geochem Health 2020 Jun 27;42(6):1589-1600. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Biochar prepared from waste biomass was evaluated as a soil amendment to immobilize metals in two contaminated soils. A 60-day incubation experiment was set up on a French technosol which was heavily contaminated with Pb due to former mining activities. Grass biochar, cow manure biochar (CMB) and two lightwood biochars differing in particle size distribution (LWB1 and LWB2) were amended to the soil at a rate of 2% (by mass). Rhizon soil moisture samplers were employed to assess the Pb concentrations in the soil solution at regular times. After 30 days of incubation, soil solution concentrations in the CMB-amended soil decreased by more than 99% compared to the control. CMB was also applied to a moderately contaminated Flemish soil and resulted in lowered soil solution Cd and Zn concentrations. While the application of 4% CMB resulted in 90% and 80% reductions in soil solution concentrations of Cd and Zn, respectively, the solid fraction of digestate (as a reference) reduced the soil pore water concentrations by only 63% for Cd and 73% for Zn, compared to the concentrations in the control. These results emphasize the potential of biochar to immobilize metals in soil and water systems, thus reducing their phytotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-019-00475-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Remediation of mercury contaminated soil, water, and air: A review of emerging materials and innovative technologies.

Environ Int 2020 01 11;134:105281. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Mercury contamination in soil, water and air is associated with potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. Industrial activities such as coal combustion have led to increased mercury (Hg) concentrations in different environmental media. This review critically evaluates recent developments in technological approaches for the remediation of Hg contaminated soil, water and air, with a focus on emerging materials and innovative technologies. Extensive research on various nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanosheets and magnetic nanocomposites, for mercury removal are investigated. This paper also examines other emerging materials and their characteristics, including graphene, biochar, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as well as other materials such as clay minerals and manganese oxides. Based on approaches including adsorption/desorption, oxidation/reduction and stabilization/containment, the performances of innovative technologies with the aid of these materials were examined. In addition, technologies involving organisms, such as phytoremediation, algae-based mercury removal, microbial reduction and constructed wetlands, were also reviewed, and the role of organisms, especially microorganisms, in these techniques are illustrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105281DOI Listing
January 2020

Distribution characteristics of Cd in different types of leaves of Festuca arundinacea intercropped with Cicer arietinum L.: A new strategy to remove pollutants by harvesting senescent and dead leaves.

Environ Res 2019 12 6;179(Pt A):108801. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI) & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although cost-effective, phytoremediation is too expensive when considering the large-scale pollution. Relative to harvesting the whole plant, it is more practicable to remove and dispose of senescent and dead leaves after phytoremediation. The phytoremediation efficiency of Festuca arundinacea for Cd was evaluated in this study, because over about 7% of the land area in China was contaminated with Cd. The accumulation, redistribution, and extraction of Cd were evaluated in different leaves of F. arundinacea intercropped with N-fixing species at different densities (Cicer arietinum L). The results showed that coordinate and malposed intercropping systems increased the dry weight of the senescent and dead leaves of F. arundinacea by 30-41% and 103-168% compared to the monoculture system, respectively. More Cd was redistributed to the senescent and dead leaves of F. arundinacea under both intercropping systems. Occupying only 22-30% of the total leaf biomass, senescent and dead leaves accumulated 74-88% of leaf Cd under different cultivation conditions. Relative to the monoculture system, intercropping decreased the amount of time needed to reduce soil Cd by 44-53%. The biomass production and Cd accumulation of F. arundinacea were higher in the malposed intercropping system, and it had higher remediation efficiency than the coordinate intercropping system. This study demonstrated that intercropping, especially malposed intercropping of F. arundinacea and C. arietinum L., is a practicable technology for leaf harvesting phytoremediation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108801DOI Listing
December 2019

Evaluating the potential of topsoil magnetic pollution mapping across different land use classes.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 29;685:345-356. Epub 2019 May 29.

Research Group Soil Spatial Inventory Techniques, Department of Environment, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Soil magnetic measurements are used increasingly to estimate the impact of airborne, combustion-related particulate matter (PM) pollution in dense measurement grids. Although many studies have proven the potential of topsoil magnetic measurements in environmental monitoring, their application is not straightforward when factors such as parent material or land use have to be accounted for. Often, the influence of land use on the soil magnetic signal is circumvented by targeting forest soils, where deposited magnetic particles are best preserved in the topsoil. However, when large forests are absent, e.g. in densely populated areas or environments with more heterogeneous land use, this approach often impedes reliable and comprehensive spatial sampling. We evaluated if topsoil magnetic pollution mapping across different land use classes, against a homogeneous geological environment of sandy soils, could help increase the spatial reliability of results in regional scale surveys. Although detailed magnetic property analysis and evaluation of trace metal concentrations in soils on arable land, forest and pasture showed the impact of atmospheric pollution, topsoil susceptibility measurements did not allow delineating the magnetic footprint of PM pollution. Land use strongly influenced the distribution of magnetic particles through soil, and the evaluation of anomalous magnetic topsoil enhancement required the integration of downhole susceptibility soundings. We conclude that topsoil susceptibility mapping remains a useful tool to evaluate PM pollution impact, yet its application potential across land use classes is limited.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.379DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of biochars pyrolyzed in N and CO, and feedstock on microbial community in metal(loid)s contaminated soils.

Environ Int 2019 05 21;126:791-801. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI), Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Little is known about the effects of applying amendments on soil for immobilizing metal(loid)s on the soil microbial community. Alterations in the microbial community were examined after incubation of treated contaminated soils. One soil was contaminated with Pb and As, a second soil with Cd and Zn. Red pepper stalk (RPS) and biochars produced from RPS in either N atmosphere (RPS) or CO atmosphere (RPS) were applied at a rate of 2.5% to the two soils and incubated for 30 days. Bacterial communities of control and treated soils were characterized by sequencing 16S rRNA genes using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In both soils, bacterial richness increased in the amended soils, though somewhat differently between the treatments. Evenness values decreased significantly, and the final overall diversities were reduced. The neutralization of pH, reduced available concentrations of Pb or Cd, and supplementation of available carbon and surface area could be possible factors affecting the community changes. Biochar amendments caused the soil bacterial communities to become more similar than those in the not amended soils. The bacterial community structures at the phylum and genus levels showed that amendment addition might restore the normal bacterial community of soils, and cause soil bacterial communities in contaminated soils to normalize and stabilize.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.061DOI Listing
May 2019

Mercury speciation, transformation, and transportation in soils, atmospheric flux, and implications for risk management: A critical review.

Environ Int 2019 05 15;126:747-761. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water- and Waste-Management, Laboratory of Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, Wuppertal 42285, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Mercury (Hg) is a potentially harmful trace element in the environment and one of the World Health Organization's foremost chemicals of concern. The threat posed by Hg contaminated soils to humans is pervasive, with an estimated 86 Gg of anthropogenic Hg pollution accumulated in surface soils worldwide. This review critically examines both recent advances and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to cycling of mercury in the soil environment, to aid the assessment and management of risks caused by Hg contamination. Included in this review are factors affecting Hg release from soil to the atmosphere, including how rainfall events drive gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) flux from soils of low Hg content, and how ambient conditions such as atmospheric O concentration play a significant role. Mercury contaminated soils constitute complex systems where many interdependent factors, including the amount and composition of soil organic matter and clays, oxidized minerals (e.g. Fe oxides), reduced elements (e.g. S), as well as soil pH and redox conditions affect Hg forms and transformation. Speciation influences the extent and rate of Hg subsurface transportation, which has often been assumed insignificant. Nano-sized Hg particles as well as soluble Hg complexes play important roles in soil Hg mobility, availability, and methylation. Finally, implications for human health and suggested research directions are put forward, where there is significant potential to improve remedial actions by accounting for Hg speciation and transportation factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.019DOI Listing
May 2019

Redox chemistry of vanadium in soils and sediments: Interactions with colloidal materials, mobilization, speciation, and relevant environmental implications- A review.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Mar 14;265:1-13. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water- and Waste-Management, Laboratory of Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; Sejong University, Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Vanadium (V), although serving as an important component of industrial activities, has bioinorganic implications to pose highly toxic hazards to humans and animals. Soils and sediments throughout the world exhibit wide ranges of vanadium concentrations. Although vanadium toxicity varies between different species, it is mainly controlled by soil redox potential (E). Nonetheless, knowledge of the redox geochemistry of vanadium lags in comparison to what is known about other potentially toxic elements (PTEs). In particular, the redox-induced speciation and mobilization of vanadium in soils and sediments and the associated risks to the environment have not been reviewed to date. Therefore, this review aims to address 1) the content and geochemical fate of vanadium in soils and sediments, 2) its redox-induced release dynamics, 3) redox-mediated chemical reactions between vanadium and soil organic and inorganic colloidal materials in soil solution, 4) its speciation in soil solution and soil-sediments, and 5) the use of advanced geochemical and spectroscopic techniques to investigate these complex systems. Vanadium (+5) is the most mobile and toxic form of its species while being the thermodynamically stable valence state in oxic environments, while vanadium (+3) might be expected to be predominant under euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) conditions. Vanadium can react variably in response to changing soil E: under anoxic conditions, the mobilization of vanadium can decrease because vanadium (+5) can be reduced to relatively less soluble vanadium (+4) via inorganic reactions such as with HS and organic matter and by metal-reducing microorganisms. On the other hand, dissolved concentrations of vanadium can increase at low E in many soils to reveal a similar pattern to that of Fe, which may be due to the reductive dissolution of Fe(hydr)oxides and the release of the associated vanadium. Those differences in vanadium release dynamics might occur as a result of the direct impact of E on vanadium speciation in soil solution and soil sediments, and/or because of the E-dependent changes in soil pH, chemistry of (Fe)(hydr)oxides, and complexation with soil organic carbon. Release dynamics of vanadium in soils may also be affected positively by soil pH and the release of aromatic organic compounds. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool to investigate the speciation of vanadium present in soil. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is often used to constrain the average valence state of vanadium in soils and sediments, and in limited cases extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis has been used to determine the average molecular coordination environment of vanadium in soil components. In conclusion, this review presents the state of the art about the redox geochemistry of vanadium and thus contributes to a better understanding of the speciation, potential mobilization, and environmental hazards of vanadium in the near-surface environment of uplands, wetlands, and agricultural ecosystems as affected by various colloidal particles. Further research is needed to elucidate the geochemistry and speciation of vanadium in the dissolved, colloidal, and soil sediments phases, including the determination of factors that control the redox geochemistry of vanadium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of gasification biochar application on soil quality: Trace metal behavior, microbial community, and soil dissolved organic matter.

J Hazard Mater 2019 03 13;365:684-694. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI) & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Compared to pyrolysis biochar (PBC), gasification biochar (GBC) differs in both composition and surface functionalities due to the use of an oxidizing purging gas. This work compares the effect of using PBC and GBC as soil amendments on the soil properties, trace metal bioavailability, soil microbial activity, and soil dissolved organic matter (DOM). Biochar-driven reduction of bioavailable metals does not necessarily result in a positive impact on the soil microbial growth. The DOM in the soil was strongly related to the soil microbial activity, as revealed by the strong correlation between the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and soil dissolved organic carbon (r = 0.957, p <  0.01). Three identified fluorescent components (C1, C2, C3) in the soil DOM were closely associated with the soil microbial activity, for instance, with a clear positive correlation between the soil DHA and C1 (r = 0.718, p <  0.05) and a significant negative correlation between the total bacterial fatty acid methyl ester content and C3 (r = -0.768, p <  0.05). The bioavailability of Cd and Zn is not only related to the pH and surface functionalities of the biochar, but also to its aromatic carbon and inorganic mineral composition. This study further demonstrates that a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis is a useful tool to monitor changes in the soil quality after application of biochar, which is greatly relevant to the soil biota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.042DOI Listing
March 2019

Trace elements in the cycle of soils, sediments, waters, and plants: Editorial to the special issue.

Chemosphere 2018 12 25;213:610. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.142DOI Listing
December 2018

Optimizing the configuration of integrated nutrient and energy recovery treatment trains: A new application of global sensitivity analysis to the generic nutrient recovery model (NRM) library.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 28;269:375-383. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

modelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Université Laval, 1065, avenue de la Médecine, Québec G1V 0A6, QC, Canada; CentrEau, Centre de recherche sur l'eau, Université Laval, 1065 Avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

This paper describes the use of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) for factor prioritization in nutrient recovery model (NRM) applications. The aim was to select the most important factors influencing important NRM model outputs such as biogas production, digestate composition and pH, ammonium sulfate recovery, struvite production, product purity, particle size and density, air and chemical requirements, scaling potential, among others. Factors considered for GSA involve: 1) input waste stream characteristics, 2) process operational factors, and 3) kinetic parameters incorporated in the NRMs. Linear regression analyses on Monte Carlo simulation outputs were performed, and the impact of the standardized regression coefficients on major performance indicators was evaluated. Finally, based on the results, the paper describes the original use of GSA to obtain insight in complex nutrient recovery systems and to propose an optimal nutrient and energy recovery treatment train configuration that maximizes resource recovery and minimizes energy and chemical requirements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.108DOI Listing
December 2018

Interactions between biochar and trace elements in the environment.

Sci Total Environ 2019 02 15;649:792. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI) & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.175DOI Listing
February 2019

Nutrient recovery from digested waste: Towards a generic roadmap for setting up an optimal treatment train.

Waste Manag 2018 Aug 22;78:385-392. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

modelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Université Laval, 1065 ave. de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; CentrEau, Centre de recherche sur l'eau, Université Laval, 1065 avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address:

This paper aims to develop a generic roadmap for setting up strategies for nutrient recovery from digested waste (digestate). First, a guideline-based decision-tree is presented for setting up an optimal bio-based fertilization strategy as function of local agronomic and regulatory criteria. Next, guidelines and evaluation criteria are provided to determine the feasibility of bio-based fertilizer production as function of the input digestate characteristics. Finally, a conceptual decision making algorithm is developed aiming at the configuration and optimization of nutrient recovery treatment trains. Important input digestate characteristics to measure, and essential factors for monitoring and control are identified. As such, this paper provides a useful decision-support guide for wastewater and residuals processing utilities aiming to implement nutrient recovery strategies. This, in turn, may stimulate and hasten the global transition from wastewater treatment plants to water resource recovery facilities. On top of that, the proposed roadmap may help adjusting the choice of nutrient recovery strategies to local fertilizer markets, thereby speeding up the transition from a fossil-reserve based to a bio-based circular nutrient economy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.05.047DOI Listing
August 2018

Sustainable in situ remediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater with controlled release materials: A review.

J Control Release 2018 08 6;283:200-213. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The removal of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater is a challenge being faced around the world. Achieving effective long-term remediation of contaminated aquifers faces a variety of significant issues such as back diffusion, tailing, and rebound. In recent years, some researchers have proposed the use of controlled release materials (CRMs) as a new approach to counteracting such issues. The novelty of CRMs lies in that they release their active products slowly, over prolonged periods of time, in order to sustain in situ treatments and long-term effectiveness. Here we review the main constituents of CRMs, analyze their production, characterization, and applications, with a focus on reaction mechanisms, effectiveness, and secondary effects. This review shows that the reactive components of CRMs most commonly involve either: (i) chemical oxidants to treat contaminants such as TCE, PCE, BTEX, and 1,4-Dioxane; (ii) sources of dissolved oxygen to stimulate aerobic biodegradation of contaminants such as BTEX and 1,4-Dioxane; or, (iii) substrates that stimulate reductive dechlorination of contaminants such as TCE and 1,2-DCA. It was found that in some studies, CRMs provided sustained delivery of CRM treatment reagents over several years, and achieved complete contaminant removal. However, lower removal rates were apparent in other cases, which may be ascribed to insufficient dispersion in the subsurface. There are a relatively limited number of field-scale applications of CRMs in contaminated land remediation. Those conducted to date suggest that CRMs could prove to be an effective future remediation strategy. Lessons learned from field applications, suggestions for future research directions, and conclusions are put forward in this review.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.06.007DOI Listing
August 2018

Metal(loid) immobilization in soils with biochars pyrolyzed in N and CO environments.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jul 7;630:1103-1114. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI) & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Previous studies indicated that using CO as a reaction agent in the pyrolysis of biomass led to an enhanced generation of syngas via direct reaction between volatile organic carbons (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of biomass and CO. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of biochar in CO were modified. In this current study, biochars generated from red pepper stalks in N and CO (RPS-N and RPS-C, respectively) were tested for their effects on the immobilization of Pb, Cd, Zn, and As in contaminated soils. Soils were incubated for one month with 2.5% of RPS, and two biochars (i.e., RPS-N and RPS-C) at 25°C. After the incubation period soils were analyzed to determine the amendment effects on the behavior of metal(loid)s. The potential availability and mobility kinetics of metal(loid)s were assessed by single extraction of ammonium acetate and consecutive extraction of calcium chloride, respectively. Sequential extraction was used to further examine potential changes in geochemical fractions of metal(loid)s. The increased soil pH induced by application of the biochars reduced the potentially available Pb, Cd, and Zn, while RPS-C significantly reduced Pb due to the high surface area and aromaticity of RPS-C. However, RPS-C mobilized potentially available As compared to RPS-N due to the increased soil pH. Biochars reduced the mobility kinetics of Pb, Cd, and Zn, and RPS-N effectuated the greatest reduction of As mobility. The RPS-C increased the Fe and Mn oxides, hydroxide, and organically bound Pb, while both biochars and RPS-N increased residual Cd and Zn, and organically bound As, respectively. When considering the two biochars, RPS-C was highly effective for immobilization of Pb in soils, but it had no effect on Cd and Zn and a negative effect on As. In addition, RPS-C significantly increased the total exchangeable cations in soils.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.185DOI Listing
July 2018

International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (ICHMET).

Chemosphere 2017 10 30;185:94-95. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.127DOI Listing
October 2017

A critical review on effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of cadmium in vegetables.

Chemosphere 2017 Sep 2;182:90-105. Epub 2017 May 2.

O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI), Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities. The Cd toxicity decreases seed germination, growth, biomass and quality of vegetables. This reduces the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and alteration in mineral nutrition. Toxicity of Cd toxicity also interferes with vegetable biochemistry causing oxidative stress and resulting in decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. Several management options have been employed for the reduction of Cd uptake and toxicity in vegetables. The exogenous application of plant growth regulators, proper mineral nutrition, and the use of organic and inorganic amendments might be useful for reducing Cd toxicity in vegetables. The use of low Cd accumulating vegetable cultivars in conjunction with insolubilizing amendments and proper agricultural practices might be a useful technique for reducing Cd exposure in the food chain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.013DOI Listing
September 2017

Arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, and selenium: Geochemical fractions and potential mobilization in riverine soil profiles originating from Germany and Egypt.

Chemosphere 2017 Aug 14;180:553-563. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water- and Waste-Management, Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The fractionation and potential mobilization of As, Cr, Mo, and Se in four floodplain soil profiles collected along the Nile (Egypt) and Wupper (Germany) Rivers were assessed using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations of total and the geochemical fractions (acid soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (F4) fraction) of the elements were determined. The Wupper soils had the highest total concentrations (mg kg) of As (378) and Cr (2,797) while the Nile soils contained the highest total Mo (12) and Se (42). The residual fraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se was dominant in the Nile soils suggesting the geogenic source of the elements in these soils. The residual fraction of As and Mo and the oxidizable fraction of Cr and Se were dominant in the Wupper soils. Among the non-residual fractions (potential mobile fractions; PMF = ∑F1-F3), the oxidizable fraction was dominant for Cr, Mo, and Se in the Nile soils and for Mo in the Wupper soils, while the reducible fraction was dominant for As in both soils. The PMF of As, Cr, and Se was higher in the Wupper than in the Nile soils which might reflect the anthropogenic sources of these elements in the Wupper soils, while the opposite was the case for the PMF of Mo. The high PMF of Se (87%), Cr (87%), and As (21%) in the Wupper soils suggested that a release of these toxic elements may happen which increase the potential environmental risks in the anthropogenically polluted soils.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.054DOI Listing
August 2017

The effect of lead exposure on fatty acid composition in mouse brain analyzed using pseudo-catalytic derivatization.

Environ Pollut 2017 Mar 16;222:182-190. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We performed toxicological study of mice exposed to lead by quantifying fatty acids in brain of the mice. This study suggests that the introduced analytical method had an extremely high tolerance against impurities such as water and extractives; thus, it led to the enhanced resolution in visualizing the spectrum of fatty acid profiles in animal brain. Furthermore, one of the biggest technical advantages achieved in this study was the quantitation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of mouse brain using a trace amount of sample (e.g., 100 μL mixture). Methanol was screened as the most effective extraction solvent for mouse brain. The behavioral test of the mice before and after lead exposure was conducted to see the effect of lead exposure on fatty acid composition of the mice' brain. The lead exposure led to changes in disease-related behavior of the mice. Also, the lead exposure induced significant alterations of fatty acid profile (C16:0, C 18:0, and C 18:1) in brain of the mice, implicated in pathology of psychiatric diseases. The alteration of fatty acid profile of brain of the mice suggests that the derivatizing technique can be applicable to most research fields associated with the environmental neurotoxins with better resolution in a short time, as compared to the current protocols for lipid analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.058DOI Listing
March 2017

Bioaccessibility of selenium from cooked rice as determined in a simulator of the human intestinal tract (SHIME).

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Aug 7;97(11):3540-3545. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: As an essential but also potentially toxic element, both overexposure and underexposure to selenium (Se) can significantly affect public health. Rice is a common source of Se, especially in Asia. Not all Se may be released from the rice and become available for absorption into the bloodstream upon digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the bioaccessibility of Se in cooked white (polished) rice was assessed in vitro using the static gastrointestinal simulator SHIME (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem).

Results: The common cooking procedure in China prior to consumption [i.e. boiling at low rice:water ratios (1:3) until all of the water is absorbed into the rice] did not change total Se levels in the rice. Gastrointestinal digestion of the cooked rice matrix revealed a Se bioaccessibility of 67-76% of total Se. Subsequent microbial activity in the colon reduced the accessibility of Se in the cooked rice to 51-62%.

Conclusion: Not all Se present in cooked white rice should be considered as being bioavailable in the small intestine. A minor part is transferred with the remaining food matrix to the colon, where it is available for the microbial metabolism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8208DOI Listing
August 2017

Watering regime influences Cd concentrations in cultivated spinach.

Authors:
Filip M G Tack

J Environ Manage 2017 Jan 7;186(Pt 2):201-206. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

In washed spinach, a maximum Cd concentration of 0.20 mg/kg fresh weight (FW) is allowed according to European regulations. Producers experience that this concentration can sometimes be exceeded even on soils with baseline Cd concentrations. There is a growing need to quantify the factors determining Cd uptake in the crop in order to anticipate the risk of exceedance when selecting a field for cultivation. Interseasonal variation in precipitation may be one of the factors influencing Cd uptake by crops. A pot experiment was set up where spinach plants were subject to different watering regimes. Treatment with more limited water supply during periods of high demand resulted in significantly higher accumulated Cd concentrations (0.25-0.31 versus 0.17-0.23 mg/kg FW). Concentrations at or above the maximum allowed limit were of concern, considering that the soil used in the experiment originated from a typical field in an agricultural region without any specific contamination. Probabilities to exceed maximum concentrations in the different watering regimes were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results suggested that the watering regimes significantly determine the effective risk of exceeding the maximum concentrations. Their effects may be of high practical importance in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.056DOI Listing
January 2017

Metal and nutrient dynamics in decomposing tree litter on a metal contaminated site.

Environ Pollut 2014 Jun 14;189:54-62. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium.

In a forest on sandy, metal polluted soil, we examined effects of six tree species on litter decomposition rates and accompanied changes in metal (Cd, Zn) and nutrient (base cations, N, C) amounts. Decomposition dynamics were studied by means of a litterbag experiment lasting for 30 months. The decomposition peak occurred within the first year for all tree species, except for aspen. During litter decomposition, high metal litter types released part of their accumulated metals, whereas low metal litter types were characterized by a metal enrichment. Base cations, N and C were released from all litter types. Metal release from contaminated litter might involve risks for metal dispersion towards the soil. On the other hand, metal enrichment of uncontaminated litter may be ecologically relevant as it can be easily transported or serve as food source.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.02.009DOI Listing
June 2014

Field evaluation of willow under short rotation coppice for phytomanagement of metal-polluted agricultural soils.

Int J Phytoremediation 2013 ;15(7):677-89

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links, Ghent, Belgium.

Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar might be a promising phytoremediation option since it uses fast growing, high biomass producing tree species with often a sufficient metal uptake. This study evaluates growth, metal uptake and extraction potentials of eight willow clones (Belders, Belgisch Rood, Christina, Inger, Jorr, Loden, Tora and Zwarte Driebast) on a metal-contaminated agricultural soil, with total cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 6.5 +/- 0.8 and 377 +/- 69 mg kg(-1) soil, respectively. Although, during the first cycle, on average generally low productivity levels (3.7 ton DM (dry matter) ha(-1) y(-1)) were obtained on this sandy soil, certain clones exhibited quite acceptable productivity levels (e.g. Zwarte Driebast 12.5 ton DM ha(-1) y(-1)). Even at low biomass productivity levels, SRC of willow showed promising removal potentials of 72 g Cd and 2.0 kg Zn ha(-1) y(-1), which is much higher than e.g. energy maize or rapeseed grown on the same soil Cd and Zn removal can be increased by 40% if leaves are harvested as well. Nevertheless, nowadays the wood price remains the most critical factor in order to implement SRC as an acceptable, economically feasible alternative crop on metal-contaminated agricultural soils.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2012.723070DOI Listing
March 2014
-->