Publications by authors named "Ferrán Catalá-López"

128 Publications

Digital health interventions for children with ADHD.

Lancet Digit Health 2020 04 24;2(4):e150-e151. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30058-3DOI Listing
April 2020

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Gregory J Bertolacci Matthew Cunningham Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Kedir Hussein Abegaz Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Jose C Adsuar Shailesh M Advani Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Muktar Beshir Ahmed Rushdia Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Niguse Meles Alema Biresaw Wassihun Alemu Suliman A Alghnam Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Davood Anvari Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Habte Belete Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Zulfiqar A Bhutta Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Archith Boloor Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Dejana Braithwaite Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Traolach Brugha Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Jens Robert Chapman Vijay Kumar Chattu Soosanna Kumary Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Jee-Young J Choi Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Flavia M Cicuttini João M Coelho Vera M Costa Saad M A Dahlawi Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Diego De Leo Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Hoa Thi Do Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Artem Alekseevich Fomenkov Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Hadush Gebremariam Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Leake G Gebremeskel Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Agegnehu Bante Getenet Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Asadollah Gholamian Syed Amir Gilani Tiffany K Gill Amir Hossein Goudarzian Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso Josep Maria Haro Amir Hasanzadeh Shoaib Hassan Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani M Mofizul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Mohammad Ali Jahani Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Kelly M Jones Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Gbenga A Kayode Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Maseer Khan Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Tripti Khanna Salman Khazaei Habibolah Khazaie Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Yun Jin Kim Daniel Kim Sezer Kisa Adnan Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Ali Koolivand Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Nithin Kumar Manasi Kumar Vivek Kumar Narinder Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Carlo La Vecchia Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Shanshan Li Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Ronan A Lyons Daiane Borges Machado Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Venkatesh Maled Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Man Mohan Mehndiratta Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mohammad A Mohseni Bandpei Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rahmatollah Moradzadeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Javad Nazari Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Trang Huyen Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Diep Ngoc Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Michael R Phillips Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Basema Saddik Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder A Singh Pankaj Kumar Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Amin Soheili Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Mariya Vladimirovna Titova Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Aristidis Tsatsakis Lorainne Tudor Car Irfan Ullah Saif Ullah Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Grant M A Wyper Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Chuanhua Yu Yong Yu Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Fatemeh Zarei Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Rakhi Dandona Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad David M Pigott Robert C Reiner Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Citation impact was highly variable for reporting guidelines of health research: a citation analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol 2020 11 23;127:96-104. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Centre for Journalology and Canadian EQUATOR Centre, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Over 400 reporting guidelines are currently published, but the frequency of their use by authors to accurately and transparently report research remains unclear. This study examined citation counts of reporting guidelines and characteristics contributing to their citation impact.

Study Design And Setting: Web of Science database was searched for citation counts of all reporting guidelines with a minimum citation age of 5 years. The total citation impact, mean citation impact and the factors contributing to 2- and 5-year citation rate were established.

Results: The search identified 296 articles of reporting guidelines from 1995 to 2013. The mean citations per year was 32.4 (95% confidence interval, 22.3-42.4 citations). The factors associated with 2- and 5-year citation performance of reporting guidelines included the following: open access to the reporting guideline, field of the publishing journal (general vs. specialized medical journal), impact factor of the publishing journal, simultaneous publication in multiple journals, and a male first author.

Conclusion: The citation rate across reporting guidelines varied with journal impact factor, open access publication, field of the publishing journal, simultaneous publications, and a male first author. Gaps in citations highlight opportunities to increase visibility and encourage author use of reporting guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.07.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Rushdia Ahmed Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Genet Melak Alamene Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Animut Alebel Niguse Meles Alema Suliman A Alghnam Samar Al-Hajj Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Mahtab Alikhani Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Babak Asghari Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Eleni Bagli Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Lope H Barrero Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Bayisa Abdissa Baye Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma Habte Belete Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Guilherme Borges Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Soosanna Kumary Chattu Vijay Kumar Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Dinh-Toi Chu Samantha M Colquhoun Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Giovanni Damiani Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Afshin Derakhshani Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Sharareh Eskandarieh Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Yousef Fatahi Wubalem Fekadu Tomas Y Ferede Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Abadi Kahsu Gebre Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Nima Hafezi-Nejad Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Md Mehedi Hasan Amir Hasanzadeh Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Khezar Hayat Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Irena Ilic Milena D Ilic Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Endang Indriasih Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam M Mofizul Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rajendra Kadel Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Hafte Kahsay Kebede Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Bayew Kelkay Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Mohammad Khammarnia Ejaz Ahmad Khan Maseer Khan Tripti Khanna Habibolah Khazaie Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Nithin Kumar G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Om P Kurmi Oluwatosin Kuti Carlo La Vecchia Faris Hasan Lami Prabhat Lamichhane Justin J Lang Van C Lansingh Dennis Odai Laryea Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo Miriam Levi Shanshan Li Shai Linn Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Jeadran N Malagon-Rojas Venkatesh Maled Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Borhan Mansouri Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Lyn M March Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Addisu Melese Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Meresa Berwo Mengesha Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Ashraf F Nabhan Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Peter S Nyasulu Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Emmanuel Wandera Okunga Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Kwaku Oppong Asante Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati George C Patton Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Hai Quang Pham Michael R Phillips Marina Pinheiro Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Kavitha Ranganathan Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Anas M Saad Yogesh Damodar Sabde Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeed Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Omar Salman Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Pankaj Kumar Singh Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Catalin-Gabriel Smarandache Emma U R Smith Amin Soheili Bija Soleymani Ali Reza Soltanian Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Degena Bahrey Tadesse Animut Tagele Tamiru Ingan Ukur Tarigan Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Asres Bedaso Tilahune Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Lorainne Tudor Car Saif Ullah Irfan Ullah Maida Umar Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Andrea Werdecker Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Yong Yu Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Maryam Zamanian Hamed Zandian Ahmad Zarei Fatemeh Zare Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Sanjay Zodpey Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Louisa Degenhardt Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad Robert C Reiner Benn Sartorius Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Reporting guidelines of health research studies are frequently used inappropriately.

J Clin Epidemiol 2020 06 14;122:87-94. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Centre for Journalology and Canadian EQUATOR Centre, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Appropriate use of reporting guidelines of health research ensures that articles present readers with a consistent representation of study relevance, methodology, and results. This study evaluated the use of major reporting guidelines.

Study Design And Setting: A cross-sectional analysis of health research articles citing four major reporting guidelines indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection (up to June 24, 2018). Two independent reviews were performed in a random sample of 200 articles, including clinical trials (N = 50), economic evaluations (N = 50), systematic reviews (N = 50), and animal research studies (N = 50). The use of reporting guidelines to guide the reporting of research studies was considered appropriate. Inappropriate uses included the use of the reporting guidelines as a tool to assess the methodological quality of studies or as a guideline on how to design and conduct the studies.

Results: Across all selected reporting guidelines, appropriate use of reporting guidelines was observed in only 39% (95% CI: 32-46%; 78/200) of articles. By contrast, inappropriate use was observed in 41% (95% CI: 34-48%; 82/200), and unclear/other use was observed in 20% (95% CI: 15-26%; 40/200).

Conclusions: Reporting guidelines of health research studies are frequently used inappropriately. Authors may require further education around appropriate use of the reporting guidelines in research reporting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.03.006DOI Listing
June 2020

Reproducible research practices, openness and transparency in health economic evaluations: study protocol for a cross-sectional comparative analysis.

BMJ Open 2020 02 13;10(2):e034463. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: There has been a growing awareness of the need for rigorously and transparent reported health research, to ensure the reproducibility of studies by future researchers. Health economic evaluations, the comparative analysis of alternative interventions in terms of their costs and consequences, have been promoted as an important tool to inform decision-making. The objective of this study will be to investigate the extent to which articles of economic evaluations of healthcare interventions indexed in MEDLINE incorporate research practices that promote transparency, openness and reproducibility.

Methods And Analysis: This is the study protocol for a cross-sectional comparative analysis. We registered the study protocol within the Open Science Framework (osf.io/gzaxr). We will evaluate a random sample of 600 cost-effectiveness analysis publications, a specific form of health economic evaluations, indexed in MEDLINE during 2012 (n=200), 2019 (n=200) and 2022 (n=200). We will include published papers written in English reporting an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of costs per life years gained, quality-adjusted life years and/or disability-adjusted life years. Screening and selection of articles will be conducted by at least two researchers. Reproducible research practices, openness and transparency in each article will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form by multiple researchers, with a 33% random sample (n=200) extracted in duplicate. Information on general, methodological and reproducibility items will be reported, stratified by year, citation of the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement and journal. Risk ratios with 95% CIs will be calculated to represent changes in reporting between 2012-2019 and 2019-2022.

Ethics And Dissemination: Due to the nature of the proposed study, no ethical approval will be required. All data will be deposited in a cross-disciplinary public repository. It is anticipated the study findings could be relevant to a variety of audiences. Study findings will be disseminated at scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045222PMC
February 2020

Hyperosmolar therapy for acute brain injury: study protocol for an umbrella review of meta-analyses and an evidence mapping.

BMJ Open 2020 02 6;10(2):e033913. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

INCLIVA Health Research Institute, Valencia, Spain

Introduction: Acute brain injury is a challenging public health problem worldwide. Elevated intracranial pressure is a common complication after acute brain injury. Hyperosmolar therapy is one of the main therapeutic strategies for the management of intracranial hypertension. This study protocol outlines an umbrella review of meta-analyses which will investigate the benefits and harms of hyperosmolar therapy routinely used for the management of acute brain injury in the intensive care.

Methods And Analysis: We will search PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We will include meta-analyses of primary research studies (eg, randomised controlled trials, observational studies or both) that evaluate one or more hyperosmolar solutions (including hypertonic saline and/or mannitol) for the treatment of adult patients with acute brain injury of any severity. Two researchers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion with a third researcher. Primary outcomes will be mortality and neurological outcomes at discharge. Secondary outcomes will include control of intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, length of stay (in hospital an intensive care unit) and any adverse event. Quality of the included meta-analyses will be assessed using the AMSTAR-2 tool. An overall summary of methods and results will be performed using tabular and graphical approaches and will be supplemented by narrative description. We will analyse whether published meta-analyses present an outline of available evidence (eg, cited, described and discussed any previous meta-analysis). Where objectives from two or more meta-analyses overlap, we will assess the causes of any noted discrepancies between meta-analyses.

Ethics And Dissemination: No ethical approval will be required. Findings from this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. All data will be deposited in a cross-disciplinary public repository.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42019148152.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045244PMC
February 2020

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Juanita A Haagsma Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Lydia R Lucchesi Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Oladimeji M Adebayo Alireza Ahmadi Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Suliman A Alghnam Syed Mohamed Aljunid Rajaa M Al-Raddadi Ubai Alsharif Khalid Altirkawi Mina Anjomshoa Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Olatunde Aremu Amit Arora Hamid Asayesh Reza Assadi Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Shivanthi Balalla Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Soumyadeep Bhaumik Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Dipan Bose Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon Rosario Cárdenas Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Christopher Stephen Crowe Koustuv Dalal Ahmad Daryani Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Louisa Degenhardt Diego De Leo Jan-Walter De Neve Kebede Deribe Getenet Ayalew Dessie Gabrielle Aline deVeber Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Linh Phuong Doan Kate A Dolan Tim Robert Driscoll Manisha Dubey Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Aman Yesuf Endries Sharareh Eskandarieh Andre Faro Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Kebede Embaye Gezae Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Yuming Guo Rahul Gupta Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Andualem Henok Martha Híjar Michael K Hole Enayatollah Homaie Rad Naznin Hossain Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Ehimario U Igumbor Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rizwan Kalani Amir Kasaeian Abraham Getachew Kelbore Andre Pascal Kengne Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ejaz Ahmad Khan Abdullah T Khoja Aliasghar A Kiadaliri Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Adnan Kisa Ai Koyanagi Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Manasi Kumar Ratilal Lalloo Hilton Lam Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Janet L Leasher Shanshan Li Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Flavia R Machado Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Manzoor Ahmad Malik Deborah Carvalho Malta Ana-Laura Manda Mohammad Ali Mansournia Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Man Mohan Mehndiratta Addisu Melese Walter Mendoza Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Erkin M Mirrakhimov Babak Moazen Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh Shafiu Mohammed Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Stefania Mondello Pablo A Montero-Zamora Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Marilita M Moschos Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Trang Huyen Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Olanrewaju Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Pedro R Olivares Heather M Orpana Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Smita Pakhale Eun-Kee Park George C Patton Konrad Pesudovs Michael R Phillips Suzanne Polinder Swayam Prakash Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Alireza Rafiei Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Kiana Ramezanzadeh Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Shahab Rezaeian Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Yogesh Damodar Sabde Basema Saddik Payman Salamati Yahya Salimi Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mete Saylan Ione J C Schneider David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Aziz Sheikh Jiabin Shen Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Adauto Martins Soares Filho Joan B Soriano Sergey Soshnikov Ireneous N Soyiri Vladimir I Starodubov Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Jacob E Sunshine Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gizachew Assefa Tessema Jarnail Singh Thakur Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Lorainne Tudor Car Olalekan A Uthman Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu Pascual R Valdez Elena Varavikova Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Tissa Wijeratne Andrea Sylvia Winkler Priyanka Yadav Yuichiro Yano Muluken Azage Yenesew Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Shamsa Zafar Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Yong Zhao Sanjay Zodpey Simon I Hay Alan D Lopez Ali H Mokdad Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 10 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

Global mapping of randomised trials related articles published in high-impact-factor medical journals: a cross-sectional analysis.

Trials 2020 Jan 7;21(1):34. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Information and Social and Health Research Unit (UISYS), University of Valencia and Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the most reliable information to inform clinical practice and patient care. We aimed to map global clinical research publication activity through RCT-related articles in high-impact-factor medical journals over the past five decades.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of articles published in the highest ranked medical journals with an impact factor > 10 (according to Journal Citation Reports published in 2017). We searched PubMed/MEDLINE (from inception to December 31, 2017) for all RCT-related articles (e.g. primary RCTs, secondary analyses and methodology papers) published in high-impact-factor medical journals. For each included article, raw metadata were abstracted from the Web of Science. A process of standardization was conducted to unify the different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription and/or indexing errors. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of articles, citations, most prolific authors, countries, journals, funding sources and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words are presented.

Results: We included 39,305 articles (for the period 1965-2017) published in forty journals. The Lancet (n = 3593; 9.1%), the Journal of Clinical Oncology (n = 3343; 8.5%) and The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 3275 articles; 8.3%) published the largest number of RCTs. A total of 154 countries were involved in the production of articles. The global productivity ranking was led by the United States (n = 18,393 articles), followed by the United Kingdom (n = 8028 articles), Canada (n = 4548 articles) and Germany (n = 4415 articles). Seventeen authors who had published 100 or more articles were identified; the most prolific authors were affiliated with Duke University (United States), Harvard University (United States) and McMaster University (Canada). The main funding institutions were the National Institutes of Health (United States), Hoffmann-La Roche (Switzerland), Pfizer (United States), Merck Sharp & Dohme (United States) and Novartis (Switzerland). The 100 most cited RCTs were published in nine journals, led by The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 78 articles), The Lancet (n = 9 articles) and JAMA (n = 7 articles). These landmark contributions focused on novel methodological approaches (e.g. the "Bland-Altman method") and trials on the management of chronic conditions (e.g. diabetes control, hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, multiple therapies for diverse cancers, cardiovascular therapies such as lipid-lowering statins, antihypertensive medications, and antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy).

Conclusions: Our analysis identified authors, countries, funding institutions, landmark contributions and high-impact-factor medical journals publishing RCTs. Over the last 50 years, publication production in leading medical journals has increased, with Western countries leading in research but with low- and middle-income countries showing very limited representation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3944-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947860PMC
January 2020

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Prevalence and comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder in Spain: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Syst Rev 2019 06 14;8(1):141. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia/INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, and restrictive and repetitive behaviour. Previous systematic reviews have traditionally assessed the prevalence of ASD on global or regional context, with very few meta-analyses at the country level. The objective of this study will be to systematically evaluate published and unpublished observational studies that present prevalence and comorbidity of ASD among children, adolescent and adult population in Spain.

Methods/design: We designed and registered a study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of descriptive epidemiology data. Observational studies (cohort, cross-sectional) reporting the prevalence of ASD and conducted in a wide range of people (e.g. general population, outpatient and/or school settings) will be included. The primary outcome will be the prevalence of ASD. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of any physical or mental comorbidity in association with ASD. No limitations will be imposed on publication status, study conduct period, and language of dissemination. Comprehensive literature searches will be conducted in seven electronic databases (from January 1980 onwards), including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, IME-Spanish Medical Index and IBECS-Spanish Bibliographic Index of Health Sciences. Grey literature will be identified through searching dissertation databases, Google Scholar and conference abstracts. Two team members will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion. The study methodological quality (or bias) will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct random effects meta-analysis of observational data. Prevalence estimates will be stratified according to gender, age and geographical location. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g. methodological quality, sample size, diagnostic criteria).

Discussion: This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data will identify, evaluate and integrate the epidemiological knowledge underlying the prevalence of ASD in Spain. The results of this study will be of interest to multiple audiences including patients, their families, caregivers, healthcare professional, scientists and policy makers. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Implications for future epidemiological research will be discussed.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018090372.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1061-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570970PMC
June 2019

Association of Anorexia Nervosa With Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 06 5;2(6):e195313. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, INCLIVA Health Research Institute, Centro de Investigación en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Valencia, Spain.

Importance: Anorexia nervosa is recognized as an important cause of morbidity in young people. However, the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa remains uncertain.

Objective: To evaluate the association of anorexia nervosa with the risk of developing or dying of cancer.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science from database inception to January 9, 2019.

Study Selection: Published observational studies in humans examining the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa compared with the general population or those without anorexia nervosa. Studies needed to report incidence or mortality rate ratios (RRs).

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment were performed by at least 2 researchers independently. A random-effects model was used to synthesize individual studies. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated.

Main Outcomes And Measures: All cancer incidence and cancer mortality associated with anorexia nervosa. Secondary outcomes were site-specific cancer incidence and mortality.

Results: Seven cohort studies published in 10 articles (42 602 participants with anorexia nervosa) were included. Anorexia nervosa was not associated with risk of developing any cancer (4 studies in women; RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06; P = .53; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.80-1.18; moderate confidence). Anorexia nervosa was associated with decreased breast cancer incidence (5 studies in women; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; P < .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.44-0.83; high confidence). Conversely, anorexia nervosa was associated with increased risk of developing lung cancer (3 studies in women; RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.12; P = .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.19-16.46; low confidence) and esophageal cancer (2 studies in women; RR, 6.10; 95% CI, 2.30-16.18; P < .001; I2, 0%; low confidence).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among people with anorexia nervosa, risk of developing cancer did not differ compared with the general population, but a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer was observed. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563572PMC
June 2019

Transcriptomic metaanalyses of autistic brains reveals shared gene expression and biological pathway abnormalities with cancer.

Mol Autism 2019 8;10:17. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1Biomedical Research Networking Center of Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Epidemiological and clinical evidence points to cancer as a comorbidity in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A significant overlap of genes and biological processes between both diseases has also been reported.

Methods: Here, for the first time, we compared the gene expression profiles of ASD frontal cortex tissues and 22 cancer types obtained by differential expression meta-analysis and report gene, pathway, and drug set-based overlaps between them.

Results: Four cancer types (brain, thyroid, kidney, and pancreatic cancers) presented a significant overlap in gene expression deregulations in the same direction as ASD whereas two cancer types (lung and prostate cancers) showed differential expression profiles significantly deregulated in the opposite direction from ASD. Functional enrichment and LINCS L1000 based drug set enrichment analyses revealed the implication of several biological processes and pathways that were affected jointly in both diseases, including impairments of the immune system, and impairments in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis among others. Our data also suggest that brain and kidney cancer have patterns of transcriptomic dysregulation in the PI3K/AKT/MTOR axis that are similar to those found in ASD.

Conclusions: Comparisons of ASD and cancer differential gene expression meta-analysis results suggest that brain, kidney, thyroid, and pancreatic cancers are candidates for direct comorbid associations with ASD. On the other hand, lung and prostate cancers are candidates for inverse comorbid associations with ASD. Joint perturbations in a set of specific biological processes underlie these associations which include several pathways previously implicated in both cancer and ASD encompassing immune system alterations, impairments of energy metabolism, cell cycle, and signaling through PI3K and G protein-coupled receptors among others. These findings could help to explain epidemiological observations pointing towards direct and inverse comorbid associations between ASD and specific cancer types and depict a complex scenario regarding the molecular patterns of association between ASD and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-019-0262-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454734PMC
May 2019

[Endorsement of guidelines for reporting economic evaluation studies by Spanish biomedical journals].

Gac Sanit 2019 May - Jun;33(3):255-258. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Departamento de Planificación y Economía de la Salud, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, España.

Objective: To examine the endorsement of reporting guidelines for economic evaluation studies, such as the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) statement, by Spanish biomedical journals.

Method: Cross-sectional analysis of the instructions to authors of Spanish biomedical journals included in the Journal Citation Reports 2017. Two authors examined and extracted the following information: mention of any reporting guideline, the CHEERS statement, the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Directors (ICMJE) and the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) network.

Results: Of the 28 journals included, 23 (82.1%; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 63.1-93.9%) mentioned at least one reporting guideline in the instructions to authors. Only one journal mentioned the CHEERS statement for health economic evaluations. Twenty-four journals (85.7%; 95%CI: 67.3-96.0%) mentioned the ICMJE recommendations and 8 (28.6%; 95%CI: 13.2-48.7%) mentioned the EQUATOR network. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement for clinical trials was the most- mentioned reporting guideline (n=21; 75.0%; 95%CI: 55.1-89.3%).

Discussion: Most of the instructions to authors do not provide guidance on how to report economic evaluations. Journals should support compliance with reporting guidelines by authors and peer-reviewers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.12.006DOI Listing
December 2019

Reporting guidelines for health research: protocol for a cross-sectional analysis of the EQUATOR Network Library.

BMJ Open 2019 03 4;9(3):e022769. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Transparency and completeness of health research is highly variable, with important deficiencies in the reporting of methods and results of studies. Reporting guidelines aim to improve transparency and quality of research reports, and are often developed by consortia of journal editors, peer reviewers, authors, consumers and other key stakeholders. The objective of this study will be to investigate the characteristics of scientific collaboration among developers and the citation metrics of reporting guidelines of health research.

Methods And Analysis: This is the study protocol for a cross-sectional analysis of completed reporting guidelines indexed in the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research Network Library. We will search PubMed/MEDLINE and the Web of Science. Screening, selection and data abstraction will be conducted by one researcher and verified by a second researcher. Potential discrepancies will be resolved via discussion. We will include published papers of reporting guidelines written in English. Published papers will have to meet the definition of a reporting guideline related to health research (eg, a checklist, flow diagram or explicit text), with no restrictions by study design, medical specialty, disease or condition. Raw data from each included paper (including title, publication year, journal, subject category, keywords, citations, and the authors' names, author's affiliated institution and country) will be exported from the Web of Science. Descriptive analyses will be conducted (including the number of papers, citations, authors, countries, journals, keywords and main collaboration metrics). We will identify the most prolific authors, institutions, countries, journals and the most cited papers. Network analyses will be carried out to study the structure of collaborations.

Ethics And Dissemination: No ethical approval will be required. Findings from this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals. All data will be deposited in a cross-disciplinary public repository. It is anticipated the study findings could be relevant to a variety of audiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429992PMC
March 2019

Prevalence and comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Spain: study protocol for extending a systematic review with updated meta-analysis of observational studies.

Syst Rev 2019 02 11;8(1):49. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia/INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of symptoms of developmentally inappropriate and impaired inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, with difficulties often continuing into adulthood. ADHD can come with other comorbid conditions. The aim of this study will be to quantify the prevalence and comorbidity of ADHD among children, adolescent, and adult population in Spain.

Methods/design: We designed and registered a study protocol for an update and expansion of a systematic review and meta-analysis of pooled prevalence data. We will include cross-sectional observational studies reporting prevalence of ADHD in Spain and conducted in the general population, outpatient, and/or school settings. The primary outcome will be the prevalence of ADHD. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of any physical or mental comorbidity in association with ADHD. No limitations will be imposed on publication status, study conduct period, and language of dissemination. Comprehensive literature searches will be conducted in multiple electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, IME - Spanish Medical Index, and IBECS - Spanish Bibliographic Index of Health Sciences. We will also search Google Scholar, dissertation databases, and conference abstracts. Two team members will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion. The methodological quality (or risk of bias) of individual studies will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct random effects meta-analysis. Prevalence estimates will be stratified according to gender, age, and geographical location. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., methodological quality, sample size, diagnostic criteria).

Discussion: This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data will provide an updated synthesis of the prevalence and comorbidity of ADHD in Spain. This study will also examine factors that may explain potential variations in prevalence data. The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018106082 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-0967-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371515PMC
February 2019

Global, Regional, and Country-Specific Lifetime Risks of Stroke, 1990 and 2016.

Authors:
Valery L Feigin Grant Nguyen Kelly Cercy Catherine O Johnson Tahiya Alam Priyakumari G Parmar Amanuel A Abajobir Kalkidan H Abate Foad Abd-Allah Ayenew N Abejie Gebre Y Abyu Zanfina Ademi Gina Agarwal Muktar B Ahmed Rufus O Akinyemi Rajaa Al-Raddadi Leopold N Aminde Catherine Amlie-Lefond Hossein Ansari Hamid Asayesh Solomon W Asgedom Tesfay M Atey Henok T Ayele Maciej Banach Amitava Banerjee Aleksandra Barac Suzanne L Barker-Collo Till Bärnighausen Lars Barregard Sanjay Basu Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Yannick Béjot Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Derbew F Berhe Dube J Boneya Michael Brainin Ismael R Campos-Nonato Valeria Caso Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Jacquelin C Rivas Ferrán Catalá-López Hanne Christensen Michael H Criqui Albertino Damasceno Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Kairat Davletov Barbora de Courten Gabrielle deVeber Klara Dokova Dumessa Edessa Matthias Endres Emerito J A Faraon Maryam S Farvid Florian Fischer Kyle Foreman Mohammad H Forouzanfar Seana L Gall Tsegaye T Gebrehiwot Johanna M Geleijnse Richard F Gillum Maurice Giroud Alessandra C Goulart Rahul Gupta Rajeev Gupta Vladimir Hachinski Randah R Hamadeh Graeme J Hankey Habtamu A Hareri Rasmus Havmoeller Simon I Hay Mohamed I Hegazy Desalegn T Hibstu Spencer L James Panniyammakal Jeemon Denny John Jost B Jonas Jacek Jóźwiak Rizwan Kalani Amit Kandel Amir Kasaeian Andre P Kengne Yousef S Khader Abdur R Khan Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Daniel Kim Yun J Kim Mika Kivimaki Yoshihiro Kokubo Dhaval Kolte Jacek A Kopec Soewarta Kosen Michael Kravchenko Rita Krishnamurthi G Anil Kumar Alessandra Lafranconi Pablo M Lavados Yirga Legesse Yongmei Li Xiaofeng Liang Warren D Lo Stefan Lorkowski Paulo A Lotufo Clement T Loy Mark T Mackay Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Mahdi Mahdavi Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Deborah C Malta Abdullah A Mamun Lorenzo G Mantovani Sheila C O Martins Kedar K Mate Mohsen Mazidi Suresh Mehata Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Walter Mendoza George A Mensah Atte Meretoja Haftay B Mezgebe Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller Norlinah M Ibrahim Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mahmood Moosazadeh Andrew E Moran Kamarul I Musa Ruxandra I Negoi Minh Nguyen Quyen L Nguyen Trang H Nguyen Tung T Tran Thanh T Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Bo Norrving Jean J Noubiap Martin J O’Donnell Andrew T Olagunju Oyere K Onuma Mayowa O Owolabi Mahboubeh Parsaeian George C Patton Michael Piradov Martin A Pletcher Farshad Pourmalek V Prakash Mostafa Qorbani Mahfuzar Rahman Muhammad A Rahman Rajesh K Rai Annemarei Ranta David Rawaf Salman Rawaf Andre MN Renzaho Stephen R Robinson Ramesh Sahathevan Amirhossein Sahebkar Joshua A Salomon Paola Santalucia Itamar S Santos Benn Sartorius Aletta E Schutte Sadaf G Sepanlou Azadeh Shafieesabet Masood A Shaikh Morteza Shamsizadeh Kevin N Sheth Mekonnen Sisay Min-Jeong Shin Ivy Shiue Diego A S Silva Eugene Sobngwi Michael Soljak Reed J D Sorensen Luciano A Sposato Saverio Stranges Rizwan A Suliankatchi Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos David Tanne Cuong Tat Nguyen J S Thakur Amanda G Thrift David L Tirschwell Roman Topor-Madry Bach X Tran Luong T Nguyen Thomas Truelsen Nikolaos Tsilimparis Stefanos Tyrovolas Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan A Uthman Yuri Varakin Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy V Vlassov Wenzhi Wang Andrea Werdecker Charles D A Wolfe Gelin Xu Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Chuanhua Yu Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maigeng Zhou Boback Ziaeian Ben Zipkin Theo Vos Mohsen Naghavi Christopher J L Murray Gregory A Roth

N Engl J Med 2018 12;379(25):2429-2437

Background: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older. Estimates of the lifetime risks in the years 1990 and 2016 were compared. Countries were categorized into quintiles of the sociodemographic index (SDI) used in the GBD Study, and the risks were compared across quintiles. Comparisons were made with the use of point estimates and uncertainty intervals representing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles around the estimate.

Results: The estimated global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was 24.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.5 to 26.2); the risk among men was 24.7% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.3 to 26.0), and the risk among women was 25.1% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.7 to 26.5). The risk of ischemic stroke was 18.3%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 8.2%. In high-SDI, high-middle-SDI, and low-SDI countries, the estimated lifetime risk of stroke was 23.5%, 31.1% (highest risk), and 13.2% (lowest risk), respectively; the 95% uncertainty intervals did not overlap between these categories. The highest estimated lifetime risks of stroke according to GBD region were in East Asia (38.8%), Central Europe (31.7%), and Eastern Europe (31.6%), and the lowest risk was in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (11.8%). The mean global lifetime risk of stroke increased from 22.8% in 1990 to 24.9% in 2016, a relative increase of 8.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 6.2 to 11.5); the competing risk of death from any cause other than stroke was considered in this calculation.

Conclusions: In 2016, the global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was approximately 25% among both men and women. There was geographic variation in the lifetime risk of stroke, with the highest risks in East Asia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247346PMC
December 2018

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2016: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Tomi F Akinyemiju Faris Hasan Al Lami Tahiya Alam Reza Alizadeh-Navaei Christine Allen Ubai Alsharif Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Benjamin O Anderson Olatunde Aremu Al Artaman Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom Reza Assadi Tesfay Mehari Atey Leticia Avila-Burgos Ashish Awasthi Huda Omer Ba Saleem Aleksandra Barac James R Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Nickhill Bhakta Hermann Brenner Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young Jasmine Choi Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher Sheng-Chia Chung Maria Paula Curado Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona José das Neves Subhojit Dey Samath D Dharmaratne David Teye Doku Tim R Driscoll Manisha Dubey Hedyeh Ebrahimi Dumessa Edessa Ziad El-Khatib Aman Yesuf Endries Florian Fischer Lisa M Force Kyle J Foreman Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Grosso Rahul Gupta Bishal Gyawali Randah Ribhi Hamadeh Samer Hamidi James Harvey Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Behzad Heibati Molla Kahssay Hiluf Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Olayinka S Ilesanmi Kaire Innos Farhad Islami Mihajlo B Jakovljevic Sarah Charlotte Johnson Jost B Jonas Amir Kasaeian Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Yousef Saleh Khader Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Jacek A Kopec G Anil Kumar Michael Kutz Deepesh Pravinkumar Lad Alessandra Lafranconi Qing Lan Yirga Legesse James Leigh Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Lorenzo G Mantovani Brian J McMahon Toni Meier Yohannes Adama Melaku Mulugeta Melku Peter Memiah Walter Mendoza Tuomo J Meretoja Haftay Berhane Mezgebe Ted R Miller Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mahmood Moosazadeh Paula Moraga Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Vinay Nangia Cuong Tat Nguyen Vuong Minh Nong Felix Akpojene Ogbo Andrew Toyin Olagunju Mahesh Pa Eun-Kee Park Tejas Patel David M Pereira Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Gholamreza Roshandel Saeid Safiri Hamideh Salimzadeh Juan Ramon Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Maheswar Satpathy Sadaf G Sepanlou Katya Anne Shackelford Masood Ali Shaikh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Jun She Min-Jeong Shin Ivy Shiue Mark G Shrime Abiy Hiruye Sinke Mekonnen Sisay Amber Sligar Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Gizachew Assefa Tessema Roman Topor-Madry Tung Thanh Tran Bach Xuan Tran Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Elisabete Weiderpass Hywel C Williams Nigus Bililign Yimer Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Christopher J L Murray Mohsen Naghavi

JAMA Oncol 2018 11;4(11):1553-1568

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required.

Objective: To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus.

Evidence Review: Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition.

Findings: In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, -1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories.

Conclusions And Relevance: Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248091PMC
November 2018

Knowledge translation strategies to improve health care.

Med Clin (Barc) 2018 09 24;151(6):239-241. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Valencia/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria INCLIVA, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Valencia, España; Fundación Instituto de Investigación en Servicios de Salud, Valencia, España; Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canadá.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2018.02.022DOI Listing
September 2018

The Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Among US States, 1990-2016.

Authors:
Gregory A Roth Catherine O Johnson Kalkidan Hassen Abate Foad Abd-Allah Muktar Ahmed Khurshid Alam Tahiya Alam Nelson Alvis-Guzman Hossein Ansari Johan Ärnlöv Tesfay Mehari Atey Ashish Awasthi Tadesse Awoke Aleksandra Barac Till Bärnighausen Neeraj Bedi Derrick Bennett Isabela Bensenor Sibhatu Biadgilign Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Kairat Davletov Samath Dharmaratne Eric L Ding Manisha Dubey Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon Talha Farid Maryam S Farvid Valery Feigin João Fernandes Joseph Frostad Alemseged Gebru Johanna M Geleijnse Philimon Nyakauru Gona Max Griswold Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Graeme J Hankey Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Simon Hay Susan R Heckbert Caleb Mackay Salpeter Irvine Spencer Lewis James Dube Jara Amir Kasaeian Abdur Rahman Khan Sahil Khera Abdullah T Khoja Jagdish Khubchandani Daniel Kim Dhaval Kolte Dharmesh Lal Anders Larsson Shai Linn Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Mohsen Mazidi Toni Meier Walter Mendoza George A Mensah Atte Meretoja Haftay Berhane Mezgebe Erkin Mirrakhimov Shafiu Mohammed Andrew Edward Moran Grant Nguyen Minh Nguyen Kanyin Liane Ong Mayowa Owolabi Martin Pletcher Farshad Pourmalek Caroline A Purcell Mostafa Qorbani Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Usha Ram Marissa Bettay Reitsma Andre M N Renzaho Maria Jesus Rios-Blancas Saeid Safiri Joshua A Salomon Benn Sartorius Sadaf Ghajarieh Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Diego Silva Saverio Stranges Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Niguse Tadele Atnafu J S Thakur Roman Topor-Madry Thomas Truelsen E Murat Tuzcu Stefanos Tyrovolas Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Tommi Vasankari Vasiliy Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Tolassa Wakayo Robert Weintraub Charles Wolfe Abdulhalik Workicho Gelin Xu Simon Yadgir Yuichiro Yano Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Younis Chuanhua Yu Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Ben Zipkin Ashkan Afshin Emmanuela Gakidou Stephen S Lim Ali H Mokdad Mohsen Naghavi Theo Vos Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Cardiol 2018 05;3(5):375-389

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously.

Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017.

Exposures: Residing in the United States.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).

Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors.

Conclusions And Relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2018.0385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145754PMC
May 2018

[The treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: epidemiology, multimorbidity and integrated health services].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Apr;88(4):181-182

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canadá; School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canadá.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2017.12.015DOI Listing
April 2018

Mapping of global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity: A cross-sectional analysis.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(1):e0189091. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Unidad de Información e Investigación Social y Sanitaria-UISYS, University of Valencia and Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Background: The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades.

Methods And Findings: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science. Searches were run from inception until November 8, 2016. We included research articles or reviews with no restrictions by language or publication date. Data abstraction was done by one researcher. A process of standardization was conducted by two researchers to unify different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription, and/or indexing errors. All potential discrepancies were resolved via discussion. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of papers, citations, signatures, most prolific authors, countries, journals and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words were presented. During the period 1970-2016, 85994 papers (64.0% in 2010-2016) were published in 3500 journals. There was wide diversity in the specialty of the journals, with psychiatry (16558 papers; 19.3%), surgery (9570 papers; 11.1%), clinical neurology (9275 papers; 10.8%), and general and internal medicine (7622 papers; 8.9%) the most common. PLOS One (1223 papers; 1.4%), the Journal of Affective Disorders (1154 papers; 1.3%), the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (727 papers; 0.8%), the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (634 papers; 0.7%) and Obesity Surgery (588 papers; 0.7%) published the largest number of papers. 168 countries were involved in the production of papers. The global productivity ranking was headed by the United States (37624 papers), followed by the United Kingdom (7355 papers), Germany (6899 papers) and Canada (5706 papers). Twenty authors who published 100 or more papers were identified; the most prolific authors were affiliated with Harvard Medical School, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, National Taiwan Normal University and China Medical University. The 50 most cited papers ("citation classics" with at least 1000 citations) were published in 20 journals, led by JAMA Psychiatry (11 papers) and JAMA (10 papers). The most cited papers provided contributions focusing on methodological aspects (e.g. Charlson Comorbidity Index, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, APACHE prognostic system), but also important studies on chronic diseases (e.g. epidemiology of mental disorders and its correlates by the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey, Fried's frailty phenotype or the management of obesity).

Conclusions: Ours is the first analysis of global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity. Scientific production in the field is increasing worldwide with research leadership of Western countries, most notably, the United States.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189091PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5751979PMC
February 2018

Flaws in the application and interpretation of statistical analyses in systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions were common: a cross-sectional analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol 2018 03 2;95:7-18. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Centre for Journalology, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8L6, Canada; School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8M5, Canada.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the application and interpretation of statistical analyses in a cross-section of systematic reviews (SRs) of therapeutic interventions, without restriction by journal, clinical condition, or specialty.

Study Design And Setting: We evaluated a random sample of SRs assembled previously, which were indexed in MEDLINE® during February 2014, focused on a treatment or prevention question, and reported at least one meta-analysis. The reported statistical methods used in each SR were extracted from articles and online appendices by one author, with a 20% random sample extracted in duplicate.

Results: We evaluated 110 SRs; 78/110 (71%) were non-Cochrane SRs and 55/110 (50%) investigated a pharmacological intervention. The SRs presented a median of 13 (interquartile range: 5-27) meta-analytic effects. When considering the index (primary or first reported) meta-analysis of each SR, just over half (62/110 [56%]) used the random-effects model, but few (5/62 [8%]) interpreted the meta-analytic effect correctly (as the average of the intervention effects across all studies). A statistical test for funnel plot asymmetry was reported in 17/110 (15%) SRs; however, in only 4/17 (24%) did the test include the recommended number of at least 10 studies of varying size. Subgroup analyses accompanied 42/110 (38%) index meta-analyses, but findings were not interpreted with respect to a test for interaction in 29/42 (69%) cases, and the issue of potential confounding in the subgroup analyses was not raised in any SR.

Conclusions: There is scope for improvement in the application and interpretation of statistical analyses in SRs of therapeutic interventions. The involvement of statisticians on the SR team and establishment of partnerships between researchers with specialist expertise in SR methods and journal editors may help overcome these shortcomings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.11.022DOI Listing
March 2018

Reproducible research practices are underused in systematic reviews of biomedical interventions.

J Clin Epidemiol 2018 02 4;94:8-18. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Centre for Journalology, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada; School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate how often reproducible research practices, which allow others to recreate the findings of studies, given the original data, are used in systematic reviews (SRs) of biomedical research.

Study Design And Setting: We evaluated a random sample of SRs indexed in MEDLINE during February 2014, which focused on a therapeutic intervention and reported at least one meta-analysis. Data on reproducible research practices in each SR were extracted using a 26-item form by one author, with a 20% random sample extracted in duplicate. We explored whether the use of reproducible research practices was associated with an SR being a Cochrane review, as well as with the reported use of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement.

Results: We evaluated 110 SRs of therapeutic interventions, 78 (71%) of which were non-Cochrane SRs. Across the SRs, there were 2,139 meta-analytic effects (including subgroup meta-analytic effects and sensitivity analyses), 1,551 (73%) of which were reported in sufficient detail to recreate them. Systematic reviewers reported the data needed to recreate all meta-analytic effects in 72 (65%) SRs only. This percentage was higher in Cochrane than in non-Cochrane SRs (30/32 [94%] vs. 42/78 [54%]; risk ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.18). Systematic reviewers who reported imputing, algebraically manipulating, or obtaining some data from the study author/sponsor infrequently stated which specific data were handled in this way. Only 33 (30%) SRs mentioned access to data sets and statistical code used to perform analyses.

Conclusion: Reproducible research practices are underused in SRs of biomedical interventions. Adoption of such practices facilitates identification of errors and allows the SR data to be reanalyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.10.017DOI Listing
February 2018

Risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their first-degree relatives: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Syst Rev 2017 09 15;6(1):189. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia/INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives.

Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science will be used to identify epidemiological studies. Eligible studies will be observational studies reporting study-specific data for all-cause mortality or cause-specific mortality in children, adolescents, or adults with ASD or ADHD and/or their first-degree relatives. Cohort studies and case-control studies will be included. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome will be cause-specific mortality. Two reviewers will independently screen references identified by the literature search, as well as potentially relevant full-text articles. Data will be abstracted, and study risk of bias/methodological quality will be appraised by two reviewers independently. The methodological quality of epidemiological studies will be appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through discussion. Random-effects meta-analyses of primary studies will be conducted where appropriate. Subgroup analyses for exploring statistical heterogeneity, if feasible, will include gender, age group, ethnicity, comorbidities, classification of cause of death, and relevant study characteristics.

Discussion: Our study will establish the extent of the epidemiological evidence underlying the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. We anticipate that our findings will be of interest to patients, their families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, scientists, and policy makers. Implications for future epidemiological research will be discussed.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42017059955 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0581-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603059PMC
September 2017

The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(7):e0180355. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.

Methods And Findings: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up) were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016). Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs), psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback) and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity). The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response) and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability), as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes) that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants), stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination showed the best profile of acceptability. Stimulants and non-stimulants seemed well tolerated. Among medications, methylphenidate, amphetamine, atomoxetine, guanfacine and clonidine seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Methylphenidate and amphetamine seemed more efficacious than atomoxetine and guanfacine. Methylphenidate and clonidine seemed better accepted than placebo and atomoxetine. Most of the efficacious pharmacological treatments were associated with harms (anorexia, weight loss and insomnia), but an increased risk of serious adverse events was not observed. There is lack of evidence for cognitive training, neurofeedback, antidepressants, antipsychotics, dietary therapy, fatty acids, and other complementary and alternative medicine. Overall findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity, small sample sizes of trials, short-term follow-up, and the absence of high-quality evidence; consequently, results should be interpreted with caution.

Conclusions: Clinical differences may exist between the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment used for the management of ADHD. Uncertainties about therapies and the balance between benefits, costs and potential harms should be considered before starting treatment. There is an urgent need for high-quality randomised trials of the multiple treatments for ADHD in children and adolescents. PROSPERO, number CRD42014015008.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180355PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5507500PMC
September 2017

Anorexia nervosa and cancer: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Syst Rev 2017 07 11;6(1):137. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia/INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa. The objective of this study will be to evaluate the association between anorexia nervosa and the risk of developing or dying from cancer.

Methods/design: This study protocol is part of a systematic collection and assessment of multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses (umbrella review) evaluating the association of cancer and multiple central nervous system disorders. We designed a specific protocol for a new systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of anorexia nervosa with risk of developing or dying from any cancer. Data sources will be PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and manual screening of references. Observational studies (case-control and cohort) in humans that examined the association between anorexia nervosa and risk of developing or dying from cancer will be sought. The primary outcomes will be cancer incidence and cancer mortality in association with anorexia nervosa. Secondary outcomes will be site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. Screening of abstracts and full texts, and data abstraction will be performed by two team members independently. Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through discussion. The quality of studies will be assessed by using the Ottawa-Newcastle scale by two team members independently. Random effects models will be conducted where appropriate. Subgroup and additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) criteria and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used for determining the quality of evidence for cancer outcomes.

Discussion: Findings from this systematic review will inform an ongoing umbrella review on cancer and central nervous system disorders. Our systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies will establish the extent of the epidemiological evidence underlying the association between anorexia nervosa and cancer.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42017067462.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0540-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504548PMC
July 2017

Cost-effectiveness analyses in neuropsychiatry and mental health.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2017 05 1;45(3):127-36. Epub 2017 May 1.

Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (I+CS), Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), Zaragoza, Spain FISABIO-Salud Pública, Valencia, Spain.

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May 2017

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015.

Authors:
Gregory A Roth Catherine Johnson Amanuel Abajobir Foad Abd-Allah Semaw Ferede Abera Gebre Abyu Muktar Ahmed Baran Aksut Tahiya Alam Khurshid Alam François Alla Nelson Alvis-Guzman Stephen Amrock Hossein Ansari Johan Ärnlöv Hamid Asayesh Tesfay Mehari Atey Leticia Avila-Burgos Ashish Awasthi Amitava Banerjee Aleksandra Barac Till Bärnighausen Lars Barregard Neeraj Bedi Ezra Belay Ketema Derrick Bennett Gebremedhin Berhe Zulfiqar Bhutta Shimelash Bitew Jonathan Carapetis Juan Jesus Carrero Deborah Carvalho Malta Carlos Andres Castañeda-Orjuela Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young Choi Hanne Christensen Massimo Cirillo Leslie Cooper Michael Criqui David Cundiff Albertino Damasceno Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Kairat Davletov Samath Dharmaratne Prabhakaran Dorairaj Manisha Dubey Rebecca Ehrenkranz Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Emerito Jose A Faraon Alireza Esteghamati Talha Farid Maryam Farvid Valery Feigin Eric L Ding Gerry Fowkes Tsegaye Gebrehiwot Richard Gillum Audra Gold Philimon Gona Rajeev Gupta Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold Nima Hafezi-Nejad Tesfaye Hailu Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Graeme Hankey Hamid Yimam Hassen Kalkidan Hassen Abate Rasmus Havmoeller Simon I Hay Masako Horino Peter J Hotez Kathryn Jacobsen Spencer James Mehdi Javanbakht Panniyammakal Jeemon Denny John Jost Jonas Yogeshwar Kalkonde Chante Karimkhani Amir Kasaeian Yousef Khader Abdur Khan Young-Ho Khang Sahil Khera Abdullah T Khoja Jagdish Khubchandani Daniel Kim Dhaval Kolte Soewarta Kosen Kristopher J Krohn G Anil Kumar Gene F Kwan Dharmesh Kumar Lal Anders Larsson Shai Linn Alan Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Mohsen Mazidi Toni Meier Kidanu Gebremariam Meles George Mensah Atte Meretoja Haftay Mezgebe Ted Miller Erkin Mirrakhimov Shafiu Mohammed Andrew E Moran Kamarul Imran Musa Jagat Narula Bruce Neal Frida Ngalesoni Grant Nguyen Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer Mayowa Owolabi George Patton João Pedro Dima Qato Mostafa Qorbani Kazem Rahimi Rajesh Kumar Rai Salman Rawaf Antônio Ribeiro Saeid Safiri Joshua A Salomon Itamar Santos Milena Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Aletta Schutte Sadaf Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Min-Jeong Shin Mehdi Shishehbor Hirbo Shore Diego Augusto Santos Silva Eugene Sobngwi Saverio Stranges Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Niguse Tadele Atnafu Fisaha Tesfay J S Thakur Amanda Thrift Roman Topor-Madry Thomas Truelsen Stefanos Tyrovolas Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Vasiliy Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Tolassa Wakayo David Watkins Robert Weintraub Andrea Werdecker Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Charles Wolfe Abdulhalik Workicho Gelin Xu Yuichiro Yano Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Younis Chuanhua Yu Theo Vos Mohsen Naghavi Christopher Murray

J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Jul 17;70(1):1-25. Epub 2017 May 17.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world.

Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden.

Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility.

Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75.

Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491406PMC
July 2017

Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

Authors:
Nicholas Kassebaum Hmwe Hmwe Kyu Leo Zoeckler Helen Elizabeth Olsen Katie Thomas Christine Pinho Zulfiqar A Bhutta Lalit Dandona Alize Ferrari Tsegaye Tewelde Ghiwot Simon I Hay Yohannes Kinfu Xiaofeng Liang Alan Lopez Deborah Carvalho Malta Ali H Mokdad Mohsen Naghavi George C Patton Joshua Salomon Benn Sartorius Roman Topor-Madry Stein Emil Vollset Andrea Werdecker Harvey A Whiteford Kalkidan Hasen Abate Kaja Abbas Solomon Abrha Damtew Muktar Beshir Ahmed Nadia Akseer Rajaa Al-Raddadi Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu Khalid Altirkawi Amanuel Alemu Abajobir Azmeraw T Amare Carl A T Antonio Johan Arnlov Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Umar Bacha Balem Demtsu Betsu Aleksandra Barac Till Winfried Bärnighausen Estifanos Baye Neeraj Bedi Isabela M Bensenor Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Oscar Alberto Bernal Addisu Shunu Beyene Sibhatu Biadgilign Boris Bikbov Cheryl Anne Boyce Alexandra Brazinova Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Austin Carter Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Fiona J Charlson Abdulaal A Chitheer Jee-Young Jasmine Choi Liliana G Ciobanu John Crump Rakhi Dandona Robert P Dellavalle Amare Deribew Gabrielle deVeber Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Manisha Dubey Amanuel Yesuf Endries Holly E Erskine Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Joao C Fernandes Daniel Obadare Fijabi Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Luisa Sorio Flor Kyle J Foreman Richard C Franklin Maya S Fraser Joseph J Frostad Nancy Fullman Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs Alemseged Aregay Gebru Johanna M Geleijnse Katherine B Gibney Mahari Gidey Yihdego Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Tessema Assefa Gizachew Elizabeth Glaser Audra L Gold Ellen Goldberg Philimon Gona Atsushi Goto Harish Chander Gugnani Guohong Jiang Rajeev Gupta Fisaha Haile Tesfay Graeme J Hankey Rasmus Havmoeller Martha Hijar Masako Horino H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Mihajlo B Jakovljevic Sudha P Jayaraman Vivekanand Jha Tariku Jibat Catherine O Johnson Jost Jonas Amir Kasaeian Norito Kawakami Peter N Keiyoro Ibrahim Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar A Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Niranjan Kissoon Luke D Knibbs Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Rachel Kulikoff G Anil Kumar Dharmesh Kumar Lal Hilton Y Lam Heidi J Larson Anders Larsson Dennis Odai Laryea Janni Leung Stephen S Lim Loon-Tzian Lo Warren D Lo Katharine J Looker Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Desalegn Markos Shifti Mohsen Mazidi Peter A Meaney Kidanu Gebremariam Meles Peter Memiah Walter Mendoza Mubarek Abera Mengistie Gebremichael Welday Mengistu George A Mensah Ted R Miller Charles Mock Alireza Mohammadi Shafiu Mohammed Lorenzo Monasta Ulrich Mueller Chie Nagata Aliya Naheed Grant Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Elaine Nsoesie In-Hwan Oh Anselm Okoro Jacob Olusegun Olusanya Bolajoko O Olusanya Alberto Ortiz Deepak Paudel David M Pereira Norberto Perico Max Petzold Michael Robert Phillips Guilherme V Polanczyk Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Usha Ram Zane Rankin Giuseppe Remuzzi Andre M N Renzaho Hirbo Shore Roba David Rojas-Rueda Luca Ronfani Rajesh Sagar Juan Ramon Sanabria Muktar Sano Kedir Mohammed Itamar S Santos Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Ben Schöttker David C Schwebel James G Scott Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Masood Ali Shaikh June She Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder Singh Naris Silpakit Alison Smith Chandrashekhar Sreeramareddy Jeffrey D Stanaway Dan J Stein Caitlyn Steiner Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Fentaw Tadese Mohammad Tavakkoli Bineyam Taye Stephanie Teeple Teketo Kassaw Tegegne Girma Temam Shifa Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Bernadette Thomas Alan J Thomson Ruoyan Tobe-Gai Marcello Tonelli Bach Xuan Tran Christopher Troeger Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Elisabete Weiderpass Robert Weintraub Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot Ronny Westerman Hywel C Williams Charles D A Wolfe Rachel Woodbrook Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Elias Asfaw Zegeye Liesl Joanna Zuhlke Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2017 06;171(6):573-592

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.

Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.

Evidence Review: Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.

Findings: Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.

Conclusions And Relevance: Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540012PMC
June 2017