Publications by authors named "Fernando Rivadeneira"

474 Publications

An variant links aberrant Rac1 function to early-onset skeletal fragility.

JBMR Plus 2021 Jul 7;5(7):e10509. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics Helsinki Finland.

Ras homologous guanosine triphosphatases (RhoGTPases) control several cellular functions, including cytoskeletal actin remodeling and cell migration. Their activities are downregulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Although RhoGTPases are implicated in bone remodeling and osteoclast and osteoblast function, their significance in human bone health and disease remains elusive. Here, we report defective RhoGTPase regulation as a cause of severe, early-onset, autosomal-dominant skeletal fragility in a three-generation Finnish family. Affected individuals ( = 13) presented with multiple low-energy peripheral and vertebral fractures despite normal bone mineral density (BMD). Bone histomorphometry suggested reduced bone volume, low surface area covered by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and low bone turnover. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous missense variant c.652G>A (p.G218R) in , encoding a GAP for Rho-family GTPase Rac1. Variants in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) also associated with BMD and fracture risk in the general population, across multiple genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses (lead variant rs10048745). messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-stimulated human monocytes and mouse osteoblasts, indicating a possible role for ARHGAP25 in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity. Studies on subject-derived osteoclasts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not reveal robust defects in mature osteoclast formation or resorptive activity. However, analysis of osteosarcoma cells overexpressing the ARHGAP25 G218R-mutant, combined with structural modeling, confirmed that the mutant protein had decreased GAP-activity against Rac1, resulting in elevated Rac1 activity, increased cell spreading, and membrane ruffling. Our findings indicate that mutated ARHGAP25 causes aberrant Rac1 function and consequently abnormal bone metabolism, highlighting the importance of RhoGAP signaling in bone metabolism in familial forms of skeletal fragility and in the general population, and expanding our understanding of the molecular pathways underlying skeletal fragility. © 2021 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260816PMC
July 2021

Pharmacogenomic Effects of β-Blocker Use on Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Aug 15;5(8):bvab092. Epub 2021 May 15.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, ME 04101, USA.

Context: Recent studies have shown that β-blocker (BB) users have a decreased risk of fracture and higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to nonusers, likely due to the suppression of adrenergic signaling in osteoblasts, leading to increased BMD. There is also variability in the effect size of BB use on BMD in humans, which may be due to pharmacogenomic effects.

Objective: To investigate potential single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) associated with the effect of BB use on femoral neck BMD, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using clinical data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and genetic data from the Framingham Heart Study's (FHS) Offspring Cohort. We then sought to validate our top 4 genetic findings using data from the Rotterdam Study, the BPROOF Study, the Malta Osteoporosis Fracture Study (MOFS), and the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

Methods: We used sex-stratified linear mixed models to determine SNVs that had a significant interaction effect with BB use on femoral neck (FN) BMD across 11 gene regions. We also evaluated the association of our top SNVs from the FHS with microRNA (miRNA) expression in blood and identified potential miRNA-mediated mechanisms by which these SNVs may affect FN BMD.

Results: One variation (rs11124190 in ) was validated in females using data from the Rotterdam Study, while another (rs12414657 in ) was validated in females using data from the MOFS. We performed an exploratory meta-analysis of all 5 studies for these variations, which further validated our findings.

Conclusion: This analysis provides a starting point for investigating the pharmacogenomic effects of BB use on BMD measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvab092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237849PMC
August 2021

A comparison of genotyping arrays.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Array technology to genotype single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) is widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), clinical diagnostics, and linkage studies. Arrays have undergone a tremendous growth in both number and content over recent years making a comprehensive comparison all the more important. We have compared 28 genotyping arrays on their overall content, genome-wide coverage, imputation quality, presence of known GWAS loci, mtDNA variants and clinically relevant genes (i.e., American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) actionable genes, pharmacogenetic genes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and SNV density). Our comparison shows that genome-wide coverage is highly correlated with the number of SNVs on the array but does not correlate with imputation quality, which is the main determinant of GWAS usability. Average imputation quality for all tested arrays was similar for European and African populations, indicating that this is not a good criterion for choosing a genotyping array. Rather, the additional content on the array, such as pharmacogenetics or HLA variants, should be the deciding factor. As the research question of a study will in large part determine which class of genes are of interest, there is not just one perfect array for all different research questions. This study can thus help as a guideline to determine which array best suits a study's requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00917-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations Between Prenatal, Perinatal, and Early Childhood Vitamin D Status and Risk of Dental Caries at 6 Years.

J Nutr 2021 Jul;151(7):1993-2000

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Previous studies have suggested that insufficient concentrations of vitamin D are associated with dental caries in primary teeth, but evidence remains inconclusive.

Objectives: We assessed the longitudinal associations between prenatal, perinatal, and early childhood serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and the risk of dental caries in 6-year-old children.

Methods: This research was conducted within the Generation R Study, a large, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort study located in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Dental caries were assessed in children using the decayed-missing-filled-primary teeth index at a mean age of 6.1 years (90% range, 4.8-9.1). We measured serum total 25(OH)D concentrations at 3 time points: prenatally (at 18-24 weeks of gestation), perinatally (at birth), and during early childhood (at age 6 years). We performed logistic regression analyses to determine the longitudinal association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with caries risks in 5257 children. Additionally, we constructed a Genetic Risk Score (GRS) for the genetic predispositions to serum total 25(OH)D concentrations based on 6 vitamin D-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in a subsample of 3385 children.

Results: Children with severe prenatal and early childhood serum 25(OH)D deficiencies (<25 nmol/L) were more likely to be diagnosed with caries [OR, 1.56 (95% CI, 1.18-2.06) and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.25), respectively] than children with optimal concentrations (≥75 nmol/L). After adjustment for residuals of serum 25(OH)D concentrations at other time points, only the early childhood serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with the caries risk at 6 years (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98). However, our GRS analysis showed that children who are genetically predisposed to have lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations do not have a higher risk of developing caries in primary teeth.

Conclusions: Our study suggests a weak association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and risks of caries in primary teeth. Based on our results, we do not recommend vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of dental caries in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245878PMC
July 2021

Osteocyte transcriptome mapping identifies a molecular landscape controlling skeletal homeostasis and susceptibility to skeletal disease.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2444. Epub 2021 May 5.

St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Osteocytes are master regulators of the skeleton. We mapped the transcriptome of osteocytes from different skeletal sites, across age and sexes in mice to reveal genes and molecular programs that control this complex cellular-network. We define an osteocyte transcriptome signature of 1239 genes that distinguishes osteocytes from other cells. 77% have no previously known role in the skeleton and are enriched for genes regulating neuronal network formation, suggesting this programme is important in osteocyte communication. We evaluated 19 skeletal parameters in 733 knockout mouse lines and reveal 26 osteocyte transcriptome signature genes that control bone structure and function. We showed osteocyte transcriptome signature genes are enriched for human orthologs that cause monogenic skeletal disorders (P = 2.4 × 10) and are associated with the polygenic diseases osteoporosis (P = 1.8 × 10) and osteoarthritis (P = 1.6 × 10). Thus, we reveal the molecular landscape that regulates osteocyte network formation and function and establish the importance of osteocytes in human skeletal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22517-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100170PMC
May 2021

A population-based study on associations of stool microbiota with atopic diseases in school-age children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergolog, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Infants with less diverse gut microbiota seem to have higher risks of atopic diseases in early life, but any associations at school age are unclear.

Objectives: This study sought to examine the associations of diversity, relative abundance, and functional pathways of stool microbiota with atopic diseases in school-age children.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study within an existing population-based prospective cohort among 1440 children 10 years of age. On stool samples, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed, and taxonomic and functional tables were produced. Physician-diagnosed eczema, allergy, and asthma were measured by questionnaires, allergic sensitization by skin prick tests, and lung function by spirometry.

Results: The α-diversity of stool microbiota was associated with a decreased risk of eczema (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97, 1.00), and β-diversity was associated with physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (R = 0.001; P = .047). Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005, and Christensenellaceae_R-7_group species were associated with decreased risks of eczema, inhalant allergic sensitization, and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (OR range, 0.88-0.94; 95% CI range, 0.79-0.96 to 0.88-0.98), while Agathobacter species were associated with an increased risk of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.42). Functional pathways related to heme and terpenoid biosynthesis were associated with decreased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy and asthma (OR range, 0.89-0.86; 95% CI range, 0.80-0.99 to 0.73-1.02). No associations of stool microbiota with lung function were observed.

Conclusions: The diversity, relative abundance and functional pathways of stool microbiota were most consistently associated with physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy in school-age children and less consistently with other atopic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Sarcopenia in older people with chronic airway diseases: the Rotterdam study.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jan 8;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Dept of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Sarcopenia is a heterogeneous skeletal muscle disorder involving the loss of muscle mass and function. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia based on the most recent definition remains to be determined in older people with chronic airway diseases. The aim was to evaluate sarcopenia prevalence and association with chronic airway diseases and its lung function in an older population, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criteria. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 5082 participants (mean age 69.0±8.8 years, 56% females) from the Rotterdam Study. Participants with interpretable spirometry and an available assessment of sarcopenia were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a hydraulic hand dynamometer, respectively. We analysed the association between sarcopenia and chronic airway diseases by using regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, total fat percentage and other relevant confounders. Participants with chronic airway diseases had higher prevalence of probable sarcopenia (12.0%, 95% CI 10.2-13.8) and confirmed sarcopenia (3.0%, 95% CI 2.1-3.9) than without. Chronic airway diseases were associated with "probable sarcopenia" (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.60), "confirmed sarcopenia" (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.33-3.43), reduced HGS (β -0.51 (-0.90--0.11)) and reduced ASMI (β -0.19 (-0.25--0.14)). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s <80% was associated with lower HGS (β -1.03 (-1.75--0.31)) and lower ASMI (β -0.25 (-0.36--0.15)) than forced expiratory volume in 1 s ≥80%. Sarcopenia was prevalent and associated with chronic airway diseases among older population. These results suggest the need for early diagnosis of sarcopenia in older people with chronic airway diseases by applying EWGSOP2 recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00522-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938051PMC
January 2021

Common and Rare Variants Genetic Association Analysis of Circulating Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:615527. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Introduction: Neutrophils contribute to host defense through different mechanisms, including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The genetic background and underlying mechanisms contributing to NET formation remain unclear.

Materials And Methods: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and exome-sequencing analysis to identify common and rare genetic variants associated with plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complex levels, a biomarker for NETs, in the population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. GWAS was performed using haplotype reference consortium(HRC)-imputed genotypes of common variants in 3,514 individuals from the first and 2,076 individuals from the second cohort of the Rotterdam Study. We additionally performed exome-sequencing analysis in 960 individuals to investigate rare variants in candidate genes.

Results: The GWAS yielded suggestive associations (p-value < 5.0 × 10) of SNPs annotated to four genes. In the exome-sequencing analysis, a variant in gene was significantly associated with MPO-DNA complex levels (p-value < 3.06×10). Moreover, gene-based analysis showed ten genes () to be associated with MPO-DNA complex levels (p-value between 4.48 × 10 and 1.05 × 10). Pathway analysis of the identified genes showed their involvement in cellular development, molecular transport, RNA trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular growth and proliferation. Cancer was the top disease linked to the NET-associated genes.

Conclusion: In this first GWAS and exome-sequencing analysis of NETs levels, we found several genes that were associated with NETs. The precise mechanism of how these genes may contribute to neutrophil function or the formation of NETs remains unclear and should be further investigated in experimental studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.615527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944992PMC
July 2021

Opportunities and Challenges in Functional Genomics Research in Osteoporosis: Report From a Workshop Held by the Causes Working Group of the Osteoporosis and Bone Research Academy of the Royal Osteoporosis Society on October 5th 2020.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 15;11:630875. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

The discovery that sclerostin is the defective protein underlying the rare heritable bone mass disorder, sclerosteosis, ultimately led to development of anti-sclerostin antibodies as a new treatment for osteoporosis. In the era of large scale GWAS, many additional genetic signals associated with bone mass and related traits have since been reported. However, how best to interrogate these signals in order to identify the underlying gene responsible for these genetic associations, a prerequisite for identifying drug targets for further treatments, remains a challenge. The resources available for supporting functional genomics research continues to expand, exemplified by "multi-omics" database resources, with improved availability of datasets derived from bone tissues. These databases provide information about potential molecular mediators such as mRNA expression, protein expression, and DNA methylation levels, which can be interrogated to map genetic signals to specific genes based on identification of causal pathways between the genetic signal and the phenotype being studied. Functional evaluation of potential causative genes has been facilitated by characterization of the "osteocyte signature", by broad phenotyping of knockout mice with deletions of over 7,000 genes, in which more detailed skeletal phenotyping is currently being undertaken, and by development of zebrafish as a highly efficient additional model for functional studies of the skeleton. Looking to the future, this expanding repertoire of tools offers the hope of accurately defining the major genetic signals which contribute to osteoporosis. This may in turn lead to the identification of additional therapeutic targets, and ultimately new treatments for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.630875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917291PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis of muscle weakness identifies 15 susceptibility loci in older men and women.

Nat Commun 2021 01 28;12(1):654. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20918-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844411PMC
January 2021

Large-scale association analyses identify host factors influencing human gut microbiome composition.

Nat Genet 2021 02 18;53(2):156-165. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10 < P < 5 × 10) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00763-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Vertebral Fracture Risk.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 Feb 12;19(1):50-57. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040-Na27-24, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently published evidence concerning vertebral fracture risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Recent Findings: Vertebral fracture risk is increased in individuals with T2DM. The presence of vertebral fractures in T2DM is associated with increased non-vertebral fracture risk and mortality. TBS could be helpful to estimate vertebral fracture risk in individuals with T2DM. An increased amount of bone marrow fat has been implicated in bone fragility in T2DM. Results from two recent studies show that both teriparatide and denosumab are effective in reducing vertebral fracture risk also in individuals with T2DM. Individuals with T2DM could benefit from systematic screening in the clinic for presence of vertebral fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-020-00646-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935814PMC
February 2021

Caries experience among children born after a complicated pregnancy.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 06 20;49(3):225-231. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Behavioural and lifestyle factors, as oral hygiene and diet, are well-established risk factors in the pathogenesis of dental caries, though displaying large differences in susceptibility across individuals. Since enamel formation already starts in utero, pregnancy course and outcome may eventually play a role in enamel strength and caries susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association between history of pregnancy complications and the caries experience in their six-year-old children. The pregnancy complications included small for gestational age (SGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), individually, and a combination of those, designated as placental syndrome.

Methods: This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective longitudinal Dutch multiethnic pregnancy cohort study. Information about pregnancy complications was obtained from questionnaires completed by midwives and obstetricians with cross-validation in medical records. These included SGA, sPTB, GH and PE. Caries experience was assessed with the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index at a mean age of six years. The association between dental caries experience and a history of pregnancy complications was studied by using hurdle negative binomial (HNB) models.

Results: We were able to assess the dmft index in 5323 six-year-old children (mean age 6.2 years, SD 0.5). We did not find an association between the different pregnancy complications and dental caries experience in childhood, whether for SGA, sPTB, GH, PE, or for the combined outcome placental syndrome (HNB estimates: OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.87 - 1.19; RR 0.90, 95%CI 0.78 - 1.04). Further adjustment of the models with different confounders did not alter the outcome.

Conclusions: Although it is expected that prenatal stress can be a risk factor for caries development later in life, our findings do not support this hypothesis. Therefore, we believe disparities in caries experience between children are probably not explained by early life events during a critical intrauterine period of development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246927PMC
June 2021

Genetic loci associated with prevalent and incident myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(11):e0230035. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

The Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, The Lundquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America.

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome.

Methods And Results: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event.

Conclusion: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230035PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665790PMC
December 2020

Genomic Medicine: Lessons Learned From Monogenic and Complex Bone Disorders.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 9;11:556610. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Current genetic studies of monogenic and complex bone diseases have broadened our understanding of disease pathophysiology, highlighting the need for medical interventions and treatments tailored to the characteristics of patients. As genomic research progresses, novel insights into the molecular mechanisms are starting to provide support to clinical decision-making; now offering ample opportunities for disease screening, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Drug targets holding mechanisms with genetic support are more likely to be successful. Therefore, implementing genetic information to the drug development process and a molecular redefinition of skeletal disease can help overcoming current shortcomings in pharmaceutical research, including failed attempts and appalling costs. This review summarizes the achievements of genetic studies in the bone field and their application to clinical care, illustrating the imminent advent of the genomic medicine era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.556610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581702PMC
May 2021

Novel loci for childhood body mass index and shared heritability with adult cardiometabolic traits.

PLoS Genet 2020 10 12;16(10):e1008718. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581004PMC
October 2020

Genetic basis of falling risk susceptibility in the UK Biobank Study.

Commun Biol 2020 09 30;3(1):543. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual's fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (P ≤ 5 × 10). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01256-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527955PMC
September 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 48 common genetic variants associated with handedness.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 01 28;5(1):59-70. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Mental Health Services of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (r = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00956-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116623PMC
January 2021

Bringing Genomic Discoveries to the Clinic: Integrating Omic Data Into the Musculoskeletal Field Through International Teamwork and Collaboration.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 09 26;35(9):1623-1625. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4148DOI Listing
September 2020

Total Dietary Antioxidant Capacity and Longitudinal Trajectories of Body Composition.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Although there is some evidence that total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) is inversely associated with the presence of obesity, no longitudinal studies have been performed investigating the effect of TDAC on comprehensive measures of body composition over time. In this study, we included 4595 middle-aged and elderly participants from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort. We estimated TDAC among these individuals by calculating a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score based on data from food-frequency questionnaires. Body composition was assessed by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and every subsequent 3-5 years. From these data, we calculated fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AGR), body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed hand grip strength at two time points and prevalence of sarcopenia at one time point in a subset of participants. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models or multinomial logistic regression models with multivariable adjustment. We found that higher FRAP score was associated with higher FFMI (0.091 kg/m per standard deviation (SD) higher FRAP score, 95% CI 0.031; 0.150), lower AGR (-0.028, 95% CI -0.053; -0.003), higher BMI (0.115, 95% CI 0.020; 0.209) and lower BF% (-0.223, 95% CI -0.383; -0.064) across follow-up after multivariable adjustment. FRAP score was not associated with hand grip strength or sarcopenia. Additional adjustment for adherence to dietary guidelines and exclusion of individuals with comorbid disease at baseline did not change our results. In conclusion, dietary intake of antioxidants may positively affect the amount of lean mass and overall body composition among the middle-aged and elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465193PMC
August 2020

The Musculoskeletal Knowledge Portal: Making Omics Data Useful to the Broader Scientific Community.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 09;35(9):1626-1633

Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard, Boston and Cambridge, MA, USA.

The development of high-throughput genotyping technologies and large biobank collections, complemented with rapid methodological advances in statistical genetics, has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which have identified hundreds of genetic variants across many loci associated with musculoskeletal conditions. Similarly, basic scientists have valuable molecular cellular and animal data based on musculoskeletal disease that would be enhanced by being able to determine the human translation of their findings. By integrating these large-scale human genomic musculoskeletal datasets with complementary evidence from model organisms, new and existing genetic loci can be statistically fine-mapped to plausibly causal variants, candidate genes, and biological pathways. Genes and pathways identified using this approach can be further prioritized as drug targets, including side-effect profiling and the potential for new indications. To bring together these big data, and to realize the vision of creating a knowledge portal, the International Federation of Musculoskeletal Research Societies (IFMRS) established a working group to collaborate with scientists from the Broad Institute to create the Musculoskeletal Knowledge Portal (MSK-KP)(http://mskkp.org/). The MSK consolidates omics datasets from humans, cellular experiments, and model organisms into a central repository that can be accessed by researchers. The vision of the MSK-KP is to enable better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal disease and apply this knowledge to identify and develop new disease interventions. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114232PMC
September 2020

Fetal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates and childhood bone mass: a population-based prospective cohort study.

Environ Res 2020 07 1;186:109602. Epub 2020 May 1.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Exposure to bisphenols and phthalates might influence bone health. We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenols and phthalates during fetal life has persistent effects on bone development.

Objectives: To analyze the associations of fetal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates with bone health in school-aged children.

Methods: Among 1,362 mother-child pairs participating in a population-based cohort study, we measured maternal urinary concentrations of bisphenols and phthalates at first, second and third trimester with high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone area (BA) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 6 and 10 years, and were both used to calculate bone mineral content (BMC) and area-adjusted BMC (aBMC, a measure of volumetric BMD).

Results: Maternal bisphenol concentrations were not associated with childhood bone measures at 6 years. After adjustment for covariates and multiple testing correction, an interquartile range increase in maternal first trimester bisphenol S (BPS) concentrations was associated with lower BMD and aBMC at 10 years (-6.08 (95% confidence interval (CI), -9.97 to -2.19) mg/cm and -0.12 (95% CI, -0.20 to -0.04) g). Maternal third trimester low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate concentrations were associated with higher aBMC at 6 years whereas, maternal third trimester di-n-octylphthalate (DNOP) concentrations were associated with lower aBMC at 10 years. However, these associations did not remain statistically significant after multiple testing correction.

Discussion: Maternal first trimester BPS concentrations are associated with lower BMD and aBMC in school-aged children. These findings should be considered as hypothesis generating and need further replication and exploration of potential underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109602DOI Listing
July 2020

Development of a polygenic risk score to improve screening for fracture risk: A genetic risk prediction study.

PLoS Med 2020 07 2;17(7):e1003152. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Since screening programs identify only a small proportion of the population as eligible for an intervention, genomic prediction of heritable risk factors could decrease the number needing to be screened by removing individuals at low genetic risk. We therefore tested whether a polygenic risk score for heel quantitative ultrasound speed of sound (SOS)-a heritable risk factor for osteoporotic fracture-can identify low-risk individuals who can safely be excluded from a fracture risk screening program.

Methods And Findings: A polygenic risk score for SOS was trained and selected in 2 separate subsets of UK Biobank (comprising 341,449 and 5,335 individuals). The top-performing prediction model was termed "gSOS", and its utility in fracture risk screening was tested in 5 validation cohorts using the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group clinical guidelines (N = 10,522 eligible participants). All individuals were genome-wide genotyped and had measured fracture risk factors. Across the 5 cohorts, the average age ranged from 57 to 75 years, and 54% of studied individuals were women. The main outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity to correctly identify individuals requiring treatment with and without genetic prescreening. The reference standard was a bone mineral density (BMD)-based Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score. The secondary outcomes were the proportions of the screened population requiring clinical-risk-factor-based FRAX (CRF-FRAX) screening and BMD-based FRAX (BMD-FRAX) screening. gSOS was strongly correlated with measured SOS (r2 = 23.2%, 95% CI 22.7% to 23.7%). Without genetic prescreening, guideline recommendations achieved a sensitivity and specificity for correct treatment assignment of 99.6% and 97.1%, respectively, in the validation cohorts. However, 81% of the population required CRF-FRAX tests, and 37% required BMD-FRAX tests to achieve this accuracy. Using gSOS in prescreening and limiting further assessment to those with a low gSOS resulted in small changes to the sensitivity and specificity (93.4% and 98.5%, respectively), but the proportions of individuals requiring CRF-FRAX tests and BMD-FRAX tests were reduced by 37% and 41%, respectively. Study limitations include a reliance on cohorts of predominantly European ethnicity and use of a proxy of fracture risk.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the use of a polygenic risk score in fracture risk screening could decrease the number of individuals requiring screening tests, including BMD measurement, while maintaining a high sensitivity and specificity to identify individuals who should be recommended an intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331983PMC
July 2020

The impact of thiazide diuretics on bone mineral density and the trabecular bone score: the Rotterdam Study.

Bone 2020 09 9;138:115475. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

The decreased risk of osteoporotic fractures in thiazide diuretics (TD) users is possibly not only caused by an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), but by an increase in other determinants of bone strength as well, such as the trabecular bone score (TBS). To test this hypothesis, we studied the association between TD use and both lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD) and lumbar spine TBS (LS-TBS) cross-sectionally in 6096 participants from the Rotterdam Study, as well as the association between TD use and bone turnover estimated by serum osteocalcin levels. We found that past and current use of TD were associated with an increase of LS-BMD (β = 0.021 g/cm (95% CI: 0.006;0.036) and β = 0.016 g/cm (95% CI: 0.002;0.031), respectively). Use of ≥1 defined daily dose (DDD) (β = 0.028, 95% CI: 0.010;0.046; p for trend within DDD of use <0.001) and use of >365 days (β = 0.033, 95% CI: 0.014;0.052; p for trend within duration of use <0.001) were positively associated with LS-BMD. No significant association between TD use and LS-TBS was observed. Mean serum osteocalcin levels were significantly different between users and non-users of TD (20.2 ng/ml (SD 8.3) and 22.5 ng/ml (SD 17.0), respectively, p < 0.001). Furthermore, linear regression analysis showed that the use of TD was associated with a 3.2 ng/l (95% CI: -4.4.; -2.0) lower serum osteocalcin level compared to non-use of TD, when adjusted for Rotterdam Study cohort, age, and sex. Our results may implicate that the decreased fracture risk in TD users is explained by increased bone mass rather than by improved bone microarchitecture. Alternatively, changes in bone microarchitecture might not be detected through TBS and more sophisticated techniques are possibly needed to study a potential effect of TD on bone microarchitecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115475DOI Listing
September 2020

Skin Autofluorescence, a Noninvasive Biomarker for Advanced Glycation End-Products, Is Associated With Prevalent Vertebral and Major Osteoporotic Fractures: The Rotterdam Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 10 22;35(10):1904-1913. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which bind to type 1 collagen in bone and skin, have been implicated in reduced bone quality. The AGE reader™ measures skin autofluorescence (SAF), which might be regarded as a marker of long-term accumulation of AGEs in tissues. We investigated the association of SAF with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in the general population. We studied 2853 individuals from the Rotterdam Study with available SAF measurements (median age, 74.1 years) and with data on prevalent major osteoporotic (MOFs: hip, humerus, wrist, clinical vertebral) and vertebral fractures (VFs: clinical + radiographic Genant's grade 2 and 3). Radiographs were assessed 4 to 5 years before SAF. Multivariate regression models were performed adjusted for age, sex, BMI, creatinine, smoking status, and presence of diabetes and additionally for BMD with interaction terms to test for effect modification. Prevalence of MOFs was 8.5% and of VFs 7%. SAF had a curvilinear association with prevalent MOFs and VFs and therefore, age-adjusted, sex stratified SAF quartiles were used. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the second, third and fourth quartiles of SAF for MOFs were as follows: OR 1.60 (95% CI, 1.08-2.35; p = .02); OR 1.30 (95% CI, 0.89-1.97; p = .20), and OR 1.40 (95% CI, 0.95-2.10; p = .09), respectively, with first (lowest) quartile as reference. For VFs the ORs were as follows: OR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.08-2.64; p = .02), OR 1.74(95% CI, 1.11-2.71; p = .01), and OR 1.73 (95% CI, 1.12-2.73; p = .02) for second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. When comparing the top three quartiles combined with the first quartile, the OR (95% CI) for MOFs was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.04-2.00; p = .03) and for VFs was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.18-2.53; p = .005). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. In conclusion, there is evidence of presence of a threshold of skin AGEs below which there is distinctly lower prevalence of fractures. Longitudinal analyses are needed to confirm our cross-sectional findings. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687120PMC
October 2020

Response to Comment on Koromani et al. Vertebral Fractures in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: More Than Skeletal Complications Alone. Diabetes Care 2020;43:137-144.

Diabetes Care 2020 06;43(6):e69

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dci19-0081DOI Listing
June 2020

Genomic analysis of diet composition finds novel loci and associations with health and lifestyle.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of relative intake from the macronutrients fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar in over 235,000 individuals of European ancestries. We identified 21 unique, approximately independent lead SNPs. Fourteen lead SNPs are uniquely associated with one macronutrient at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10), while five of the 21 lead SNPs reach suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10) for at least one other macronutrient. While the phenotypes are genetically correlated, each phenotype carries a partially unique genetic architecture. Relative protein intake exhibits the strongest relationships with poor health, including positive genetic associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (r ≈ 0.15-0.5). In contrast, relative carbohydrate and sugar intake have negative genetic correlations with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neighborhood deprivation (|r| ≈ 0.1-0.3) and positive genetic correlations with physical activity (r ≈ 0.1 and 0.2). Relative fat intake has no consistent pattern of genetic correlations with poor health but has a negative genetic correlation with educational attainment (r ≈-0.1). Although our analyses do not allow us to draw causal conclusions, we find no evidence of negative health consequences associated with relative carbohydrate, sugar, or fat intake. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that relative protein intake plays a role in the etiology of metabolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0697-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767645PMC
May 2020

Mendelian randomization analysis does not support causal associations of birth weight with hypertension risk and blood pressure in adulthood.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Jul 7;35(7):685-697. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, 21741, Malmö, Sweden.

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (β = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (β = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (β = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00638-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867117PMC
July 2020

Genetic Associations Between Childhood Psychopathology and Adult Depression and Associated Traits in 42 998 Individuals: A Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 07;77(7):715-728

University of Bristol School of Psychological Science, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits.

Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019.

Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater.

Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (β estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (β, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δβ, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δβ, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δβ, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δβ, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δβ, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008).

Conclusions And Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160753PMC
July 2020