Publications by authors named "Fernando O Zuloaga"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identifying gaps in the photographic record of the vascular plant flora of the Americas.

Nat Plants 2021 08 29;7(8):1010-1014. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Field photographs of plant species are crucial for research and conservation, but the lack of a centralized database makes them difficult to locate. We surveyed 25 online databases of field photographs and found that they harboured only about 53% of the approximately 125,000 vascular plant species of the Americas. These results reflect the urgent need for a centralized database that can both integrate and complete the photographic record of the world's flora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-00974-2DOI Listing
August 2021

An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas.

Science 2017 12;358(6370):1614-1617

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The cataloging of the vascular plants of the Americas has a centuries-long history, but it is only in recent decades that an overview of the entire flora has become possible. We present an integrated assessment of all known native species of vascular plants in the Americas. Twelve regional and national checklists, prepared over the past 25 years and including two large ongoing flora projects, were merged into a single list. Our publicly searchable checklist includes 124,993 species, 6227 genera, and 355 families, which correspond to 33% of the 383,671 vascular plant species known worldwide. In the past 25 years, the rate at which new species descriptions are added has averaged 744 annually for the Americas, and we can expect the total to reach about 150,000.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0398DOI Listing
December 2017

Evolutionary relationships in Panicoid grasses based on plastome phylogenomics (Panicoideae; Poaceae).

BMC Plant Biol 2016 06 18;16(1):140. Epub 2016 Jun 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, 1425 W. Lincoln Hwy, DeKalb, IL, 60115-2861, USA.

Background: Panicoideae are the second largest subfamily in Poaceae (grass family), with 212 genera and approximately 3316 species. Previous studies have begun to reveal relationships within the subfamily, but largely lack resolution and/or robust support for certain tribal and subtribal groups. This study aims to resolve these relationships, as well as characterize a putative mitochondrial insert in one linage.

Results: 35 newly sequenced Panicoideae plastomes were combined in a phylogenomic study with 37 other species: 15 Panicoideae and 22 from outgroups. A robust Panicoideae topology largely congruent with previous studies was obtained, but with some incongruences with previously reported subtribal relationships. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to plastid DNA (ptDNA) transfer was discovered in the Paspalum lineage.

Conclusions: The phylogenomic analysis returned a topology that largely supports previous studies. Five previously recognized subtribes appear on the topology to be non-monophyletic. Additionally, evidence for mtDNA to ptDNA transfer was identified in both Paspalum fimbriatum and P. dilatatum, and suggests a single rare event that took place in a common progenitor. Finally, the framework from this study can guide larger whole plastome sampling to discern the relationships in Cyperochloeae, Steyermarkochloeae, Gynerieae, and other incertae sedis taxa that are weakly supported or unresolved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0823-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912804PMC
June 2016

Macro-Climatic Distribution Limits Show Both Niche Expansion and Niche Specialization among C4 Panicoids.

PLoS One 2016 7;11(3):e0151075. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion (CONICET-ANCEFN), Labarden 200, San Isidro, B1642HYD, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Grasses are ancestrally tropical understory species whose current dominance in warm open habitats is linked to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. C4 grasses maintain high rates of photosynthesis in warm and water stressed environments, and the syndrome is considered to induce niche shifts into these habitats while adaptation to cold ones may be compromised. Global biogeographic analyses of C4 grasses have, however, concentrated on diversity patterns, while paying little attention to distributional limits. Using phylogenetic contrast analyses, we compared macro-climatic distribution limits among ~1300 grasses from the subfamily Panicoideae, which includes 4/5 of the known photosynthetic transitions in grasses. We explored whether evolution of C4 photosynthesis correlates with niche expansions, niche changes, or stasis at subfamily level and within the two tribes Paniceae and Paspaleae. We compared the climatic extremes of growing season temperatures, aridity, and mean temperatures of the coldest months. We found support for all the known biogeographic distribution patterns of C4 species, these patterns were, however, formed both by niche expansion and niche changes. The only ubiquitous response to a change in the photosynthetic pathway within Panicoideae was a niche expansion of the C4 species into regions with higher growing season temperatures, but without a withdrawal from the inherited climate niche. Other patterns varied among the tribes, as macro-climatic niche evolution in the American tribe Paspaleae differed from the pattern supported in the globally distributed tribe Paniceae and at family level.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151075PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780779PMC
July 2016

Molecular phylogenetics of tribe Eudemeae (Brassicaceae) and implications for its morphology and distribution.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2015 Jan 17;82 Pt A:43-59. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA.

Tribe Eudemeae comprises a morphologically heterogeneous group of genera distributed along the Andes of South America from Colombia southward into southern Chile and Argentina. The tribe currently includes seven genera: Aschersoniodoxa, Brayopsis, Dactylocardamum, Delpinophytum, Eudema, Onuris, and Xerodraba, and exhibits a wide morphological diversification in growth habit, inflorescences, and fruits. However, little is known about the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the tribe. We present here a molecular phylogeny of representative sampling of all genera, utilizing sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and chloroplast regions trnL-F, trnH-psbA, and rps16. Additionally, climatic niches of the tribe and its main lineages, along with the evolution of diagnostic morphological characters, were studied. All analyses confirmed the monophyly of Eudemeae, with the exception of Delpinophytum that was included with genera of the lineage I of Brassicaceae. Eudemeae is divided into two main lineages differentiated by their geographical distribution and climatic niche: the primarily north-central Andean lineage included Aschersoniodoxa, Brayopsis, Dactylocardamum, and Eudema, and the Patagonian and southern Andean lineage included Onuris and Xerodraba. Finally, ancestral-state reconstructions in the tribe generally reveal multiple and independent gains or losses of diagnostic morphological characters, such as growth form, inflorescence reduction, and fruit type. Relevant taxonomic implications stemming from the results are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.030DOI Listing
January 2015

Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification.

Cladistics 2012 Aug 3;28(4):333-356. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, San Isidro, B1642HYD, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Included in the PACMAD clade of the family Poaceae (Panicoideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, Aristidoideae, Danthonioideae), the tribe Paniceae s.l. is one of the largest tribes of the subfamily Panicoideae, with more than 2000 species. This tribe comprises a huge morphological, cytological and physiological diversity represented by different inflorescence types, several basic chromosome numbers, and at least four major photosynthetic pathways. The tribe Paniceae has been the subject of molecular studies that have confirmed its paraphyly: two major clades were recognized based on their basic chromosome numbers (x = 9, x = 10). The x = 10 Paniceae clade is sister to the Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade (x = 10), while the combined x = 10 clade is sister to the x = 9 clade that contains the remaining genera of Paniceae. As a result of a recent realignment within the tribe in terms of the phylogenetic position of minor and major Paniceae genera, a reanalysis of the whole sampling is performed and new underrepresented taxa are discussed. A total of 155 genera, currently considered within subfamily Panicoideae, are represented here by almost all genera of Paniceae s.l., representatives of Andropogoneae and Arundinelleae s.s., and the endemic and small tribe Steyermarkochloeae; we also included specimens of subfamily Micrairoideae, tribes Isachneae and Eriachneae. The sampling includes as outgroups 18 genera of the PACMAD clade (excluding Panicoideae) and four genera from the BEP clade (Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Pooideae), rooting with Bromus inermis. A matrix with 265 taxa based on the combined evidence from ndhF plastid sequences (2074 bp) and 57 morphological characters was subjected to parsimony analyses. Jackknife resampling was used to calculate group support. Most clades are characterized by morphological, cytological, anatomical, and/or physiological characters. Major tribal changes are based on the basic chromosome number; the pantropical x = 9 clade is here recognized as Paniceae s.s., while the American x = 10 Paniceae s.l. is restricted to the reinstated tribe Paspaleae. The optimization of the photosynthetic pathway for the Paspaleae-Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade, including the monotypic Reynaudia, shows a plesiomorphic C state while the ancestral state for Paniceae s.s. is ambiguous. If Reynaudia were not included or placed elsewhere, the ancestral photosynthetic pathway for both the Paspaleae-Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade and the Paniceae s.s. would be unambiguously C . In order to explore character evolution further, the morphological characters were mapped onto one of the most parsimonious trees. A relationship between photosynthetic pathways and inflorescence morphology is suggested here for the first time. Based on the optimization of morphological characters and additional data, we propose names for almost all inner clades at the rank of subtribe with a few groups as incertae sedis. With this extensive sampling, we resolved the phylogenetic relationships and the assignation of synapomorphies, and improved the support in subtribe sorting; consequently a robust circumscription of the tribe Paniceae s.l. is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.xDOI Listing
August 2012

Detecting areas of endemism with a taxonomically diverse data set: plants, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and insects from Argentina.

Cladistics 2012 Jun 6;28(3):317-329. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion (CONICET-ANCEFN), Labarden 200, CC22, San Isidro, B1642HYD Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The idea of an area of endemism implies that different groups of plants and animals should have largely coincident distributions. This paper analyses an area of 1152 000 km , between parallels 21 and 32°S and meridians 70 and 53°W to examine whether a large and taxonomically diverse data set actually displays areas supported by different groups. The data set includes the distribution of 805 species of plants (45 families), mammals (25 families), reptiles (six families), amphibians (five families), birds (18 families), and insects (30 families), and is analysed with the optimality criterion (based on the notion of endemism) implemented in the program NDM/VNDM. Almost 50% of the areas obtained are supported by three or more major groups; areas supported by fewer major groups generally contain species from different genera, families, or orders. © The Willi Hennig Society 2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00385.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Phylogeny of New World Stipeae (Poaceae): an evaluation of the monophyly of Aciachne and Amelichloa.

Cladistics 2010 Dec;26(6):563-578

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, San Isidro, B1642HYD Buenos Aires, Argentina.

© The Willi Hennig Society 2010. ABSTRACT: The tribe Stipeae, with nearly 550 species, includes 28 core genera, of which 13 occur in America: Achnatherum, Aciachne, Amelichloa, Anatherostipa, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Nassella, Ortachne, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium and Ptilagrostis. Based on 37 species representing 14 Stipeae genera, and using four chloroplast markers and morphological characters, we provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World Stipeae, with our focus on Amelichloa and Aciachne. Parsimony analyses included two approaches: (i) a multiple-sequence alignment where gaps were treated as missing or coded, (ii) using direct sequences by direct optimization as implemented by the program POY v.4.0.2870. Analyses under direct optimization were conducted using the molecular data sets independently and combined, and with morphological data. Different cost regimes were explored and the one producing the highest congruence between partitions was chosen. Among the genera considered, only Piptochaetium, Austrostipa, and Hesperostipa were resolved as monophyletic, while Achnatherum, Amelichloa s.l., Anatherostipa, Jarava and Nassella were polyphyletic, and Aciachne was polyphyletic or paraphyletic. As a result, Amelichloa can be restricted to a monophyletic group if including A. brachychaeta, A. ambigua, A. clandestina and A. caudata, or it should be considered within Nassella. The phylogenetic position of species of Aciachne suggests inbreeding and outbreeding events with species of Anatherostipa, Ortachne and Hesperostipa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00310.xDOI Listing
December 2010

Molecular phylogeny of the subtribe Melinidinae (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) and evolutionary trends in the homogenization of inflorescences.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2010 Jul 10;56(1):355-69. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The subtribe Melinidinae (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) includes 14 genera that present the PCK photosynthetic subtype in addition to several other unique and also common characters. The purpose of this research was (1) to test the monophyly of the subtribe Melinidinae, including 331 ndhF sequences of Panicoids and related genera, (2) to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among genera of Melinidinae using four cpDNA regions, and (3) to study evolutionary trends in the homogenization of inflorescences. As a result, the monophyly of Melinidinae is supported if Urochloa venosa is excluded from the subtribe. Alloteropsis semialata subsp. semialata, an unusual PCK species, is here confirmed within the Forest shade clade. Within Melinidinae, Urochloa and Eriochloa appeared as paraphyletic and polyphyletic genera, respectively. Finally, the general trend in the evolution of the inflorescences in Melinidinae seems to be the reduction from non-homogenized to complete homogenized inflorescences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.009DOI Listing
July 2010

Quantitative biogeography in the South America highlands-recognizing the Altoandina, Puna and Prepuna through the study of Poaceae.

Cladistics 2009 Jun 24;25(3):295-310. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, CC 22, San Isidro B1642HYD, Argentina.

The distribution data of 340 grass species sampled in a region of 53.219 km in the northwestern corner of Argentina (between ∼21°S and ∼24°S) were analyzed to search for concordance in species distributions by using the program NDM/VNDM. Here, the traditional biogeographic hypothesis proposed for the region is evaluated for the first time by using a quantitative method and an optimal criterion specifically developed within the context of areas of endemism. Three different grid sizes (0.5° × 0.5°, 0.35° × 0.35 ° and 0.2° × 0.2°) were used to analyze three nested data sets: species found in the Andes of Argentina, Bolivia and/or Chile; Andean distributed species; and all grass species found in the study region. The main areas supported by the analyses correspond generally to the traditional biogeographic hypothesis proposed for the region. Local distribution patterns defined by species restricted to the study region were best supported under the small grid sizes, while the bigger grid sizes recovered areas defined by species with a broader distribution. The local distribution patterns emerged in all the analyses even when widespread species were added to the data set.  © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00248.xDOI Listing
June 2009

Diversification of inflorescence development in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae).

Am J Bot 2009 Mar 12;96(3):549-64. Epub 2009 Feb 12.

Morfología Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agracias, National University of Litoral, Kreder 2805, S3080HOF Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.

In grasses, inflorescence diversification and its correlation with species evolution are intriguing and not well understood. Part of this problem lies in our lack of comprehension about the inflorescence morphological complexity of grasses. We focused our study on the PCK clade (named for phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase), a well-supported monophyletic group for which the relationships among its taxa are not well resolved. Interestingly, the PCK clade has an extensive diversity of adult inflorescence forms. A comparative developmental approach can help us to understand the basis of such morphological differences as well as provide characters that can be used in phylogenetic studies of the group. Using SEM studies, we demonstrate that inflorescence morphology in this clade is even more complex than what is typically observed in adult forms. We describe a number of new characters, and some classical features previously used for taxonomic purposes are redefined on the basis of development. We also define four morphological groups combining adult inflorescence form and development, and we discuss some of the evolutionary aspects of inflorescence diversification in the PCK clade. Taxonomic delimitation among genera in the PCK clade remains confusing and unclear where molecular and morphological studies support different classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800245DOI Listing
March 2009

A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): tests of monophyly and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae.

Am J Bot 2003 May;90(5):796-821

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, Casilla de Correo 22, San Isidro B1642HYD, Buenos Aires, Argentina;

Panicum L. is a cosmopolitan genus with approximately 450 species. Although the genus has been considerably reduced in species number with the segregation of many taxa to independent genera in the last two centuries, Panicum remains a heterogeneous assemblage, as has been demonstrated in recent years. The genus is remarkably uniform in its floral characters but exhibits considerable variation in anatomical, physiological, and cytological features. As a result, several classifications, and criteria of what the genus should really include, have been postulated in modern literature. The purpose of this research, based on molecular data of the chloroplast ndhF gene, is to test the monophyly of Panicum, to evaluate infrageneric classifications, and to propose a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. Based on the present results, previous morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, and inferred diagnostic morphological characters, we restrict Panicum sensu stricto (s.s.) to the former subgenus Panicum and support recognition of Dichanthelium, Phanopyrum, and Steinchisma as distinct genera. We have transfered other species of Panicum to other genera of the Paniceae. Most of the necessary combinations have been made previously, so few nomenclatural changes have been required. The remaining species of Panicum sensu lato (s.l.) are included within Panicum incertae sedis representing isolated species or species grouped within monophyletic clades. Additionally, we explore the performance of the three codon position characters in producing the supported phylogeny.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.90.5.796DOI Listing
May 2003
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