Publications by authors named "Fernando J Sialana"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Revealing the Venomous Secrets of the Spider's Web.

J Proteome Res 2020 08 30;19(8):3044-3059. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of General and Applied Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, University of São Paulo State (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP 13506-900, Brazil.

Orb-weaving spiders use a highly strong, sticky and elastic web to catch their prey. These web properties alone would be enough for the entrapment of prey; however, these spiders may be hiding venomous secrets in the web, which current research is revealing. Here, we provide strong proteotranscriptomic evidence for the presence of toxin/neurotoxin-like proteins, defensins, and proteolytic enzymes on the web silk from spider. The results from quantitative-based transcriptomic and proteomic approaches showed that silk-producing glands produce an extensive repertoire of toxin/neurotoxin-like proteins, similar to those already reported in spider venoms. Meanwhile, the insect toxicity results demonstrated that these toxic components can be lethal and/or paralytic chemical weapons used for prey capture on the web, and the presence of fatty acids in the web may be a responsible mechanism opening the way to the web toxins for accessing the interior of prey's body, as shown here. Comparative phylogenomic-level evolutionary analyses revealed orthologous genes among two spider groups, Araneomorphae and Mygalomorphae, and the findings showed protein sequences similar to toxins found in the taxa Scorpiones and Hymenoptera in addition to Araneae. Overall, these data represent a valuable resource to further investigate other spider web toxin systems and also suggest that web is not a passive mechanical trap for prey capture, but it exerts an active role in prey paralysis/killing using a series of neurotoxins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00086DOI Listing
August 2020

Nuclear Translocation of Glutaminase GLS2 in Human Cancer Cells Associates with Proliferation Arrest and Differentiation.

Sci Rep 2020 02 10;10(1):2259. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Canceromics Lab, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain and Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Málaga, Spain.

Glutaminase (GA) catalyzes the first step in mitochondrial glutaminolysis playing a key role in cancer metabolic reprogramming. Humans express two types of GA isoforms: GLS and GLS2. GLS isozymes have been consistently related to cell proliferation, but the role of GLS2 in cancer remains poorly understood. GLS2 is repressed in many tumor cells and a better understanding of its function in tumorigenesis may further the development of new therapeutic approaches. We analyzed GLS2 expression in HCC, GBM and neuroblastoma cells, as well as in monkey COS-7 cells. We studied GLS2 expression after induction of differentiation with phorbol ester (PMA) and transduction with the full-length cDNA of GLS2. In parallel, we investigated cell cycle progression and levels of p53, p21 and c-Myc proteins. Using the baculovirus system, human GLS2 protein was overexpressed, purified and analyzed for posttranslational modifications employing a proteomics LC-MS/MS platform. We have demonstrated a dual targeting of GLS2 in human cancer cells. Immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation gave consistent results demonstrating nuclear and mitochondrial locations, with the latter being predominant. Nuclear targeting was confirmed in cancer cells overexpressing c-Myc- and GFP-tagged GLS2 proteins. We assessed the subnuclear location finding a widespread distribution of GLS2 in the nucleoplasm without clear overlapping with specific nuclear substructures. GLS2 expression and nuclear accrual notably increased by treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PMA and it correlated with cell cycle arrest at G2/M, upregulation of tumor suppressor p53 and p21 protein. A similar response was obtained by overexpression of GLS2 in T98G glioma cells, including downregulation of oncogene c-Myc. Furthermore, human GLS2 was identified as being hypusinated by MS analysis, a posttranslational modification which may be relevant for its nuclear targeting and/or function. Our studies provide evidence for a tumor suppressor role of GLS2 in certain types of cancer. The data imply that GLS2 can be regarded as a highly mobile and multilocalizing protein translocated to both mitochondria and nuclei. Upregulation of GLS2 in cancer cells induced an antiproliferative response with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58264-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010782PMC
February 2020

Loss of Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins causes synaptic aberrations in principal neurons.

PLoS Biol 2019 09 3;17(9):e3000414. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a ciliopathy, is a rare genetic condition characterised by retinal degeneration, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive impairment. In spite of progress made in our general understanding of BBS aetiology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in BBS remain elusive. Here, we report that the loss of BBS proteins causes synaptic dysfunction in principal neurons, providing a possible explanation for the cognitive impairment phenotype observed in BBS patients. Using synaptosomal proteomics and immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate the presence of Bbs proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of hippocampal neurons. Loss of Bbs results in a significant reduction of dendritic spines in principal neurons of Bbs mouse models. Furthermore, we show that spine deficiency correlates with events that destabilise spine architecture, such as impaired spine membrane receptor signalling, known to be involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest a role for BBS proteins in dendritic spine homeostasis that may be linked to the cognitive phenotype observed in BBS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743795PMC
September 2019

A proteotranscriptomic study of silk-producing glands from the orb-weaving spiders.

Mol Omics 2019 08;15(4):256-270

Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP 13500-900, Brazil.

Orb-weaving spiders can produce different silk fibers, which constitute outstanding materials characterized by their high strength and elasticity. Researchers have tried to reproduce the fibers of these proteins synthetically and/or by using recombinant DNA technology, but only a few of the natural physicochemical and biophysical properties have been obtained to date. Female orb-web-spiders present seven silk-glands, which synthesize the spidroins and a series of other proteins, which interact with the spidroins, resulting in silk fibers with notable physicochemical properties. Despite the recognized importance of the silk-glands for understanding how the fibers are produced and processed, the investigation of these glands is at a nascent stage. In the current study we present the assembled transcriptome of silk-producing glands from the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes, as well as develop a large-scale proteomic approach for in-depth analyses of silk-producing glands. The present investigation revealed an extensive repertoire of hitherto undescribed proteins involved in silk secretion and processing, such as prevention of degradation during the silk spinning process, transportation, protection against proteolytic autolysis and against oxidative stress, molecular folding and stabilization, and post-translational modifications. Comparative phylogenomic-level evolutionary analyses revealed orthologous genes among three groups of silk-producing organisms - (i) Araneomorphae spiders, (ii) Mygalomorphae spiders, and (iii) silk-producing insects. A common orthologous gene, which was annotated as silk gland factor-3 is present among all species analysed. This protein belongs to a transcription factor family, that is important and related to the development of the silk apparatus synthesis in the silk glands of silk-producing arthropods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9mo00087aDOI Listing
August 2019

Proteome Changes Paralleling the Olfactory Conditioning in the Forager Honey Bee and Provision of a Brain Proteomics Dataset.

Proteomics 2019 07 24;19(13):e1900094. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg, A-5020, Austria.

The olfactory conditioning of the bee proboscis extension reflex (PER) is extensively used as a paradigm in associative learning of invertebrates but with limited molecular investigations. To investigate which protein changes are linked to olfactory conditioning, a non-sophisticated conditioning model is applied using the PER in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Foraging honeybees are assigned into three groups based on the reflex behavior and training: conditioned using 2-octanone (PER-conditioned), and sucrose and water controls. Thereafter, the brain synaptosomal proteins are isolated and analyzed by quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling (TMT). Additionally, the complex proteome dataset of the bee brain is generated with a total number of 5411 protein groups, including key players in neurotransmitter signaling. The most significant categories affected during olfactory conditioning are associated with "SNARE interactions in vesicular transport" (BET1 and VAMP7), ABC transporters, and fatty acid degradation pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201900094DOI Listing
July 2019

Spheroid glioblastoma culture conditions as antigen source for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy: spheroid proteins are survival-relevant targets but can impair immunogenic interferon γ production.

Cytotherapy 2019 06 8;21(6):643-658. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Activartis Biotech GmbH, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of brain cancer. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy against glioblastoma depends on the effectiveness of loaded antigens. Sphere-inducing culture conditions are being studied by many as a potential antigen source. Here, we investigated two different in vitro conditions (spheroid culture versus adherent culture) in relation to DC immunotherapy: (1) We studied the specific spheroid-culture proteome and assessed the clinical importance of spheroid proteins. (2) We evaluated the immunogenicity of spheroid lysate - both compared to adherent conditions.

Methods: We used seven spheroid culture systems, three of them patient-derived. Stemness-related markers were studied in those three via immunofluorescence. Spheroid-specific protein expression was measured via quantitative proteomics. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) survival data was used to investigate the clinical impact of spheroid proteins. Immunogenicity of spheroid versus adherent cell lysate was explored in autologous ELISPOT systems (DCs and T cells from the three patients).

Results: (1) The differential proteome of spheroid versus adherent glioblastoma culture conditions could successfully be established. The top 10 identified spheroid-specific proteins were associated with significantly decreased overall survival (TCGA MIT/Harvard cohort; n = 350, P = 0.014). (2) In exploratory experiments, immunogenicity of spheroid lysate vis-á-vis interferon (IFN)γ production was lower than that of adherent cell lysate (IFNγ ELISPOT; P = 0.034).

Conclusions: Spheroid culture proteins seem to represent survival-relevant targets, supporting the use of spheroid culture conditions as an antigen source for DC immunotherapy. However, immunogenicity enhancement should be considered for future research. Transferability of our findings in terms of clinical impact and regarding different spheroid-generation techniques needs further validation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.03.002DOI Listing
June 2019

Dopamine type 1- and 2-like signaling in the modulation of spatial reference learning and memory.

Behav Brain Res 2019 04 16;362:173-180. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Paracelsus Medical University, 5020, Salzburg, Austria; Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Spatial reference memory is known to be modulated by the dopaminergic system involving different brain regions. Here, we sought to identify the contribution of D (D1R) and D (D2R)-like dopamine receptor signaling on learning and memory in a food rewarded hole-board task by intracerebroventricular infusing D1R- and D2R- like receptor agonists (SKF-81297 and Sumanirole) and antagonists (SCH 23390 and Remoxipride) once 30 min prior to daily training sessions. D1R agonism induced persistent enhancement of performance, whereas D1R antagonism impaired reference memory formation. D2R agonist and antagonist exerted no effects. Phase specific comparisons revealed an enhancement of spatial acquisition in the presence of the D1R but not D2R agonism on acquisition, but not during retention. Since task difficulty might skew dopamine-induced improvements in learning and memory, we tested the D1R agonist in the hole-board task with increased difficulty. Drug treated animals performed significantly better during all training phases, with results better resolved than in the easy task. Additionally, proteomic analysis of the prefrontal cortex revealed ninety six proteins to be regulated by D1R agonism, from which 35 were correlated with behavioral performance. Obtained targets were grouped by function, showing synaptic transmission, synaptic remodeling, and dendritic spine morphology as the major functional classes affected. In sum, we find that activation of D1R signaling during spatial acquisition and retention improved reference memory index, depended on the task difficulty, and altered the proteome landscape of the prefrontal cortex indicative of massive organizational synaptic restructuring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.01.028DOI Listing
April 2019

A novel role for NUPR1 in the keratinocyte stress response to UV oxidized phospholipids.

Redox Biol 2019 01 13;20:467-482. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Biotechnology of Skin Aging, Austria. Electronic address:

Ultraviolet light is the dominant environmental oxidative skin stressor and a major skin aging factor. We studied which oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) mediators would be generated in primary human keratinocytes (KC) upon exposure to ultraviolet A light (UVA) and investigated the contribution of OxPL to UVA responses. Mass spectrometric analysis immediately or 24 h post UV stress revealed significant changes in abundance of 173 and 84 lipid species, respectively. We identified known and novel lipid species including known bioactive and also potentially reactive carbonyl containing species. We found indication for selective metabolism and degradation of selected reactive lipids. Exposure to both UVA and to in vitro UVA - oxidized phospholipids activated, on transcriptome and proteome level, NRF2/antioxidant response signaling, lipid metabolizing enzyme expression and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. We identified NUPR1 as an upstream regulator of UVA/OxPL transcriptional stress responses and found this protein to be expressed in the epidermis. Silencing of NUPR1 resulted in augmented expression of antioxidant and lipid detoxification genes and disturbed the cell cycle, making it a potential key factor in skin reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses intimately involved in aging and pathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2018.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243031PMC
January 2019

Proteomic Studies on the Swim Bladder of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Proteomics 2018 04 30;18(8):e1700445. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

The swim bladder of a fish is a vital organ that with gas gland cells in the swim bladder wall enables key physiological functions including buoyancy regulation in the face of different hydrostatic pressures. Specific gas gland cells produce and secrete acidic metabolites into the blood in order to reduce the physical solubility of gases and blood gas transport capacity for regulating the volume of the swim bladder. Transcriptomic analyses have provided evidence at the RNA level but no specific studies at the protein level have been carried out so far. Herein, it was the aim of the study to show swim bladder proteins of the yellow stage European eel by label-free LCMS (Q-Exactive Plus) that resulted in the identification of 6223 protein groups. Neurotransmitter receptors and transporters were enriched in the membrane fraction and enzymes for acid production were observed. The list of identified proteins may represent a useful tool for further proteomics experiments on this organ. All MS proteomics data are available at the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifier PXD007850.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201700445DOI Listing
April 2018

Early Presymptomatic Changes in the Proteome of Mitochondria-Associated Membrane in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Oct 22;55(10):7839-7857. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Proteomics, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Intracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Recently, it has been uncovered that presenilins (PSs), the key components of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the β-amyloid producing γ-secretase complex, are highly enriched in a special sub-compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functionally connected to mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). A current hypothesis of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD) suggests that MAM is involved in the initial phase of AD. Since MAM supplies mitochondria with essential proteins, the increasing level of PSs and β-amyloid could lead to metabolic dysfunction because of the impairment of ER-mitochondrion crosstalk. To reveal the early molecular changes of this subcellular compartment in AD development MAM fraction was isolated from the cerebral cortex of 3 months old APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and age-matched C57BL/6 control mice, then mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteome analysis was performed. The enrichment and purity of MAM preparations were validated with EM, LC-MS/MS and protein enrichment analysis. Label-free LC-MS/MS was used to reveal the differences between the proteome of the transgenic and control mice. We obtained 77 increased and 49 decreased protein level changes in the range of - 6.365 to + 2.988, which have mitochondrial, ER or ribosomal localization according to Gene Ontology database. The highest degree of difference between the two groups was shown by the ATP-binding cassette G1 (Abcg1) which plays a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism and suppresses Aβ accumulation. Most of the other protein changes were associated with increased protein synthesis, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), oxidative stress response, decreased mitochondrial protein transport and ATP production. The interaction network analysis revealed a strong relationship between the detected MAM protein changes and AD. Moreover, it explored several MAM proteins with hub position suggesting their importance in Aβ induced early MAM dysregulation. Our identified MAM protein changes precede the onset of dementia-like symptoms in the APP/PS1 model, suggesting their importance in the development of AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-0955-6DOI Listing
October 2018

Quantitative Proteomics of Synaptosomal Fractions in a Rat Overexpressing Human DISC1 Gene Indicates Profound Synaptic Dysregulation in the Dorsal Striatum.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 6;11:26. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Department of Neuroproteomics, Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a key protein involved in behavioral processes and various mental disorders, including schizophrenia and major depression. A transgenic rat overexpressing non-mutant human DISC1, modeling aberrant proteostasis of the DISC1 protein, displays behavioral, biochemical and anatomical deficits consistent with aspects of mental disorders, including changes in the dorsal striatum, an anatomical region critical in the development of behavioral disorders. Herein, dorsal striatum of 10 transgenic DISC1 (tgDISC1) and 10 wild type (WT) littermate control rats was used for synaptosomal preparations and for performing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics, using isobaric labeling (TMT10plex). Functional enrichment analysis was generated from proteins with level changes. The increase in DISC1 expression leads to changes in proteins and synaptic-associated processes including membrane trafficking, ion transport, synaptic organization and neurodevelopment. Canonical pathway analysis assigned proteins with level changes to actin cytoskeleton, Gαq, Rho family GTPase and Rho GDI, axonal guidance, ephrin receptor and dopamine-DARPP32 feedback in cAMP signaling. DISC1-regulated proteins proposed in the current study are also highly associated with neurodevelopmental and mental disorders. Bioinformatics analyses from the current study predicted that the following biological processes may be activated by overexpression of DISC1, i.e., regulation of cell quantities, neuronal and axonal extension and long term potentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of overexpression of non-mutant DISC1 or its misassembly has profound consequences on protein networks essential for behavioral control. These results are also relevant for the interpretation of previous as well as for the design of future studies on DISC1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808171PMC
February 2018

Reduced Levels of the Synaptic Functional Regulator FMRP in Dentate Gyrus of the Aging Sprague-Dawley Rat.

Front Aging Neurosci 2017 23;9:384. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) encoded by Fragile X mental retardation 1 () gene is a RNA-binding regulator of mRNA translation, transport and stability with multiple targets responsible for proper synaptic function. Epigenetic silencing of gene expression leads to the development of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) that is characterized by intellectual disability and other behavioral problems including autism. In the rat FXS model, the lack of FMRP caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent memory. However, the hippocampal changes of FMRP in aging rats are not fully elucidated. The current study addresses the changes in FMRP levels in dentate gyrus (DG) from young (17 weeks) and aging (22 months) Sprague - Dawley rats. The aging animal group showed significant decline in spatial reference memory. Protein samples from five rats per each group were analyzed by quantitative proteomic analysis resulting in 153 significantly changed proteins. FMRP showed significant reduction in aging animals which was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis of the differential protein dataset revealed several functionally related protein groups with individual interactions with FMRP. These include high representation of the RNA translation and processing machinery connected to FMRP and other RNA-binding regulators including CAPRIN1, the members of Pumilio (PUM) and CUG-BP, Elav-like (CELF) family, and YTH N(6)-methyladenosine RNA-binding proteins (YTHDF). The results of the current study point to the important role of FMRP and regulation of RNA processing in the rat DG and memory decline during the aging process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703695PMC
November 2017

Intra-nasal dopamine alleviates cognitive deficits in tgDISC1 rats which overexpress the human DISC1 gene.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2017 Dec 28;146:12-20. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene has been associated with mental illnesses such as major depression and schizophrenia. The transgenic DISC1 (tgDISC1) rat, which overexpresses the human DISC1 gene, is known to exhibit deficient dopamine (DA) homeostasis. To ascertain whether the DISC1 gene also impacts cognitive functions, 14-15 months old male tgDISC1 rats and wild-type controls were subjected to the novel object preference (NOP) test and the object-based attention test (OBAT) in order to assess short-term memory (1 h), long-term memory (24 h), and attention.

Results: The tgDISC1 group exhibited intact short-term memory, but deficient long-term-memory in the NOP test and deficient attention-related behavior in the OBAT. In a different group of tgDISC1 rats, 3 mg/kg intranasally applied dopamine (IN-DA) or its vehicle was applied prior to the NOP or the OBAT test. IN-DA reversed cognitive deficits in both the NOP and OBAT tests. In a further cohort of tgDISC1 rats, post-mortem levels of DA, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetylcholine were determined in a variety of brain regions. The tgDISC1 group had less DA in the neostriatum, hippocampus and amygdala, less acetylcholine in neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and amygdala, more serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, and less serotonin and noradrenaline in the amygdala.

Conclusions: Our findings show that DISC1 overexpression and misassembly is associated with deficits in long-term memory and attention-related behavior. Since behavioral impairments in tgDISC1 rats were reversed by IN-DA, DA deficiency may be a major cause for the behavioral deficits expressed in this model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2017.10.015DOI Listing
December 2017

Validation of dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 antibodies using receptor deficient mice.

Amino Acids 2017 06 18;49(6):1101-1109. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum. Moreover, a DRD1 antibody and a DRD2 antibody that were found specific in our tests were used for immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of the immunoprecipitate. Two out of nine antibodies (anti DRD1 Sigma Aldrich D2944 and anti DRD2 Merck Millipore AB5084P) against the abovementioned dopamine receptors were specific for DRD1 and DRD2 as evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and the immunoprecipitate indeed contained DRD1 and DRD2 as revealed by mass spectrometry. The observed findings may question the use of so far non-validated antibodies against the abovementioned dopamine receptors. Own observations may be valuable for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies using dopamine receptors DRD1 or DRD2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-017-2408-3DOI Listing
June 2017

Mass spectrometric analysis of synaptosomal membrane preparations for the determination of brain receptors, transporters and channels.

Proteomics 2016 11;16(22):2911-2920

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The molecular composition of synaptic signal transduction machineries shapes synaptic neurotransmission. The repertoire of receptors, transporters and channels (RTCs) comprises major signaling events in the brain. RTCs are conventionally studied by candidate immunohistochemistry and biochemistry, which are low throughput with resolution greatly affected by available immunoreagents and membrane interference. Therefore, a comprehensive resource of synaptic brain RTCs is still lacking. In particular, studies on the detergent-soluble synaptosomal fraction, known to contain transporters and channels, are limited. We, therefore, performed sub-synaptosomal fractionation of rat cerebral cortex, followed by trypsin/chymotrypsin sequential digestion of a detergent-soluble synaptosomal fraction and a postsynaptic density preparation, stable-isotope tryptic peptide labeling and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based on the current study, a total of 4784 synaptic proteins were submitted to the ProteomExchange database (PXD001948), including 274 receptors, 394 transporters/channels and 1377 transmembrane proteins. Function-based classification assigned 1781 proteins as probable drug targets with 834 directly linked to brain disorders. The analytical approach identified 499 RTCs that are not listed in the largest, curated database for synaptosomal proteins (SynProt). This is a threefold RTC increase over all other data collected to date. Taken together, we present a protein discovery resource that can serve as a benchmark for future molecular interrogation of synaptic connectivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201600234DOI Listing
November 2016

A detailed proteomic profiling of plasma membrane from zebrafish brain.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2016 12 12;10(12):1264-1268. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-established model organism in developmental biology and disease modeling. In recent years, an increasing amount of studies used zebrafish to analyze the genetic changes underlying various neurological disorders. The brain plasma membrane proteome represents the major subsets of signaling proteins and promising drug targets, but is often understudied due to traditional experimental difficulties including problems with solubility, detergent removal, or low abundance. Here, we report a comprehensive dataset of the proteins identified in the enriched plasma membrane of the zebrafish brain by applying sequential trypsin/chymotrypsin digestion with multidimensional LC-MS/MS. A total number of 97 017 peptide groups corresponding to 9201 proteins were identified. These were annotated in various molecular functions or neurological disorders. The dataset of the current study provides a useful data source for further utilizing zebrafish in basic and clinical neuroscience.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.201600081DOI Listing
December 2016

Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Arion vulgaris--Proteins for Probably Successful Survival Strategies?

PLoS One 2016 17;11(3):e0150614. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The Spanish slug, Arion vulgaris, is considered one of the hundred most invasive species in Central Europe. The immense and very successful adaptation and spreading of A. vulgaris suggest that it developed highly effective mechanisms to deal with infections and natural predators. Current transcriptomic and proteomic studies on gastropods have been restricted mainly to marine and freshwater gastropods. No transcriptomic or proteomic study on A. vulgaris has been carried out so far, and in the current study, the first transcriptomic database from adult specimen of A. vulgaris is reported. To facilitate and enable proteomics in this non-model organism, a mRNA-derived protein database was constructed for protein identification. A gel-based proteomic approach was used to obtain the first generation of a comprehensive slug mantle proteome. A total of 2128 proteins were unambiguously identified; 48 proteins represent novel proteins with no significant homology in NCBI non-redundant database. Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed an extensive repertoire of novel proteins with a role in innate immunity including many associated pattern recognition, effector proteins and cytokine-like proteins. The number and diversity in gene families encoding lectins point to a complex defense system, probably as a result of adaptation to a pathogen-rich environment. These results are providing a fundamental and important resource for subsequent studies on molluscs as well as for putative antimicrobial compounds for drug discovery and biomedical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150614PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795696PMC
August 2016

Gel-free mass spectrometry analysis of Drosophila melanogaster heads.

Proteomics 2015 Oct 10;15(19):3356-60. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Membrane proteins play key roles in several fundamental biological processes such as cell signalling, energy metabolism and transport. Despite the significance, these still remain an under-represented group in proteomics datasets. Herein, a bottom-up approach to analyse an enriched membrane fraction from Drosophila melanogaster heads using multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) that relies on complete solubilisation and digestion of proteins, is reported. An enriched membrane fraction was prepared using equilibrium density centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, followed by solubilisation using the filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), tryptic and sequential chymotryptic digestion of proteins. Peptides were separated by reversed-phase (RP) LC at high pH in the first dimension and acidic RP-LC in the second dimension coupled directly to an Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer. A total number of 4812 proteins from 114 865 redundant and 38 179 distinct peptides corresponding to 4559 genes were identified in the enriched membrane fraction from fly heads. These included brain receptors, transporters and channels that are most important elements as drug targets or are linked to disease. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001712 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001712).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201500092DOI Listing
October 2015

Lack of presynaptic interaction between glucocorticoid and CB1 cannabinoid receptors in GABA- and glutamatergic terminals in the frontal cortex of laboratory rodents.

Neurochem Int 2015 Nov 18;90:72-84. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

CNC, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal; Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Coimbra, 3030-789 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Corticosteroid and endocannabinoid actions converge on prefrontocortical circuits associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses. Corticosteroids can also modulate forebrain synapses by using endocannabinoid effector systems. Here, we determined whether corticosteroids can modulate transmitter release directly in the frontal cortex and, in doing so, whether they affect presynaptic CB1 cannabinoid receptor- (CB1R) mediated neuromodulation. By Western blotting of purified subcellular fractions of the rat frontal cortex, we found glucocorticoid receptors (GcRs) and CB1Rs enriched in isolated frontocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes). CB1Rs were predominantly presynaptically located while GcRs showed preference for the post-synaptic fraction. Additional confocal microscopy analysis of cortical and hippocampal regions revealed vesicular GABA transporter-positive and vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive nerve terminals endowed with CB1R immunoreactivity, apposing GcR-positive post-synaptic compartments. In functional transmitter release assay, corticosteroids, corticosterone (0.1-10 microM) and dexamethasone (0.1-10 microM) did not significantly affect the evoked release of [(3)H]GABA and [(14)C]glutamate in superfused synaptosomes, isolated from both rats and mice. In contrast, the synthetic cannabinoid, WIN55212-2 (1 microM) diminished the release of both [(3)H]GABA and [(14)C]glutamate, evoked with various depolarization paradigms. This effect of WIN55212-2 was abolished by the CB1R neutral antagonist, O-2050 (1 microM), and was absent in the CB1R KO mice. CB2R-selective agonists did not affect the release of either neurotransmitter. The lack of robust presynaptic neuromodulation by corticosteroids was unchanged upon either CB1R activation or genetic inactivation. Altogether, corticosteroids are unlikely to exert direct non-genomic presynaptic neuromodulation in the frontal cortex, but they may do so indirectly, via the stimulation of trans-synaptic endocannabinoid signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2015.07.014DOI Listing
November 2015

Frontal cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitter receptor complex level parallels spatial memory performance in the radial arm maze.

Behav Brain Res 2015 Aug 28;289:157-68. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Several neurotransmitter receptors have been proposed to be involved in memory formation. However, information on receptor complexes (RCs) in the radial arm maze (RAM) is missing. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine major neurotransmitter RCs levels that are modulated by RAM training because receptors are known to work in homo-or heteromeric assemblies. Immediate early gene Arc expression was determined by immunohistochemistry to show if prefrontal cortices (PFC) and hippocampi were activated following RAM training as these regions are known to be mainly implicated in spatial memory. Twelve rats per group, trained and untrained in the twelve arm RAM were used, frontal cortices and hippocampi were taken, RCs in membrane protein were quantified by blue-native PAGE immunoblotting. RCs components were characterised by co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical analysis and by the use of the proximity ligation assay. Arc expression was significantly higher in PFC of trained as compared to untrained rats whereas it was comparable in hippocampi. Frontal cortical levels of RCs containing AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2, NMDA receptors GluN1 and GluN2A, dopamine receptor D1, acetylcholine nicotinic receptor alpha 7 (nAChR-α7) and hippocampal levels of RCs containing D1, GluN1, GluN2B and nAChR-α7 were increased in the trained group; phosphorylated dopamine transporter levels were decreased in the trained group. D1 and GluN1 receptors were shown to be in the same complex. Taken together, distinct RCs were paralleling performance in the RAM which is relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on RCs in memory studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.04.043DOI Listing
August 2015

Individual phases of contextual fear conditioning differentially modulate dorsal and ventral hippocampal GluA1-3, GluN1-containing receptor complexes and subunits.

Hippocampus 2015 Dec 14;25(12):1501-16. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

In contextual fear conditioning (CFC), the use of pharmacological and lesion approaches has helped to understand that there are differential roles for the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) in the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval phases. Concomitant analysis of the DH and the VH in individual phases with respect to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype N1 (GluN1)-containing complexes (RCC) and subunits has not been reported so far. Herein, CFC was performed in mice that were euthanized at different time points. DH and VH samples were taken for the determination of RCC and subunit levels using BN- and SDS-PAGE, respectively, with subsequent Western blotting. Evaluation of spine densities, morphology, and immunohistochemistry of GluA1 and GluA2 was performed. In the acquisition phase levels of GluA1-RCC and subunits in VH were increased. In the consolidation phase GluA1- and GluA2-RCC levels were increased in DH and VH, while both receptor subunit levels were increased in the VH only. In the retrieval phase GluA1-RCC, subunits thereof and GluA2-RCC were increased in DH and VH, whereas GluA2 subunits were increased in the VH only. GluN1-RCC levels were increased in acquisition and consolidation phase, while subunit levels in the acquisition phase were increased only in the DH. The immunohistochemical studies in the individual phases in subareas of hippocampus supported immunochemical changes of GluA1 and GluA2 RCC's. Dendritic spine densities and the prevalence of thin spines in the acquisition phase of VH and mushroom spines in the retrieval phase of the VH and DH were increased. The findings from the current study suggest different receptor and receptor complex patterns in the individual phases in CFC and in DH and VH. The results propose that different RCCs are formed in the individual phases and that VH and DH may be involved in CFC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22470DOI Listing
December 2015

Hippocampal receptor complexes paralleling LTP reinforcement in the spatial memory holeboard test in the rat.

Behav Brain Res 2015 Apr 30;283:162-74. Epub 2015 Jan 30.

Department of Paediatrics, Medizinische Universität Wien, Währinger Gürtel 18A, 1090 Wien. Electronic address:

The current study was designed to examine learning-induced transformation of early-LTP into late-LTP. Recording electrodes were implanted into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in male rats and early-LTP was induced by weak tetanic stimulation of the medial perforant path. Dorsal right hippocampi were removed, membrane proteins were extracted, separated by blue-native gel electrophoresis with subsequent immunoblotting using brain receptor antibodies. Spatial training resulted into reinforcement of LTP and the reinforced LTP was persistent for 6h. Receptor complex levels containing GluN1 and GluN2A of NMDARs, GluA1 and GluA2 of AMPARs, nAchα7R and the D(1A) dopamine receptor were significantly-elevated in rat hippocampi of animals underwent spatial learning, whilst levels of GluA3 and 5-HT1A receptor containing complexes were significantly reduced. Evidence for complex formation between GluN1 and D(1A) dopamine receptor was provided by antibody shift assay, co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis. Thus our results propose that behavioural stimuli like spatial learning reinforce early LTP into late LTP and this reinforced LTP is accompanied by changes in certain receptor levels in the membrane fraction of the rat hippocampus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.036DOI Listing
April 2015
-->