Publications by authors named "Fernanda Zanolli Freitas"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the RVB-1/RVB-2 protein complex, the RuvBL/RVB homologues in Neurospora crassa.

Biochimie 2021 Dec 8;191:11-26. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14.800-060, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The RVB proteins, composed of the conservative paralogs, RVB1 and RVB2, belong to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) protein superfamily and are present in archaea and eukaryotes. The most distinct structural features are their ability to interact with each other forming the RVB1/2 complex and their participation in several macromolecular protein complexes leading them to be involved in many biological processes. We report here the biochemical and biophysical characterization of the Neurospora crassa RVB-1/RVB-2 complex. Chromatographic analyses revealed that the complex (APO) predominantly exists as a dimer in solution although hexamers were also observed. Nucleotides influence the oligomerization state, while ATP favors hexamers formation, ADP favors the formation of multimeric states, likely dodecamers, and the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations revealed the contribution of certain amino acid residues in the nucleotide stabilization. The complex binds to dsDNA fragments and exhibits ATPase activity, which is strongly enhanced in the presence of DNA. In addition, both GFP-fused proteins are predominantly nuclear, and their nuclear localization signals (NLS) interact with importin-α (NcIMPα). Our findings show that some properties are specific of the fungus proteins despite of their high identity to orthologous proteins. They are essential proteins in N. crassa, and the phenotypic defects exhibited by the heterokaryotic strains, mainly related to growth and development, indicate N. crassa as a promising organism to investigate additional biological and structural aspects of these proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.08.002DOI Listing
December 2021

Neurospora crassa developmental control mediated by the FLB-3 transcription factor.

Fungal Biol 2018 06 1;122(6):570-582. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-060, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Here, we report that the Neurospora crassa FLB-3 protein, the ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans FlbC transcription factor, is required for developmental control. Deletion of flb-3 leads to changes in hyphae morphology and affects sexual and asexual development. We identified, as putative FLB-3 targets, the N. crassa aba-1, wet-1 and vos-1 genes, orthologs of the ones involved in A. nidulans asexual development and that work downstream of FlbC (abaA, wetA and vosA). In N. crassa, these three genes require FLB-3 for proper expression; however, they appear not to be required for normal development, as demonstrated by gene expression analyses during vegetative growth and asexual development. Moreover, mutant strains in the three genes conidiate well and produce viable conidia. We also determined FLB-3 DNA-binding preferences via protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) and demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that FLB-3 binds the aba-1, wet-1 and vos-1 promoters. Our data support an important role for FLB-3 in N. crassa development and highlight differences between the regulatory pathways controlled by this transcription factor in different fungal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2018.01.004DOI Listing
June 2018

The CrzA Transcription Factor Activates Chitin Synthase Gene Expression during the Caspofungin Paradoxical Effect.

mBio 2017 06 13;8(3). Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the "caspofungin paradoxical effect" (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes. Here, we demonstrate that the CPE is dependent on the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase MpkA and its associated transcription factor (TF) RlmA, which regulate chitin synthase gene expression in response to different concentrations of caspofungin. Furthermore, the calcium- and calcineurin-dependent TF CrzA binds to and regulates the expression of specific chitin synthase genes during the CPE. These results suggest that the regulation of cell wall biosynthetic genes occurs by several cellular signaling pathways. In addition, CrzA is also involved in cell wall organization in the absence of caspofungin. Differences in the CPE were also observed between two clinical isolates, which led to the identification of a novel basic leucine zipper TF, termed ZipD. This TF functions in the calcium-calcineurin pathway and is involved in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis genes. This study therefore unraveled additional mechanisms and novel factors governing the CPE response, which ultimately could aid in developing more effective antifungal therapies. Systemic infections are often accompanied by high mortality rates. The fungal cell wall is important for infection as it has immunomodulatory and immunoevasive properties. Paradoxical growth of in the presence of high concentrations of the cell wall-disturbing agent caspofungin has been observed for more than a decade, although the mechanistic nature of this phenomenon remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that the CWI pathway components MpkA and RlmA as well as the calcium/calcineurin-responsive transcription factor CrzA regulate the expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes during the caspofungin paradoxical effect (CPE). Furthermore, an additional, novel calcium/calcineurin-responsive transcription factor was identified to play a role in cell wall biosynthesis gene expression during the CPE. This work paints a crucial role for calcium metabolism in the CPE and provides further insight into the complex regulation of cell wall biosynthesis, which could ultimately lead to the development of more efficient antifungal therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00705-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472186PMC
June 2017

Molecular Components of the Neurospora crassa pH Signaling Pathway and Their Regulation by pH and the PAC-3 Transcription Factor.

PLoS One 2016 24;11(8):e0161659. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14.800-060, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Environmental pH induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. Neurospora crassa shares all six components of the Aspergillus nidulans pH signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline pH stress response. We show that the N. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of Δpal-9, which is the A. nidulans palI homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline pH. Moreover, they accumulate the pigment melanin, most likely via regulation of the tyrosinase gene by the pH signaling components. The PAC-3 transcription factor binds to the tyrosinase promoter and negatively regulates its gene expression. PAC-3 also binds to all pal gene promoters, regulating their expression at normal growth pH and/or alkaline pH, which indicates a feedback regulation of PAC-3 in the pal gene expression. In addition, PAC-3 binds to the pac-3 promoter only at alkaline pH, most likely influencing the pac-3 expression at this pH suggesting that the activation of PAC-3 in N. crassa results from proteolytic processing and gene expression regulation by the pH signaling components. In N. crassa, PAC-3 is proteolytically processed in a single cleavage step predominately at alkaline pH; however, low levels of the processed protein can be observed at normal growth pH. We also demonstrate that PAC-3 preferentially localizes in the nucleus at alkaline pH stress and that the translocation may require the N. crassa importin-α since the PAC-3 nuclear localization signal (NLS) has a strong in vitro affinity with importin-α. The data presented here show that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa shares all the components with the A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae pathways; however, it exhibits some properties not previously described in either organism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161659PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996508PMC
July 2017

The SEB-1 Transcription Factor Binds to the STRE Motif in Neurospora crassa and Regulates a Variety of Cellular Processes Including the Stress Response and Reserve Carbohydrate Metabolism.

G3 (Bethesda) 2016 05 3;6(5):1327-43. Epub 2016 May 3.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14800-060, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil

When exposed to stress conditions, all cells induce mechanisms resulting in an attempt to adapt to stress that involve proteins which, once activated, trigger cell responses by modulating specific signaling pathways. In this work, using a combination of pulldown assays and mass spectrometry analyses, we identified the Neurospora crassa SEB-1 transcription factor that binds to the Stress Response Element (STRE) under heat stress. Orthologs of SEB-1 have been functionally characterized in a few filamentous fungi as being involved in stress responses; however, the molecular mechanisms mediated by this transcription factor may not be conserved. Here, we provide evidences for the involvement of N. crassa SEB-1 in multiple cellular processes, including response to heat, as well as osmotic and oxidative stress. The Δseb-1 strain displayed reduced growth under these conditions, and genes encoding stress-responsive proteins were differentially regulated in the Δseb-1 strain grown under the same conditions. In addition, the SEB-1-GFP protein translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus under heat, osmotic, and oxidative stress conditions. SEB-1 also regulates the metabolism of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose under heat stress, suggesting an interconnection between metabolism control and this environmental condition. We demonstrated that SEB-1 binds in vivo to the promoters of genes encoding glycogen metabolism enzymes and regulates their expression. A genome-wide transcriptional profile of the Δseb-1 strain under heat stress was determined by RNA-seq, and a broad range of cellular processes was identified that suggests a role for SEB-1 as a protein interconnecting these mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.116.028506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856084PMC
May 2016

Regulation of glycogen metabolism by the CRE-1, RCO-1 and RCM-1 proteins in Neurospora crassa. The role of CRE-1 as the central transcriptional regulator.

Fungal Genet Biol 2015 Apr 16;77:82-94. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-060 Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The transcription factor CreA/Mig1/CRE-1 is a repressor protein that regulates the use of alternative carbon sources via a mechanism known as Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mig1 recruits the complex Ssn6-Tup1, the Neurospora crassa RCM-1 and RCO-1 orthologous proteins, respectively, to bind to promoters of glucose-repressible genes. We have been studying the regulation of glycogen metabolism in N. crassa and the identification of the RCO-1 corepressor as a regulator led us to investigate the regulatory role of CRE-1 in this process. Glycogen content is misregulated in the rco-1(KO), rcm-1(RIP) and cre-1(KO) strains, and the glycogen synthase phosphorylation is decreased in all strains, showing that CRE-1, RCO-1 and RCM-1 proteins are involved in glycogen accumulation and in the regulation of GSN activity by phosphorylation. We also confirmed the regulatory role of CRE-1 in CCR and its nuclear localization under repressing condition in N. crassa. The expression of all glycogenic genes is misregulated in the cre-1(KO) strain, suggesting that CRE-1 also controls glycogen metabolism by regulating gene expression. The existence of a high number of the Aspergillus nidulans CreA motif (5'-SYGGRG-3') in the glycogenic gene promoters led us to analyze the binding of CRE-1 to some DNA motifs both in vitro by DNA gel shift and in vivo by ChIP-qPCR analysis. CRE-1 bound in vivo to all motifs analyzed demonstrating that it down-regulates glycogen metabolism by controlling gene expression and GSN phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2015.03.011DOI Listing
April 2015

A protein kinase screen of Neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the SNF1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.

Biochem J 2014 Dec;464(3):323-34

*Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14800-900, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. We identified multiple kinases that have already been described as controlling glycogen metabolism in different organisms, such as NcSNF1, NcPHO85, NcGSK3, NcPKA, PSK2 homologue and NcATG1. In addition, many hypothetical kinases have been implicated in the control of glycogen metabolism. Two kinases, NcIME-2 and NcNIMA, already functionally characterized but with no functions related to glycogen metabolism regulation, were also identified. Among the kinases identified, it is important to mention the role of NcSNF1. We showed in the present study that this kinase was implicated in glycogen synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by the higher levels of glycogen accumulated during growth, along with a higher glycogen synthase (GSN) ±glucose 6-phosphate activity ratio and a lesser set of phosphorylated GSN isoforms in strain Ncsnf1KO, when compared with the wild-type strain. The results led us to conclude that, in N. crassa, this kinase promotes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase either directly or indirectly, which is the opposite of what is described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinases also play a role in gene expression regulation, in that gdn, the gene encoding the debranching enzyme, was down-regulated by the proteins identified in the screen. Some kinases affected growth and development, suggesting a connection linking glycogen metabolism with cell growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20140942DOI Listing
December 2014

Ambient pH controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in Neurospora crassa. New insights into the pH signaling pathway.

PLoS One 2012 31;7(8):e44258. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. Its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. These enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. The existence of a DNA motif for the Aspergillus nidulans pH responsive transcription factor PacC in the promoter of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn) in Neurospora crassa prompted us to investigate whether this transcription factor regulates glycogen accumulation. Transcription factors such as PacC in A. nidulans and Rim101p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae play a role in the signaling pathway that mediates adaptation to ambient pH by inducing the expression of alkaline genes and repressing acidic genes. We showed here that at pH 7.8 pacC was over-expressed and gsn was down-regulated in wild-type N. crassa coinciding with low glycogen accumulation. In the pacC(KO) strain the glycogen levels and gsn expression at alkaline pH were, respectively, similar to and higher than the wild-type strain at normal pH (5.8). These results characterize gsn as an acidic gene and suggest a regulatory role for PACC in gsn expression. The truncated recombinant protein, containing the DNA-binding domain specifically bound to a gsn DNA fragment containing the PacC motif. DNA-protein complexes were observed with extracts from cells grown at normal and alkaline pH and confirmed by ChIP-PCR analysis. The PACC present in these extracts showed equal molecular mass, indicating that the protein is already processed at normal pH, in contrast to A. nidulans. Together, these results show that the pH signaling pathway controls glycogen accumulation by regulating gsn expression and suggest the existence of a different mechanism for PACC activation in N. crassa.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044258PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432076PMC
February 2013

Functional characterization of an Aspergillus fumigatus calcium transporter (PmcA) that is essential for fungal infection.

PLoS One 2012 23;7(5):e37591. Epub 2012 May 23.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Aspergillus fumigatus is a primary and opportunistic pathogen, as well as a major allergen, of mammals. The Ca(+2)-calcineurin pathway affects virulence, morphogenesis and antifungal drug action in A. fumigatus. Here, we investigated three components of the A. fumigatus Ca(+2)-calcineurin pathway, pmcA,-B, and -C, which encode calcium transporters. We demonstrated that CrzA can directly control the mRNA accumulation of the pmcA-C genes by binding to their promoter regions. CrzA-binding experiments suggested that the 5'-CACAGCCAC-3' and 5'-CCCTGCCCC-3' sequences upstream of pmcA and pmcC genes, respectively, are possible calcineurin-dependent response elements (CDREs)-like consensus motifs. Null mutants were constructed for pmcA and -B and a conditional mutant for pmcC demonstrating pmcC is an essential gene. The ΔpmcA and ΔpmcB mutants were more sensitive to calcium and resistant to manganese and cyclosporin was able to modulate the sensitivity or resistance of these mutants to these salts, supporting the interaction between calcineurin and the function of these transporters. The pmcA-C genes have decreased mRNA abundance into the alveoli in the ΔcalA and ΔcrzA mutant strains. However, only the A. fumigatus ΔpmcA was avirulent in the murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037591PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359301PMC
October 2012

A genome-wide screen for Neurospora crassa transcription factors regulating glycogen metabolism.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2011 Nov 18;10(11):M111.007963. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Instituto de Química, UNESP, Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Transcription factors play a key role in transcription regulation as they recognize and directly bind to defined sites in promoter regions of target genes, and thus modulate differential expression. The overall process is extremely dynamic, as they have to move through the nucleus and transiently bind to chromatin in order to regulate gene transcription. To identify transcription factors that affect glycogen accumulation in Neurospora crassa, we performed a systematic screen of a deletion strains set generated by the Neurospora Knockout Project and available at the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. In a wild-type strain of N. crassa, glycogen content reaches a maximal level at the end of the exponential growth phase, but upon heat stress the glycogen content rapidly drops. The gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn) is transcriptionally down-regulated when the mycelium is exposed to the same stress condition. We identified 17 deleted strains having glycogen accumulation profiles different from that of the wild-type strain under both normal growth and heat stress conditions. Most of the transcription factors identified were annotated as hypothetical protein, however some of them, such as the PacC, XlnR, and NIT2 proteins, were biochemically well-characterized either in N. crassa or in other fungi. The identification of some of the transcription factors was coincident with the presence of DNA-binding motifs specific for the transcription factors in the gsn 5'-flanking region, and some of these DNA-binding motifs were demonstrated to be functional by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) experiments. Strains knocked-out in these transcription factors presented impairment in the regulation of gsn expression, suggesting that the transcription factors regulate glycogen accumulation by directly regulating gsn gene expression. Five selected mutant strains showed defects in cell cycle progression, and two transcription factors were light-regulated. The results indicate that there are connections linking different cellular processes, such as metabolism control, biological clock, and cell cycle progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M111.007963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226398PMC
November 2011

cAMP signaling pathway controls glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa by regulating the glycogen synthase gene expression and phosphorylation.

Fungal Genet Biol 2010 Jan;47(1):43-52

Instituto de Química, UNESP, Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays an important role in many biological processes including glycogen metabolism. In this work we investigated its role in the Neurospora crassa glycogen metabolism control using mutant strains affected in components of the pathway, the cr-1 strain deficient in adenylyl cyclase activity therefore has the PKA pathway not active, and the mcb strain a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the regulatory subunit of PKA therefore is a strain with constitutively active PKA. We analyzed the expression of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn), the regulatory enzyme in glycogen synthesis as a potential target of the regulation. The cr-1 strain accumulated, during vegetative growth, glycogen levels much higher than the wild type strain indicating a role of the PKA pathway in the glycogen accumulation. The gsn transcript was not increased in this strain but the GSN protein was less phosphorylated "in vitro", and therefore more active, suggesting that the post-translational modification of GSN is likely the main mechanism controlling glycogen accumulation during vegetative growth. Heat shock down-regulates gsn gene transcription in the two mutant strains, as well as in the wild type strain, suggesting that the PKA pathway may not be the only pathway having a direct role in gsn transcription under heat shock. DNA-protein complexes were formed between the STRE motif in the gsn promoter and nuclear proteins from heat-shocked mycelium. However STRE was not able to induce transcription of a reporter gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that the motif might be involved in a different way of regulation in the N. crassa gene expression under heat shock. The CRE-like DNA elements present in the gsn promoter were shown to be bound by different proteins from the PKA mutant strains. The DNA-protein complexes were observed with proteins from the strains grown under normal condition and under heat shock indicating the functionality of this DNA element. In this work we presented some evidences that the PKA signaling pathway regulates glycogen metabolism in N. crassa in a different way when compared to the well-characterized model of regulation existent in S. cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2009.10.011DOI Listing
January 2010

A systematic approach to identify STRE-binding proteins of the gsn glycogen synthase gene promoter in Neurospora crassa.

Proteomics 2008 May;8(10):2052-61

Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The gene encoding glycogen synthase in Neurospora crassa (gsn) is transcriptionally down-regulated when mycelium is exposed to a heat shock from 30 to 45 degrees C. The gsn promoter has one stress response element (STRE) motif that is specifically bound by heat shock activated nuclear proteins. In this work, we used biochemical approaches together with mass spectrometric analysis to identify the proteins that bind to the STRE motif and could participate in the gsn transcription regulation during heat shock. Crude nuclear extract of heat-shocked mycelium was prepared and fractionated by affinity chromatography. The fractions exhibiting DNA-binding activity were identified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using as probe a DNA fragment containing the STRE motif. DNA-protein binding activity was confirmed by Southwestern analysis. The molecular mass (MM) of proteins was estimated by fractionating the crude nuclear extract by SDS-PAGE followed by EMSA analysis of the proteins corresponding to different MM intervals. Binding activity was detected at the 30-50 MM kDa interval. Fractionation of the crude nuclear proteins by IEF followed by EMSA analysis led to the identification of two active fractions belonging to the pIs intervals 3.54-4.08 and 6.77-7.31. The proteins comprising the MM and pI intervals previously identified were excised from a 2-DE gel, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF/TOF) after tryptic digestion. The proteins were identified by search against the MIPS and MIT N. crassa databases and five promising candidates were identified. Their structural characteristics and putative roles in the gsn transcription regulation are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200700921DOI Listing
May 2008

Regulation of xylanase in Aspergillus phoenicis: a physiological and molecular approach.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2008 Apr 29;35(4):237-44. Epub 2008 Jan 29.

Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901, Brazil.

Microbial xylanolytic enzymes have a promising biotechnological potential, and are extensively applied in industries. In this study, induction of xylanolytic activity was examined in Aspergillus phoenicis. Xylanase activity induced by xylan, xylose or beta-methylxyloside was predominantly extracellular (93-97%). Addition of 1% glucose to media supplemented with xylan or xylose repressed xylanase production. Glucose repression was alleviated by addition of cAMP or dibutyryl-cAMP. These physiological observations were supported by a Northern analysis using part of the xylanase gene ApXLN as a probe. Gene transcription was shown to be induced by xylan, xylose, and beta-methylxyloside, and was repressed by the addition of 1% glucose. Glucose repression was partially relieved by addition of cAMP or dibutyryl cAMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-007-0290-9DOI Listing
April 2008
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