Publications by authors named "Fernanda Samarini Machado"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dietary nutrient restrictions in the post-weaning period change Santa Inês ewe lamb nutritional metabolic profile.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jun 14;53(3):359. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Animal Science Department, Federal University of Tocantins, BR-153, Km 112, s/no, Caixa Postal 132, 77.804-970, Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of Santa Inês ewe lambs fed diets for early or late-maturing diets with or without nutrient restrictions. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 completely randomized factorial experiment with either early- or late-maturity feed formulation according to "Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants" with or without 15% crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) restrictions in diets formulated, five replications, and 20 ewe lambs averaging 15.1±2.6 kg. Lambs on early-maturity diets consumed greater (P<0.05) dietary ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrates, and TDN than those on late-maturity diets. Lambs on early-maturity diets had 7.11% greater dry matter digestibility (DMD) compared to lambs fed late-maturity diets. Lambs fed late-maturity diets, in general, had greater intake (IN), excreted (EN), and retained (RN) N as well as greater RN/IN and EN/IN ratios. There were no differences in blood total protein or albumin among lambs fed for different finishing maturity targets. Diets designed for late-maturing lambs resulted in greater microbial N and CP as well as rumen and metabolizable, degradable, and undegradable rumen and metabolizable CP. The selection of diets for early or late maturity carcasses depends on the production system goals. Diets without restrictions are recommended for early-maturity carcass finishing while diets with 15% CP and TDN restriction are recommend for late-maturity finishing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02767-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of a blend of essential oils in milk replacer on performance, rumen fermentation, blood parameters, and health scores of dairy heifers.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(3):e0231068. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-EMBRAPA, National Center for Research on Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate how the inclusion of a blend of essential oils in milk replacer (MR) affects different outcomes of dairy heifers. The outcomes evaluated: feed intake, performance, body development, blood cells and metabolites, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), rumen fermentation, fecal scores, and respiratory scores. All outcomes were evaluated during pre-weaning (4-60 d of age), and carry-over effects during post-weaning (61-90 d of age) periods. The experimental units utilized were 29 newborn Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, with genetic composition of 5/8 or more Holstein and 3/8 or less Gyr and body weight (BW) at birth of 32.2 ± 5.2 kg. Experimental units were assigned to either a control (CON, n = 15) or a blend of essential oil supplementation (BEO, n = 14) treatment, maintaining a balance of genetic composition. The BEO was supplemented in the MR with 1 g/d/calf of a blend of essential oils (Apex Calf, Adisseo, China) composed by plant extracts derived from anise, cinnamon, garlic, rosemary, and thyme. During the pre-weaning phase, all heifers were fed 5 L of MR/d reconstituted to 15% (dry matter basis), divided into two equal meals. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. During the post-weaning, animals received a maximum of 3 kg of starter/d, and ad libitum corn silage, divided into two meals. Feed intake, fecal and respiratory scores were evaluated daily. The BW was measured every three days, while body development was recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected on 0, 30, and 60 d of age for total blood cell count, weekly and on the weaning day to determinate ß-hydroxybutyrate, urea and glucose, and biweekly for IGF-1. Ruminal parameters (pH, volatile fatty acids, ammonia-N, and acetate:propionate proportion-C2:C3) were measured on days 14, 28, 42, 60, 74 and 90. A randomized complete block design with an interaction between treatment and week was the experimental method of choice to test the hypothesis of the BEO's effect on all outcomes. An ANOVA procedure was used for continuous outcomes, and a non-parametric test was used for the ordered categorical outcomes, both adopting a CI = 95%. Results indicated that there was not enough evidence to accept the alternative hypothesis of the effect of BEO in MR on feed intake, performance, body development, and blood metabolites during both pre-weaning and post-weaning periods. However, results indicated that the inclusion of BEO in MR significantly affects the proportion of C2:C3 during pre- and post-weaning (P = 0.05). Similarly, the effect was significant for basophil (P ≤ 0.001), and platelet (P = 0.04) counts pre-weaning. The interaction between week and treatment was also significant for lymphocytes (P ≤ 0.001), revealing a cumulative effect. Lastly, fecal scores were also significant (P = 0.04) during pre-weaning, with lower values for BEO. The BEO contributed to ruminal manipulation in pre-weaning and carry-over effects in post-weaning, immunity improvement, and decreased morbidity of neonatal diarrhea in the pre-weaning phase.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231068PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951862PMC
March 2021

Grouping crossbred Holstein x Gyr heifers according to different feed efficiency indexes and its effects on energy and nitrogen partitioning, blood metabolic variables and gas exchanges.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238419. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower β-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238419PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485853PMC
October 2020

Effect of pelleted vs. ground starter with or without hay on preweaned dairy calves.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0234610. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

EMBRAPA - Dairy Cattle Research Center, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234610PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347148PMC
September 2020

Energy requirements for pregnant dairy cows.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(7):e0235619. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

This study aimed to estimate energy requirements of pregnant Holstein × Gyr cows. Different planes of nutrition were established by two feeding regimens: ad libitum or maintenance. Sixty-two nonlactating cows with average body weight of 480 ± 10.1 kg and an age of 5 ± 0.5 years were used. Cows were divided into three groups: pregnant (n = 44), non-pregnant (n = 12), and baseline reference (n = 6). The 56 pregnant and non-pregnant cows were randomly allocated into a feeding regimen: ad libitum or maintenance. To evaluate the effects of days of pregnancy, pregnant and non-pregnant animals were slaughtered at 140, 200, 240, and 270 days of pregnancy. Energy requirements for maintenance differed between pregnant and non-pregnant cows, thus two equations were developed. Net energy and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of non-pregnant cows were 82 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day and 132 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day, respectively. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance of non-pregnant cows was 62.4%. Net energy and metabolizable energy for maintenance of pregnant cows were 86 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day and 137 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day, respectively. Efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance of pregnant cows was 62.5%. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for gain was 41.9%. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for pregnancy was 14.1%. Furthermore, net energy requirement for pregnancy was different from zero from day 70 of pregnancy onwards. In conclusion, net energy and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of non-pregnant cows are different from pregnant cows. Furthermore, we believe that the proposed non-linear equations to estimate net energy requirements for pregnancy are more adequate than current NRC equation, and should be recommended for Holstein × Gyr cows.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235619PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340303PMC
September 2020

Effects of exogenous amylase on the in vitro digestion kinetics of whole-crop maize silages made from flint or dent grain type at different phenological stages grown in tropical condition.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Jan 31;104(1):76-87. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Researcher of Animal Nutrition and Precision Dairy Farming, Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

The effect of exogenous amylase on the in vitro rumen digestion kinetics of whole-crop maize silage made from dent (RB9004) or flint grain type (RB9308) was evaluated at different phenological stages: soft dough (SOD), early dent (EAD), ½ milkline (½M) and ¾ milkline (¾M). Forage was harvested from 70 to 110 days after sowing. Two rumen-cannulated cows receiving or not exogenous amylase (0.7 g/kg dry matter-DM, provided to achieve 396 kilo Novo units of amylase activity/kg of TMR DM) were used as donor of ruminal fluid. The in vitro gas production kinetics was evaluated according to a dual-pool logistic model. The chemical composition and gas production kinetics were affected by the hybrid and phenological stages. The flint hybrid had lower range for chemical analysis among physiological stages. Harvesting at ½M and ¾M improved DM content, bromatological composition and silage quality parameters compared to dent or flint types. Amylase (i) increased methane (CH ) production and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) in ½M stage, (ii) improved digestion kinetics by reducing lag time and increasing total gas production and fermentation rates of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and fibrous carbohydrates (FC), and (iii) increased extent and fermentation rate of NFC and increased fermentation rate of FC fraction in whole-crop maize silages produced from dent or flint types in all phenological stages. Harvesting between ½M and ¾M is the best phenological stage to improve chemical composition and silage quality parameters. Exogenous amylase showed improvements on fibre digestion of silages at ½M and ¾M phenological stages in both grain types of corn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13234DOI Listing
January 2020

Reproductive characteristics of bulls from two breed compositions and their correlations with infrared thermography.

J Therm Biol 2019 Oct 26;85:102407. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Minas Gerais, 36038-330, Brazil. Electronic address:

The objective was to evaluate reproductive characteristics of crossbred Girolando (Gyr x Holstein) bulls from two breed compositions and correlate these results with infrared thermography data. Evaluations were performed considering sperm motility, vigor and morphology; scrotal circumference; body morphology and temperament. Infrared thermography was performed to determine surface temperatures of ocular and scrotal areas. Thermoregulation capacity was assessed by differences between air and rectal temperatures, air and maximum temperatures in ocular and scrotal areas, and dorsal and ventral lines of the scrotum. Data analysis was performed using a linear mixed model (breed composition as fixed effect and year of evaluation as random effect). Spearman correlation coefficient was used to associate thermography and reproductive data. Girolando 3/4 Holstein bulls had higher (P ≤ 0.001) scrotal circumference and higher average body morphology and temperament, whereas 5/8 Holstein bulls had a higher (P < 0.001) percentage of major-type and total sperm defects. Girolando 3/4 Holstein bulls had scrotal temperatures 0.8 °C higher (P < 0.001) and 5/8 Holstein bulls had 9.8% and 10.6% higher differences on "rectal - scrotal area" and "ocular area - scrotal area" temperatures, respectively. Ocular area temperatures had negative correlations (P ≤ 0.1) with sperm motility and vigor, and positive correlations (P < 0.001) with minor-type and total sperm defects. Ventral line scrotal temperatures had positive correlations (P < 0.001) with minor-type and total sperm defects. Girolando 3/4 Holstein bulls were found to be superior to 5/8 Holstein bulls for reproductive characteristics. Under non-stressing climatic conditions, semen characteristics of Girolando bulls were more influenced by breed composition than by the capacity for scrotal thermoregulation. Correlations between semen quality and scrotal temperatures can aid in the identification of bulls for breeding, particularly when a large number of animals are in the tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.102407DOI Listing
October 2019

Relationship between feed efficiency indexes and performance, body measurements, digestibility, energy partitioning, and nitrogen partitioning in pre-weaning dairy heifers.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(10):e0223368. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, EMBRAPA), Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Av. Eugênio do Nascimento, Juiz de Fora-MG, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were: 1) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency using two feed efficiency indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG)), and 2) to evaluate if pre-weaning heifer calves divergent for feed efficiency indexes exhibit differences in performance, body measurements, digestibility, energy partitioning, and nitrogen partitioning. A total of 32 Gyr heifer calves were enrolled in a 63-d trial and classified into two feed efficiency (FE) groups based on RFI and RIG (mean ± 0.5 SD). The groups were classified as high efficiency (HE) RFI (HE RFI, n = 9; HE RIG, n = 10), and low efficiency (LE) RFI (LE RFI, n = 10; LE RIG, n = 11). The remaining animals were classified as intermediate (n = 13 (RFI) and n = 11 (RIG)). HE and LE calves had RFI values of-0.052 and 0.049 kg/d (P < 0.05), respectively. The HE RFI group consumed 8.9% less solid diet than the LE RFI group. HE RFI animals exhibited an increased digestibility of crude protein and ether extract and tended to have greater total dry and organic matter digestibility. LE RFI animals had greater gross energy and nitrogen intake, though greater fecal losses resulted in a tendency to reduce energy and nitrogen use efficiency. HE and LE calves had RIG values of 0.080 and -0.077kg/d (P ≤ 0.01), respectively. HE RIG animals exhibited greater average daily gain (9.4%), body weight (BW), and heart girth, though HE RIG group exhibited narrower hip width. HE RIG animals tended to have greater ether extract digestibility but greater methane losses (% of gross energy). HE RFI in pre-weaning heifers seems to be related to differences in digestibility. Divergent animals for RIG during the assessed phase appear to differ in body measurements, which may be related to differences in the composition of the gain.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223368PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786645PMC
March 2020

In vitro screening of plants from the Brazilian Caatinga biome for methanogenic potential in ruminant nutrition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 22;25(35):35538-35547. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Embrapa Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG, 36038-330, Brazil.

Thirty-nine plants naturally found in Brazilian Caatinga semiarid biome were screened using an in vitro fermentability testing focused in apparent organic matter digestibility (aOMD), gas, methane (CH), and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Three independent in vitro runs were carried out and plants were classified by CH concentration as proportion of gas and per unit of apparent digested organic matter (aDOM). According to its CH concentration on produced gas (mL/L), the plants were classified as low (> 110), medium (from 60 to 110), and high (< 60) anti-methanogenic potential. From evaluated plants, 3, 24, and 12 were classified as high, medium, and low anti-methanogenic potential. High anti-methanogenic potential plants Cnidoscolus phillacanthus (CnPh), Chloroleucon foliolosum (ChFo), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (AnMa) produced 21.3, 34.3, and 35.9 mL CH/L of gas. Methane concentration for Myracrodruon urundeuva (MyUr) was 61.1 mL/L and classified as medium potential. However, CH production per unit of aDOM was similar between MyUr and AnMa (3.35 and 2.68 mL/g, respectively). Molar proportions of acetate and propionate in SCFA produced by ChFo fermentation were 0.02 and 0.78 mmol/mol. Acetate to propionate ratios were 0.79, 0.03, 1.39, and 1.36 for CnPh, ChFo, AnMa, and MyUr, respectively. Greater aOMD were observed for Opuntia sp. and Calotropis procera (632 and 601 g/kg, respectively), which were classified as medium mitigating potential plants. AnMa, ChFo, CnPh, and MyUr are promising anti-methanogenic plants for ruminants. Selecting forages to feed ruminants in Caatinga is a potential strategy for enteric CH emission reduction, and our in vitro results can support future research by indicating species to be evaluated in in vivo studies integrating mixed diets with performance, digestibility, and CH production, yield, and intensity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3446-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Milk production and composition, food consumption, and energy balance of postpartum crossbred Holstein-Gir dairy cows fed two diets of different energy levels.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jan 13;51(1):65-71. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Embrapa Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, 36038-330, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, consumption, and energy balance parameters of primiparous 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein × Gir (HG) dairy cows fed two diets of differing energy levels during the postpartum period. At the beginning of the study, 28 days prepartum, the average weight of both genetic groups was 498 ± 12 kg and body condition score (BCS) was 3.5 ± 0.05. At the end of the study, 61 days postpartum, the 3/4 HG cows had higher weight and body condition scores than the 7/8 HG (456 ± 8 and 429 ± 8 kg and 3.13 ± 0.03 and 2.94 ± 0.03 BCS for 3/4 HG and 7/8 HG, respectively). Milk from cows fed the high-energy diet had higher percentages of fat, protein, lactose, and total dry extract than cows fed the low-energy diet. Cows fed the high-energy diet had higher net energy intake (95.3 ± 1.9 vs. 88.1 ± 2.1 MJ/day) and higher energy balance (3.64 ± 2.13 vs - 6.02 ± 2.30 MJ/day). The 3/4 HG cows displayed higher energy for maintenance (33.1 ± 0.4 MJ/day) than the 7/8 HG (31.5 ± 0.5 MJ /day). In conclusion, although the primiparous 3/4 HG were heavier than the 7/8 HG and had a higher body condition score, no differences in milk produced up to 60 days postpartum were observed. The higher energy diet during the postpartum period increased energy balance, resulting in higher production of milk fat, protein, and lactose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1660-1DOI Listing
January 2019

Bacterial Community Dynamics across the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Dairy Calves during Preweaning Development.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 05 16;84(9). Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Microbial communities play critical roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of preruminant calves by influencing performance and health. However, little is known about the establishment of microbial communities in the calf GIT or their dynamics during development. In this study, next-generation sequencing was used to assess changes in the bacterial communities of the rumen, jejunum, cecum, and colon in 26 crossbred calves at four developmental stages (7, 28, 49, and 63 days old). Alpha diversity differed among GIT regions with the lowest diversity and evenness in the jejunum, whereas no changes in alpha diversity were observed across developmental stage. Beta diversity analysis showed both region and age effects, with low numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between regions within a given age group or between ages in a given region. Taxonomic analysis revealed that several taxa coexisted in the rumen, jejunum, cecum, and colon but that their abundances differed considerably by GIT region and age. As calves aged, we observed lower abundances of taxa such as , , and with higher abundances of and in the rumen. The jejunum also displayed taxonomic changes with increases in and taxa in older calves. In the lower gut, taxa such as , , and decreased and S24-7, , and increased as calves aged. These data support a model whereby early and successive colonization by bacteria occurs across the GIT of calves and provides insights into the temporal dynamics of the GIT microbiota of dairy calves during preweaning development. The gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of ruminants, such as dairy cows, house complex microbial communities that contribute to their overall health and support their ability to produce milk. For example, the rumen microbiota converts feed into usable nutrients, while the jejunal microbiota provides access to protein. Thus, establishing a properly functioning GIT microbiota in dairy calves is critical to their productivity as adult cows. However, little is known about the establishment, maintenance, and dynamics of the calf GIT microbiota in early life. In this study, we evaluated the bacterial communities in the rumen, jejunum, cecum, and colon in dairy calves across preweaning development and show that they are highly variable early on in life before transitioning to a stable community. Understanding the dairy calf GIT microbiota has implications for ensuring proper health during early life and will aid in efforts to develop strategies for improving downstream production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02675-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930334PMC
May 2018
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