Publications by authors named "Fernanda Guedes"

20 Publications

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Glycosylation is required for the neutralizing activity of human IgG1 antibodies against human rabies induced by pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Immunobiology 2021 Mar 23;226(2):152058. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rabies lyssavirus (RABV) neutralizing IgG antibodies confer protection after rabies vaccination, although how the RABV-specific antibodies neutralize the virus is still unknown. As changes in the antibody's carbohydrate chain can interfere with its effector functions, we compared the glycosylation patterns of both neutralizing and non-neutralizing IgG1 induced by pre-exposure prophylaxis to human rabies and analyzed their influence on in vitro antibody neutralizing activities. Specific IgG1 were purified from human serum using affinity chromatography. Purity and avidity were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and indirect ELISA using NHSCN respectively. The N-linked oligosaccharide chain of the purified IgG antibody was evaluated using a lectin-based ELISA assay with a panel of seven lectins. The activity of purified IgG1 and neutralizing IgG1 deglycosylated by PNGase F enzyme were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. The purified IgG1 showed an electrophoretic pattern compatible with human IgG. All of the antibodies recognized RABV, although neutralizing IgG1 had a higher avidity (RAI = 80%) than non-neutralizing IgG1 (RAI = 30%). The neutralizing IgG1 also showed higher binding to WFA, ECA, WGA, and ConA lectins, indicating possible different N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and mannose contents. Non-neutralizing IgG1, on the other hand, showed strong binding at UEA-1 and SNA, which bind to fucose and sialic acid residues respectively. Different glycosylation profiles were also observed in Fab and Fc fragments from neutralizing and non-neutralizing IgG1, although the deglycosylated IgG1 lost its neutralizing activity. Our results suggest that antibody glycosylation is important for neutralizing RABV in vitro, since neutralizing IgG1 has a different glycosylation profile than non-neutralizing IgG1. Further research will be needed to better evaluate the differential glycosylation patterns between IgG1 antibodies following vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2021.152058DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of biotinylated polyclonal anti-ribonucleoprotein IgG for detection of rabies virus antigen by direct rapid immunohistochemical test.

Biologicals 2020 Nov 26;68:74-78. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) has been recommended for laboratorial diagnosis of rabies, especially in developing countries. The absence of commercial primary antibodies, however, still represents a major limitation to its wider use in testing. We describe here the development of a biotinylated polyclonal antibody against Rabies lyssavirus (RABV) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and its use as a primary reagent in dRIT. Anti-RNP polyclonal horse IgG was purified by ionic exchange chromatography followed by immunoaffinity column chromatography, and its affinity, diagnostic sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated. CNS samples (120) of suspected rabies cases in different animal species were tested by dRIT, with the positive (n = 14) and negative (n = 106) results confirmed by direct fluorescence antibody testing (dFAT). Comparing the results of dRIT and dFAT, we found that the biotinylated anti-RNP IgG delivered 100% diagnostic specificity and sensibility for rabies diagnosis. Our findings show that the biotinylated anti-RNP polyclonal IgG can be produced with the quality required for application in dRIT. This work represents an important step in efforts to diagnose rabies in developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2020.08.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Detection of rabies virus antigen by the indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test in equines and comparisons with other diagnostic techniques.

Zoonoses Public Health 2020 09 14;67(6):651-657. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil.

Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in equines is essential for distinguishing the disease from other sources of encephalitis. Diagnosis by conventional techniques such as a direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) or viral isolation in mice or cell culture can be difficult, and the application of molecular biological methods may be necessary. We performed an indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test (iRIT) for the detection of the rabies virus (RABV) antigen in the central nervous system (CNS) of equines and compared the results with those of other diagnostic techniques. We reviewed result records from the Rabies Diagnosis Laboratory at Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil, of 174 samples of equine CNS from July 2014 to June 2016, which were investigated by dFAT, rabies tissue culture infection test (RTCIT), mouse inoculation test (MIT) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by genetic sequencing. These samples, 29 presented divergent results among techniques and were selected for the performed in the iRIT. The detected positivity rate was 4/29 (14%) by dFAT, 5/28 (18%) by RTCIT, 10/29 (35%) by MIT and 26/27 (96%) by RT-PCR. We analysed 29 samples through imprints of the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem in slides fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Eighteen samples were identified as positive (62%) by iRIT assay, representing a greater number of positive cases than that detected by dFAT, MIT and RTCIT but not by RT-PCR. Among the brain regions, the brainstem presented the highest positivity (78%), followed by the hippocampus (69%), cerebellum (67%) and cortex (67%). Our results provide evidence that iRIT can contribute to a rapid diagnosis of rabies in equines and that complementary tests should be used to improve diagnostic accuracy in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12745DOI Listing
September 2020

Performance evaluation of the polyclonal anti-rabies virus ribonucleoprotein IgG antibodies produced in-house for use in direct fluorescent antibody test.

J Virol Methods 2020 06 1;280:113879. Epub 2020 May 1.

Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled anti-rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies can be used as immunoreagents in direct fluorescent antibody testing (dFAT) for rabies diagnoses. While in-house products are occasionally used by laboratories, most conjugates are commercial reagents. Commercial anti-RNP antibodies are only available for research purposes in Brazil, however, which contributes to the increasing use of in-house produced antibodies. Considering that conjugate quality may influence the results obtained during rabies diagnosis, we sought to analyze the performance requirements of in-house produced polyclonal anti-RNP IgG-FITC for application in dFAT. To that end, their reproducibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated. The titer of polyclonal anti-RNP IgG-FITC was initially determined and evaluated by dFAT, using central nervous system (CNS) samples of different animal species (dogs, cats, bovines, equines, bats, and non-human primates). As our main result, the polyclonal anti-RNP IgG-FITC reached a titer of 1:30/1:40 in dFAT, with 100% of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In terms of reproducibility, the antibodies, regardless the production batch, presented the same performances. In conclusion, the in-house produced polyclonal anti-RNP IgG-FITC proved suitable for rabies virus antigen detection by dFAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113879DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of polyclonal anti-RNP IgG antibody for rabies diagnosis by indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 21;206:105340. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Instituto Pasteur, 393, Paulista Avenue, 01311-000, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rabies still represents a major public health threat and estimated to cause 60,000 human deaths annually, particularly in developing countries. Thus, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both humans and animals is essential. The WHO and OIE recommended gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFAT). However, dFAT is expensive and requires a high level of expertise. As an alternative, the rapid immunohistochemistry technique is a promise to be a simple and cost effective diagnostic tool for rabies, and can be performed on field conditions prevalent in developing countries. However, no validated commercial conjugate antibody for rabies is available to meet the laboratory demand. Here, we evaluated the polyclonal anti-rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) IgG antibody for Rabies lyssavirus (RABV) detection by indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test (iRIT). We tested polyclonal anti-RNP IgG antibody against a batch of 100 brain specimens representing a wide phylogenetic origin in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The purified IgG obtained 100% of diagnostic specificity and sensibility for RABV antigen detection in iRIT compared with the gold standard dFAT. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the polyclonal anti-RNP IgG antibody may be used as a diagnostic reagent for rabies using iRIT, with the expectation of increase in availability and cost reduction of the epidemiological surveillance for developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105340DOI Listing
June 2020

Genome-wide identification of the Dicer-like family in cotton and analysis of the DCL expression modulation in response to biotic stress in two contrasting commercial cultivars.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Nov 15;19(1):503. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-590, Brazil.

Background: Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) are essential players in RNA-silencing mechanisms, acting in gene regulation via miRNAs and in antiviral protection in plants and have also been associated to other biotic and abiotic stresses. To the best of our knowledge, despite being identified in some crops, cotton DCLs haven't been characterized until now. In this work, we characterized the DCLs of three cotton species and analyzed their expression profiles during biotic stress.

Results: As main results, 11 DCLs in the allotetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum, 7 and 6 in the diploid G. arboreum and G. raimondii, were identified, respectively. Among some DCLs duplications observed in these genomes, the presence of an extra DCL3 in the three cotton species were detected, which haven't been found in others eudicots. All the DCL types identified by in silico analysis in the allotetraploid cotton genome were able to generate transcripts, as observed by gene expression analysis in distinct tissues. Based on the importance of DCLs for plant defense against virus, responses of cotton DCLs to virus infection and/or herbivore attack using two commercial cotton cultivars (cv.), one susceptible (FM966) and another resistant (DO) to polerovirus CLRDV infection, were analyzed. Both cvs. Responded differently to virus infection. At the inoculation site, the resistant cv. showed strong induction of DCL2a and b, while the susceptible cv. showed a down-regulation of these genes, wherever DCL4 expression was highly induced. A time course of DCL expression in aerial parts far from inoculation site along infection showed that DCL2b and DCL4 were repressed 24 h after infection in the susceptible cotton. As CLRDV is aphid-transmitted, herbivore attack was also checked. Opposite expression pattern of DCL2a and b and DCL4 was observed for R and S cottons, showing that aphid feeding alone may induce DCL modulation.

Conclusions: Almost all the DCLs of the allotetraploide G. hirsutum cotton were found in their relative diploids. Duplications of DCL2 and DCL3 were found in the three species. All four classes of DCL responded to aphid attack and virus infection in G. hirsutum. DCLs initial responses against the virus itself and/or herbivore attack may be contributing towards virus resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-2112-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858778PMC
November 2019

Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat-associated Rabies virus causes disease with a shorter clinical period and has lower pathogenic potential than strains isolated from wild canids.

Arch Virol 2019 Oct 10;164(10):2469-2477. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Pasteur Institute, Av. Paulista 393, São Paulo, SP, CEP 01311-000, Brazil.

Rabies is a lethal viral disease that can affect a wide range of mammals. Currently, Rabies virus (RABV) in some European and American countries is maintained primarily in wild species. The regulation of viral replication is one of the critical mechanisms involved in RABV pathogenesis. However, the relationship between replication and the pathogenesis of RABV isolated from wild animals remains poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of the street viruses Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat-associated RABV (NYBRV) and Cerdocyon thous canid-associated RABV (CECRV). Infection of mice with NYBRV led to 33% mortality with rapid disease evolution and marked histopathological changes in the CNS. In contrast, infection with CECRV led to 67% mortality and caused mild neuropathological lesions. The proportion of RABV antigen was significantly higher in the cytoplasm of neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex and in the meninges of mice infected with CECRV and NYBRV, respectively. Moreover, the replication rate of NYBRV was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of CECRV in neuroblastoma cells. However, CECRV replicated to a significantly higher titer in epithelial cells. Our results indicate that NYBRV infection results in rapid disease progression accompanied by frequent and intense histopathological alterations in the CNS in mice, and in a high replication rate in neuroblastoma cells. Although, CECRV is more pathogenic in mice, it caused milder histopathological changes in the CNS and replicated more efficiently in epithelial cells. Our data point to a correlation between clinical aspects of disease and the replication of RABV in different cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04335-5DOI Listing
October 2019

Four-Session Protocol Effectiveness in Reducing Cervical Dentin Hypersensitivity: A 24-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2019 Feb;37(2):117-123

NCCL Research Group, Department of Operative Dentistry and Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil.

A single-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of desensitizing agents with different action mechanisms in reducing cervical dentin hypersensitivity (CDH) after four application sessions, with 24-week follow-up. Sixty patients with CDH were selected in the study and were allocated in three groups of treatment: Desensibilize KF 2%, Clinpro XT Varnish, and Photon Lase III (100 mW, 4 J/cm-1 J/cm each point, 10 sec per point with wavelength of 808 nm). There were four application sessions performed, with a 48-h interval between each one. The evaporative stimuli and visual analog scale were used to evaluate the CDH level at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at 2, 4, 8, and 24 weeks after the application. Mixed-model effects test was used for comparison (α = 0.05). All three groups showed significant reduction in CDH from baseline to each all-subsequent follow-up. All the groups maintained the CDH reduction, and presented no statistical differences between each other after treatment ( = 0.885), 2 ( = 0.857), 4 ( = 0.928), 8 ( = 0.206), and 24 weeks ( = 0.073) of follow-up. The four-session protocol was an effective approach in reduction of CDH (even after 24 weeks), regardless of desensitization mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2018.4477DOI Listing
February 2019

Purification of IgG against ribonucleoprotein by a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography column for rabies diagnosis.

J Immunol Methods 2019 08 20;471:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Instituto Pasteur, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) have been employed for Rabies virus (RABV) antigen detection by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA). To date, these biomolecules have been purified by traditional methods such as precipitation by ammonium sulfate or ion exchange chromatography followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation, which allows only for partial detection of the protein of interest. In this study, we aimed to purify anti-RNP polyclonal horse IgG antibodies by cation-exchange chromatography in combination with a homemade immunoaffinity chromatography on RNP immobilized (RNP-IAC). Furthermore, to evaluate the accuracy of the prepared anti-RNP IgG fluorescent antibody in diagnostic purposes, DFA was applied for RABV antigen detection in suspected brain samples of different animal species. The combination of these two techniques made it possible to obtain antibodies with high selectivity and purity. Compared with the performance of the traditional method, anti-RNP IgG antibodies purified by RNP-IAC can be obtained from a smaller volume of hyperimmune serum and with greater avidity. Furthermore, the results obtained by DFA analyses revealed that the prepared anti-RNP IgG fluorescent antibody achieved 100% diagnostic specificity and sensitivity for RABV antigen detection. Thus, two-technique chromatographic, including RNP-IAC technology could be appropriate methods for the purification of polyclonal anti-RNP IgG for the use as a diagnostic reagent for rabies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2019.03.007DOI Listing
August 2019

Characterization of Laguncularia racemosa transcriptome and molecular response to oil pollution.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 7;205:36-50. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Laboratório de Genética Molecular e Biotecnologia Vegetal, CCS Cidade Universitária, UFRJ - Av. Prof. Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, s/n, Bloco A, 21941-617, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mangroves are ecosystems of economic and ecological importance. Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae), popularly known as white mangrove, is a species that greatly contributes to the community structure of neotropical and West African mangrove forests. Despite the significance of these ecosystems, they have been destroyed by oil spills that can cause yellowing of leaves, increased sensitivity to other stresses and death of trees. However, the molecular response of plants to oil stress is poorly known. In this work, Illumina reads were de novo assembled into 46,944 transcripts of L. racemosa roots and leaves, including putative isoform variants. In addition to improving the genomic information available for mangroves, the L. racemosa assembled transcriptome allowed us to identify reference genes to normalize quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) expression data from oil-stressed mangrove plants, which were used in RNASeq validation. The analysis of expression changes induced by the oil exposure revealed 310 and 286 responsive transcripts of leaves and roots, respectively, mainly up-regulated. Enriched GO categories related to chloroplasts and photosynthesis were found among both leaf and root oil-responsive transcripts, while "response to heat" and "response to hypoxia" were exclusively enriched in leaves and roots, respectively. The comparison of L. racemosa 12-h-oil-stressed leaf expression profile to previous Arabidopsis heat-stress studies and co-expression evidence also pointed to similarities between the heat and oil responses, in which the HSP-coding genes seem to play a key role. A subset of the L. racemosa oil-responsive root genes exhibited similar up-regulation profiles to their Arabidopsis homologs involved in hypoxia responses, including the HRA1 and LBD41 TF-coding genes. Genes linked to the ethylene pathway such as those coding for ERF TFs were also modulated during the L. racemosa root response to oil stress. Taken together, these results show that oil contamination affects photosynthesis, protein metabolism, hypoxia response and the ethylene pathway in L. racemosa 12-h-oil-exposed leaves and roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Inate immunity in rosacea. Langerhans cells, plasmacytoid dentritic cells, Toll-like receptors and inducible oxide nitric synthase (iNOS) expression in skin specimens: case-control study.

Arch Dermatol Res 2018 Mar 12;310(2):139-146. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Dermatology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, sala 3021, 05403-000, São Paulo, Brazil.

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition with predominant facial involvement. Because of that, many patients sense that rosacea affects quality of life. The etiology of rosacea remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested that aberrant innate immunity is central to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Langerhans cells, plasmacytoid dentritic cells (PDC), the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inducible oxide nitric synthase (iNOS) in skin of patients with rosacea, to highlight the participation of innate immunity in its pathogenesis. 28 biopsy specimens were taken from patients with clinical and histopathological findings of rosacea. Immunohistochemical demonstration of Langerhans cells (anti-CD1a antibody), PDC (anti-CD 123 antibody), TLR2, TLR4 and iNOS was performed in skin samples and compared with normal skin controls. The expression of Langerhans cells was lower in rosacea group than in control group. PDC were found in skin samples of rosacea as isolated cells and forming small clusters. Expression of TLR2, TLR4 and iNOS was higher in rosacea samples than in normal skin controls. This research demonstrates early and late stage components of innate immunity in specimens of rosacea ratifying the existence of an altered innate immunity in its pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-018-1806-zDOI Listing
March 2018

Immunological aspects of rabies: a literature review.

Arch Virol 2017 Nov 19;162(11):3251-3268. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Instituto Pasteur, 393, Paulista Avenue, São Paulo, SP, 01311-000, Brazil.

Rabies is a lethal disease caused by the neurotropic virus rabies virus (RABV), and it remains an important public health problem globally. It is known that the host immune response is important for control of viral infection and promoting viral clearance. In this context, it is well documented that, in addition to RABV neutralizing antibody, interferons and cell-mediated immunity also have an important role in preventing the establishment of disease. On the other hand, RABV suppresses host immunity through different mechanisms, for example, direct inhibition of host gene expression, sequestration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or modification of cytokine signalling pathways, which hinder the protective host immune responses to RABV infection. Here, we review the immunological aspects of rabies, highlighting innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the host evasion immune mechanisms used by the virus. Finally, we briefly discuss how this knowledge can direct new research and be harnessed for future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3484-0DOI Listing
November 2017

Non-cellulosic polysaccharide distribution during G-layer formation in poplar tension wood fibers: abundance of rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinogalactan proteins but no evidence of xyloglucan.

Planta 2017 Nov 11;246(5):857-878. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

AGPF, INRA, 45075, Orléans, France.

Main Conclusion: RG-I and AGP, but not XG, are associated to the building of the peculiar mechanical properties of tension wood. Hardwood trees produce tension wood (TW) with specific mechanical properties to cope with environmental cues. Poplar TW fibers have an additional cell wall layer, the G-layer responsible for TW mechanical properties. We investigated, in two poplar hybrid species, the molecules potentially involved in the building of TW mechanical properties. First, we evaluated the distribution of the different classes of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during xylem fiber differentiation, using immunolocalization. In parallel, G-layers were isolated and their polysaccharide composition determined. These complementary approaches provided information on the occurrence of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during G-fiber differentiation. We found no evidence of the presence of xyloglucan (XG) in poplar G-layers, whereas arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) and rhamnogalacturonan type I pectins (RG-I) were abundant, with an apparent progressive loss of RG-I side chains during G-layer maturation. Similarly, the intensity of immunolabeling signals specific for glucomannans and glucuronoxylans varies during G-layer maturation. RG-I and AGP are best candidate matrix components to be responsible for TW mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2737-1DOI Listing
November 2017

5alpha-Androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), an estrogenic metabolite of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor ERbeta expression in the ventral prostrate of adult rats.

Steroids 2007 Dec 9;72(14):914-22. Epub 2007 Aug 9.

Department of Morphology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Prostate is one of the major targets for dihydrotestosterone (DHT), however this gland is also recognized as a nonclassical target for estrogen as it expresses both types of estrogen receptors (ER), especially ERbeta. Nevertheless, the concentrations of aromatase and estradiol in the prostate are low, indicating that estradiol may not be the only estrogenic molecule to play a role in the prostate. It is known that DHT can be metabolized to 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), a hormone that binds to ERbeta but not to AR. The concentration of 3beta-diol in prostate is much higher than that of estradiol. Based on the high concentration of 3beta-diol and since this metabolite is a physiological ERbeta ligand, we hypothesized that 3beta-diol would be involved in the regulation of ERbeta expression. To test this hypothesis, adult male rats were submitted to castration followed by estradiol, DHT or 3beta-diol replacement. ERbeta and AR protein levels in the prostate were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assays. The results showed that after castration, the structure of the prostate was dramatically changed and ERbeta and AR protein levels were decreased. Estradiol had just minor effects on the parameters analyzed. DHT-induced partial recovery of ERbeta while it was the most effective inductor of AR expression. Replacement with 3beta-diol-induced the highest levels of ERbeta, but was comparatively less effective in recovering the AR expression and the gland structure. These results offer evidence that one functional role of 3beta-diol in the prostate may be autoregulation of its natural receptor, ERbeta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2007.08.001DOI Listing
December 2007

Lung involvement in childhood measles: severe immune dysfunction revealed by quantitative immunohistochemistry.

Hum Pathol 2007 Aug 11;38(8):1239-47. Epub 2007 May 11.

Laboratory of Pathology of Transmissible Diseases, Depto Pathology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, CEP 01246-903 Brazil.

Measles, accounting for nearly 1 million deaths each year, presents intense involvement of lymphoid organs and the lungs. The immune response in situ in the lungs was determined in blocks recovered from 42 necropsies of children who died from measles determined by immune cell phenotype (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD45RO, CD68, natural killer [NK], and antigen S-100 B [S100]) and cytokine production (interferon, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12). Compared with the lungs of age-paired controls, patients with measles presented severe depletion of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, NK+, and S100+ cells in alveolus- and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue without depletion of CD8+ cells. Most of these features were similar in both forms of measles lung involvement, Hecht giant cell, or interstitial pneumonia, but S100+ cells were depleted in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue from patients with Hecht pneumonia, which also occurs more frequently in malnourished children. IL-10- and IL-12-producing cells were depleted in patients with measles, whereas IL-1-, interferon-, and IL-4-producing cells were more frequently seen in the alveolus of patients with measles compared with controls. Quantitative in situ immune cell phenotype and function in the lung in measles demonstrated severe immune dysfunction, with loss of key cells, such as dendritic, CD4+, and NK+ cells, and deficient cytokine production, which allows for a better comprehension of local reactions in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2007.01.015DOI Listing
August 2007

Role of mast cells as IL10 producing cells in paracoccidioidomycosis skin lesions.

Mycopathologia 2006 Nov;162(5):331-5

University of São Paulo - Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Recent works have demonstrated that mast cells may have an important role in immunologic reactions and inflammation once they synthesize and secrete many cytokines including IL4, IL5, IL6 and TNF-alpha. We have conducted research in order to verify if mast cells would participate in the local inflammatory immune response against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in skin lesions characterized by a Th2 pattern of cytokines. Fifty-nine skin biopsies with previous histopathological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and immunohistochemical characterization of cytokines present in the inflammatory infiltrate were classified in three groups: group 1 (G1), with compact granuloma and a Th1 pattern of cytokines; group 2 (G2), with loose granuloma and a Th2 pattern of cytokines; group 3 (G3), both kind of granuloma in the same lesion, characterized by cytokines from Th1 and Th2 patterns. Ten biopsies from normal skin were used as control group. Mast cells were visualized and quantified by a toluidine blue/HCl staining and a double immunostaining was performed to detect a co-localization of mast cells and IL10. G2 presented an increased number of mast cells when compared to G1, G3 and control group and we frequently could find mast cells expressing IL10 in G2. The data obtained suggest that mast cells participate in the immune response against P. brasiliensis in skin lesions with loose granuloma and a Th2 pattern of cytokines. Considering these results, mast cells could constitute a source of IL10, contributing to a non-effective response against fungal antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-006-0069-yDOI Listing
November 2006

Revisiting the liver in human yellow fever: virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and NK cells activity.

Virology 2006 Feb 8;345(1):22-30. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

Tropical Medical Center, Federal do Para University, Av. Generalissimo Deodoro 92, 66055-420 Belem, Para, Brazil.

Flavivirus infection as dengue and yellow fever persists as a terrible menace to pandemics, due to Aedes prevalence in the Americas. Yellow fever is characterized by hepatocyte damage, with steatosis, apoptosis and necrosis, mainly in the midzonal region of the liver, but the injury mechanism has not been studied at the light of recent knowledge, such as the advances in cell death mechanisms, inflammatory response and cytokine cell expression tools. We studied 53 human liver paraffin embedded blocks from patients who died with yellow fever, all with histological demonstration of higher prevalence of apoptosis over necrosis and mild disproportionate inflammatory response. Viral antigens were found most frequently in hepatocytes from the midzonal area than other lobule areas, as detected by specific immunohistochemistry. Infiltrating cell subpopulations showed mainly CD4+ T lymphocytes, with small numbers of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes, NKT+ cells and S100+ dendritic cells in the sites of inflammation, as compared to normal and leptospirosis liver blocks. Some cells expressed TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, but a much more intense proportion of TGF-beta expressing cells were found, suggesting both a Th1 and Th3 patterns of immune response in yellow fever. Most affected hepatocyte presented apoptosis markers that appear at the cell death main pathway in this infection. Viral antigens, which production could interfere in hepatocyte biology, could induce the activation of apoptosis cascade, but TGF-beta was also an apoptosis promoter. Our finding supports the key effect of the yellow fever virus in hepatocyte injury, resulting in prevalence of apoptosis over necrosis, aside from a TGF-beta action induced by the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.058DOI Listing
February 2006

Immunohistochemical examination of the role of Fas ligand and lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of human liver yellow fever.

Virus Res 2006 Mar 10;116(1-2):91-7. Epub 2005 Oct 10.

Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal do Pará, Av. Generalissimo Deodoro 92, 66055-240, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Yellow fever is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, which is transmitted to man by the bite of hematophagous mosquitoes. Infection with the yellow fever virus can progress with lesions in the heart, kidneys, central nervous system, and liver. In the liver, the histopathological picture is characterized by necrosis, steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis, with a preferential midzone distribution. In the present study, liver samples from fatal patients with yellow fever were analyzed. The histopathological pattern was characterized by steatosis, lytic necrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis associated with a moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. The inflammatory component mainly consisted of CD4+ T lymphocytes, followed by CD8+ T lymphocytes, which showed a preferential portal and midzone distribution. Immunoreactivity to Fas ligand was mainly observed in hepatocytes of the midzone region. Based on these findings, we conclude that lymphocytes play an important role in the genesis of hepatic lesions in severe yellow fever, inducing hepatocyte apoptosis through the binding to Fas receptors. However, further studies are necessary to investigate the participation of other immune factors and to quantify the role of the cytotoxic cellular response in the lesion evolution during the course of disease in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2005.08.019DOI Listing
March 2006