Publications by authors named "Fernanda Ferreira"

240 Publications

Coping in the Covid-19 pandemia: how different resources and strategies can be risk or protective factors to mental health in the Brazilian population.

Health Psychol Behav Med 2021 Mar 12;9(1):182-205. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Multidisciplinary Health Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Vitória da Conquista, Brazil.

Objective: The present study's objective was to investigate the pandemic's impact on mental health and identify variables that can increase or decrease the chances of stress, anxiety, and depression, in both a sample with and one without self-reported mental health issues, in a Brazilian population.

Design: a cross-sectional quantitative study. Data were collected online in May and June of 2020. Participated 1130 adults between 18-78 years old (mean = 37.46 years, SD = 12.18), from 20 Brazilian states, with an average of 58.61 days (SD = 23.2) of social distancing.

Main Outcome Measures: Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, characterization of social distancing, and Coping strategies.

Results: A significantly higher prevalence of severe depression was found in those who practiced social distancing. Multinomial logistic regressions identified the explanatory model with risk and protection variables to mental health. For the group without a previous mental health diagnosis, using confrontation (= 1.39, 1.23-1.58) and escape strategies ( = 1.48, 1.19-1.84) increases the odds of presenting severe depression, while positive reappraisal ( = 0.85, 0.78-0.93) and problem-solving ( = 0.75, 0.63--0.88) were protective factors. In the group with mental disorders, using confrontation ( = 1.33, 1.10-1.60) and escape strategies ( = 1.49, 1.12-1.98) were also risk factors for severe depression and no coping protective factors were found.

Conclusions: Problem-solving and positive reappraisal were protective strategies that potentially reduced the odds of presenting depression and anxiety, but only in people without a previous mental health diagnosis. Public policies must offer psychological support to the most vulnerable, as well as orientation based on scientific evidence, aiming at improving quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2021.1897595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158238PMC
March 2021

Influence of the practice of sports, sleep disorders, and habits on probable sleep bruxism in children with mixed dentition.

Oral Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Dental School, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba - UEPB, Campina Grande, Brazil.

Objective: Investigate the association between sleep disorders and probable sleep bruxism (SB) in children eight to ten years of age.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 739 schoolchildren in Brazil. Parents/guardians answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the sleep disturbance scale for children, and the Circadian Energy Scale. Parafunctional habits were evaluated using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening. Multivariate logistic regression was performed (α = 5%), and a directed acyclic graph was used in the statistical model.

Results: The prevalence of probable SB was 9.1% and 58.6% of the children had sleep disorders. In the final model, having unmarried parents/guardians (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.65), exhibiting parafunctional habits (OR = 2.02; CI: 1.01-4.06), not practicing sports (OR = 1.92; CI: 1.04-3.54), sleep-wake transition disorders (SWTD) (OR = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.12-3.62), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (OR = 2.17; 95%CI: 1.11-4.29) were significant associated with probable SB.

Conclusion: The occurrence of probable sleep bruxism was influenced by the marital status of the parents/guardians, parafunctional habits, the non-practice of sports, and sleep disturbance (SWTD and EDS). This research contributes to the planning of public policies that include educational regimens at school to prevent sleep disorders and favor the reduction in sleep bruxism prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13917DOI Listing
May 2021

Antibiotic use and potential economic impact of implementing selective dry cow therapy in large US dairies.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Business Economics Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, 6700 EW the Netherlands.

In this study, our objectives were to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) in large US herds and to estimate the potential reduction in antibiotic use around the dry period if SDCT management is adopted. Cow-level data were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (AgriTech, Visalia, CA) and individual dairy herds in California. Logistic regression models were used to predict the incidence risk of subclinical and clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation for 96 last test-day somatic cell score categories. Linear programming was used to optimize the costs of dry cow therapy in 3 simulated large US dairy herds with different bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The objective function was aimed at minimization of the total cost of mastitis around the dry period (TCMD), under a varying constraint of the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics. A sensitivity analysis was performed on milk price, dry-off antibiotic price, and risk ratio of mastitis in the subsequent lactation when no antibiotics and only teat sealant was used at dry-off. For all situations, blanket dry cow therapy was more expensive than SDCT. In a herd with medium BTSCC, the TCMD was $54.7 per primiparous dry cow and $58.5 per multiparous dry cow annually. In the optimal economic situation where SDCT was used, only 30% of primiparous cows received antibiotics, leading to a TCMD of $52.4 per primiparous dry cow, whereas 88% of multiparous cows received antibiotics, at a cost of $58.2 per multiparous dry cow. This corresponded with an overall reduction of 29% in the use of antibiotics around the dry period in a conservative scenario. This study showed that it is economically feasible to reduce antibiotic use associated with dry cow therapy in large US dairy herds. This contributes to the efforts of reducing antibiotic use worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-20016DOI Listing
April 2021

Vegetation patterns and the influence of rainfall after long-term fire suppression on a woody community of a Brazilian savanna.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 16;93(1):e20191405. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Botânica, campus de Rio Claro, Av. 24-A, 1515, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

We evaluated the structural and floristic characteristics of a Brazilian savanna fragment occupied by cerradão (CD) and cerrado sensu stricto (CS) in response to the influence of rainfall and long-term fire suppression. We carried out floristic, phytosociological and remote sensing studies in a cerrado fragment located in Corumbataí (SP, Brazil) after 43 years of complete fire suppression. We surveyed 43 plots of 200 m2 each (17 plots in CS and 26 plots in CD) and all individuals ≥ 0.32 cm diameter measured at 30 cm from the ground were included in the sample. We calculated phytosociological parameters for each species and classified them in three ecological groups, namely savanna, generalist and forest species. The remote sensing analysis used aerial photographs and satellite images from 1962 to 2019 (i.e. 59 years). The structural study of community revealed high predominance of forest and generalist species when compared to savanna species. Non-linear correlation between CD expansion rates and total rainfall within the study period indicated a positive influence of the rainfall (R2 = 0.42). Thus, our analysis indicated a tendency of a continuous and fast expansion of CD over areas of CS in the long-term absence of fire combined with periods of heavy rain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120191405DOI Listing
April 2021

Family cohesion and attention deficit exert an influence on visits to the dentist in early adolescence.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Post-Graduate Program in Dentistry, State University of Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.

Objectives: To determine whether family environment, signs of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oral health literacy (OHL) are associated with visits to the dentist in adolescents.

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 448 12-year-old adolescents enrolled at schools in the city of Cajazeiras, Brazil. The adolescents answered a validated questionnaire addressing family cohesion and adaptability (FACES III), an OHL measure (Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry [BREALD-30]) and a questionnaire addressing the history of visits to the dentist and previous toothache experience. The parents answered a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics. Parents and teachers answered the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales of the Swanson, Nolan & Pelham (SNAP-IV) questionnaire for the detection of signs of ADHD. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used for data analysis (α = 5%).

Results: The prevalence of having visited a dentist some time in life was higher among adolescents with enmeshed (PR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and connected (PR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13) families and those with attention deficit according to parents' reports (PR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.14). A family income higher than the Brazilian minimum wage (PR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) and toothache in the previous six months (PR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) were also associated with the outcome.

Conclusion: Family cohesion and attention deficit according to parental reports influenced visits to the dentist among adolescents. In contrast, OHL was not associated with the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12647DOI Listing
April 2021

Screening of COVID-19 in outpatient children with cancer or solid organ transplantation: preliminary report.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Instituto D'Or de Pesquisa e Ensino (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric immunosuppressed patients is unknown. Emerging data describe a milder or asymptomatic course in children compared with adults in this scenario. We present the seroprevalence and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in a prospective cohort of 114 immunosuppressed children and adolescents from three groups: kidney transplantation, liver transplantation, and cancer patients. Among the thirty-five (30.7%) patients who had a positive serological test for SARS-CoV-2, 77% did not report previous symptoms and none of them developed any complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after 30 or more days of follow-up. Among those who were symptomatic, diarrhea, fever, and cough were the most common findings.Conclusion: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is high among immunosuppressed children and adolescents. COVID-19 has a mild or asymptomatic course in most of these patients. What is Known: • The number of immunosuppressed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is increasing. • Viral infections have the potential for greater severity in immunocompromised children. What is New: • Seroprevalence for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in immunocompromised pediatric patients was 31%. • A quarter of the serology-positive patients reported mild symptoms and none of them developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04044-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994062PMC
March 2021

Factors associated with awake bruxism according to perceptions of parents/guardians and self-reports of children.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry, Dental School, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba - UEPB, Campina Grande, Brazil.

Background: Bruxism is a repetitive activity of the masticatory muscles that has been associated with orofacial disorders and psychosocial factors AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between possible awake bruxism (PAB) and family functioning, bullying, and dental caries in children 8-10 years of age.

Design: A school-based study was conducted with 739 pairs of parents/guardians and children. The parents/guardians answered the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales for the establishment of family functioning. Information on bullying due to dental conditions was collected from the children. Dental caries in the children was evaluated using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. A directed acyclic graph was used to define the theoretical model and select control factors. Descriptive analysis was performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression for complex samples.

Results: Considering the parental reports, fewer years of mother's schooling, a low family income, very flexible family adaptability, and cavitated dental caries were associated with PAB. The female sex, bullying, and orofacial dysfunction were associated with self-reported PAB.

Conclusions: Therefore, the factors associated with PAB differ according to the reports of parents/guardians or self-reports of children. Healthcare providers should consider both reports for a more effective intervention addressing PAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12786DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Oral Health Literacy and School Factors with Untreated Dental Caries among 12-Year-Olds: A Multilevel Approach.

Caries Res 2021 15;55(2):144-152. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Dental caries are a global health problem that affects all age groups and must be considered a public health priority due to its significant financial costs and impact on the quality of life. This study evaluated the association between oral health literacy (OHL), school factors, and untreated dental caries in 12-year-old Brazilian adolescents using a multilevel approach. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 740 adolescents randomly selected from private and public schools in Campina Grande, Brazil. Two dentists were trained and calibrated to diagnose dental caries using the Nyvad index and OHL using the Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30). The caregivers of the adolescents reported demographic data (sex, skin color, and socioeconomic status). Data of school factors such as the type of school and the school grade retention rate were classified through a 2-step hierarchical cluster analysis to obtain the school environment. A robust multilevel log-linear negative binomial regression for complex samples was performed (p < 0.05). In the analysis, adjusted by individual determinants, nonwhite skin color (RR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.56-3.12), a low socioeconomic status (RR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.09-2.34), a low OHL score (RR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91-0.98), and low satisfaction with the last dental appointment (RR = 2.25; 95% CI 1.67-3.04) were associated with untreated dental caries. The following factors remained associated with untreated dental caries in the final model: students from an unfavorable learning environment (RR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.27-3.80), nonwhite skin color (RR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.27-2.91), a low socioeconomic status (RR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.12-2.94), a low OHL score (RR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.98), and low satisfaction with the last dental appointment (RR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.47-2.91). Untreated dental caries in early adolescence were impacted by the school environment, the socioeconomic status, OHL, and the adolescent's satisfaction with the last dental appointment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514501DOI Listing
May 2021

Base Excision Repair AP-Endonucleases-Like Genes Modulate DNA Damage Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;7(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Faculty of Ceilândia, University of Brasília, Brasília 72.220-275, Brazil.

Pathogenic microbes are exposed to a number of potential DNA-damaging stimuli during interaction with the host immune system. Microbial survival in this situation depends on a fine balance between the maintenance of DNA integrity and the adaptability provided by mutations. In this study, we investigated the association of the DNA repair response with the virulence of , a basidiomycete that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. We focused on the characterization of and putative genes, aiming to evaluate a possible role of the predicted Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases 1 and 2 of the base excision repair (BER) pathway on response to stress conditions and virulence. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the putative AP-endonucleases Apn1 and Apn2 in the cellular response to DNA damage induced by alkylation and by UV radiation, in melanin production, in tolerance to drugs and in virulence of in vivo. We also pointed out the potential use of DNA repair inhibitor methoxy-amine in combination with conventional antifungal drugs, for the development of new therapeutic approaches against this human fungal pathogen. This work provides new information about the DNA damage response of the highly important pathogenic fungus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7020133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917787PMC
February 2021

The prevalence of malocclusion is higher in schoolchildren with signs of hyperactivity.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 May 1;159(5):653-659. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Introduction: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by a lack of focus, impulsive behavior, and or excessive activity. This research aimed to evaluate the association between signs of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and malocclusion in schoolchildren.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 633 children aged 7-12 years. The children were clinically examined for malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index. The predominant breathing pattern was also determined. Parents answered a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics and the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits. The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Scale-IV was filled out by both parents and teachers to compare behavioral patterns. The children were submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation using the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrix Test. Data analysis involved the chi-square test and Poisson regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 42% higher among children with signs of hyperactivity reported by both parents and teachers (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.81; P = 0.004). In the final Poisson regression model, the prevalence of malocclusion was lower among schoolchildren aged 11 and 12 years (PR, 0.62; 95% CI. 0.52-0.73; P <0.001) and higher among those who used a pacifier for at least 4 years (PR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = 0.029) as well as those classified as mouth breathers (PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.51; P = 0.003).

Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion was higher among children with signs of hyperactivity independently of age, pacifier use, and mouth breathing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.11.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue: Isolation, Culture, Characterization and Differentiation.

Bio Protoc 2020 Feb 20;10(4):e3534. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Bone Research Lab, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Since their discovery, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have received a lot of attention, mainly due to their self-renewal potential and multilineage differentiation capacity. For these reasons, MSCs are a useful tool in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In this article, we describe protocols to isolate MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissues (AT-MSCs), and methods to culture, characterize, and differentiate MSCs into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. After the harvesting of cells from bone marrow by flushing the femoral diaphysis and enzymatic digestion of abdominal and inguinal adipose tissues, MSCs are selected by their adherence to the plastic tissue culture dish. Within 7 days, MSCs reach 70% confluence and are ready to be used in subsequent experiments. The protocols described here are easy to perform, cost-efficient, require minimal time, and yield a cell population rich in MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842647PMC
February 2020

When more is more: redundant modifiers can facilitate visual search.

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2021 Feb 17;6(1):10. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Psychology, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616-5270, USA.

According to the Gricean Maxim of Quantity, speakers provide the amount of information listeners require to correctly interpret an utterance, and no more (Grice in Logic and conversation, 1975). However, speakers do tend to violate the Maxim of Quantity often, especially when the redundant information improves reference precision (Degen et al. in Psychol Rev 127(4):591-621, 2020). Redundant (non-contrastive) information may facilitate real-world search if it narrows the spatial scope under consideration, or improves target template specificity. The current study investigated whether non-contrastive modifiers that improve reference precision facilitate visual search in real-world scenes. In two visual search experiments, we compared search performance when perceptually relevant, but non-contrastive modifiers were included in the search instruction. Participants (N = 48, N = 48) searched for a unique target object following a search instruction that contained either no modifier, a location modifier (Experiment 1: on the top left, Experiment 2: on the shelf), or a color modifier (the black lamp). In Experiment 1 only, the target was located faster when the verbal instruction included either modifier, and there was an overall benefit of color modifiers in a combined analysis for scenes and conditions common to both experiments. The results suggest that violations of the Maxim of Quantity can facilitate search when the violations include task-relevant information that either augments the target template or constrains the search space, and when at least one modifier provides a highly reliable cue. Consistent with Degen et al. (2020), we conclude that listeners benefit from non-contrastive information that improves reference precision, and engage in rational reference comprehension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study investigated whether providing more information than someone needs to find an object in a photograph helps them to find that object more easily, even though it means they need to interpret a more complicated sentence. Before searching a scene, participants were either given information about where the object would be located in the scene, what color the object was, or were only told what object to search for. The results showed that providing additional information helped participants locate an object in an image more easily only when at least one piece of information communicated what part of the scene the object was in, which suggests that more information can be beneficial as long as that information is specific and helps the recipient achieve a goal. We conclude that people will pay attention to redundant information when it supports their task. In practice, our results suggest that instructions in other contexts (e.g., real-world navigation, using a smartphone app, prescription instructions, etc.) can benefit from the inclusion of what appears to be redundant information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00275-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889780PMC
February 2021

Impact of telemedicine on the management of heart failure patients during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 04 9;8(2):1150-1155. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Cardiology, Cascais Hospital, Lusíadas Saúde-UnitedHealth Group, Lisbon, Portugal.

Aims: Chronic heart failure (HF) is a major comorbidity accounting for an increased severity and mortality related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To reduce the risk of COVID-19 in HF patients, telemedicine has been encouraged.

Methods And Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedical management with mainly over-the-phone appointments became a major strategy of follow-up of our HF clinic patients. Previously, the large majority of patients have been seen in the hospital with direct patient-provider contact. We compared both strategies of follow-up, in pre-pandemic (PPP) and pandemic (PP) periods, regarding total mortality and hospitalizations/emergency department (ED) visits due to HF exacerbation. We prospectively studied a cohort of 196 patients. The mean follow-up time in PPP was 1.4 years. In this period, 20 patients died. In PP (follow-up of 71 days), there was one additional death. Total mortality in the first year of follow-up was 12.0%, matching the mortality predicted by the Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure score. Considering hospitalizations/ED visits due to decompensated HF, there was no statistically significant difference between PPP and PP. Only one patient was diagnosed with COVID-19.

Conclusions: In the light of an increase in telemedical management of this cohort of HF patients, we were able to maintain a low rate of admissions due to HF decompensation, without an increment in mortality. Regarding these results, we encourage the incremental use of telemedicine in HF patients in the context of this or future pandemics and also in situations in which physical consultation might not be possible due to logistic issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014843PMC
April 2021

Cortical Tracking of Speech: Toward Collaboration between the Fields of Signal and Sentence Processing.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 Apr 21;33(4):574-593. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

University of California, Davis.

In recent years, a growing number of studies have used cortical tracking methods to investigate auditory language processing. Although most studies that employ cortical tracking stem from the field of auditory signal processing, this approach should also be of interest to psycholinguistics-particularly the subfield of sentence processing-given its potential to provide insight into dynamic language comprehension processes. However, there has been limited collaboration between these fields, which we suggest is partly because of differences in theoretical background and methodological constraints, some mutually exclusive. In this paper, we first review the theories and methodological constraints that have historically been prioritized in each field and provide concrete examples of how some of these constraints may be reconciled. We then elaborate on how further collaboration between the two fields could be mutually beneficial. Specifically, we argue that the use of cortical tracking methods may help resolve long-standing debates in the field of sentence processing that commonly used behavioral and neural measures (e.g., ERPs) have failed to adjudicate. Similarly, signal processing researchers who use cortical tracking may be able to reduce noise in the neural data and broaden the impact of their results by controlling for linguistic features of their stimuli and by using simple comprehension tasks. Overall, we argue that a balance between the methodological constraints of the two fields will lead to an overall improved understanding of language processing as well as greater clarity on what mechanisms cortical tracking of speech reflects. Increased collaboration will help resolve debates in both fields and will lead to new and exciting avenues for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01676DOI Listing
April 2021

What diagnostic strategy performs better for caries lesion detection on proximal surfaces of adolescents?

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jun 6;25(6):3977-3986. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2227, São Paulo, 05508-000, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection alone and associated to radiographic and laser fluorescence (LF) methods in detecting non-evident caries lesions at adolescents' proximal surfaces.

Materials And Methods: Adolescents (12 to 17 years old) were assessed for the presence of caries lesions through visual inspection, radiographic examination, and LF method (DIAGNOdent pen), at non-cavitated (NC) and cavitated lesion (CAV) thresholds. Temporary separation with orthodontic rubbers followed by direct visual inspection was the reference standard method. Two examiners conducted the examinations, and the first examiner reassessed around 20% of the sample, to evaluate inter- and intra-examiner reproducibility, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and utility values were calculated for the methods alone and combined with visual inspection using two different strategies: simultaneous and sequential combination.

Results: A total of 834 proximal surfaces (51 adolescents) were included. Visual inspection presented higher reproducibility values (higher than 0.98). Moreover, visual inspection presented higher sensitivity (around 0.51) than those obtained with other diagnostic strategies (varying from 0.09 to 0.20) at the NC threshold. For CAV, visual inspection presented higher specificity (0.996) than the sequential association with adjunct methods (around 0.97), but with lower sensitivity. Accuracy and utility values for combined strategies were similar or lower than those achieved with the visual inspection performed alone.

Conclusion: Visual inspection alone performs better for detecting caries lesions in premolars and molars of adolescents than other diagnostic strategies.

Clinical Relevance: The best diagnostic strategy for caries detection of proximal caries lesions in adolescents is the visual inspection alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03728-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of changes in land use and land cover and rainfall on the streamflow regime of a watershed located in the transitioning region of the Brazilian Biomes Atlantic Forest and Cerrado.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 2;193(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Agricultural Engineering (DEA), Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Peter Henry Rolfs Avenue s/n, Viçosa, MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Climate change and the intensification of anthropogenic activities in watersheds have been substantially changing the streamflow regime, which is a problem for water resource managers. This study assesses the influence of the changes in land use and land cover and rainfall on the streamflow regime. This study also models the pattern of these streamflows according to the rainfall and land use and land cover in the Santo Antônio River watershed, located in the transitioning region of the Brazilian Biomes Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. To assess the dynamic relationship between land use and land cover and the streamflow regime, five classes of land use and land cover were used. To characterize the hydrological pattern, data from six streamflow gauges and 24 rainfall gauges that influence the study area were used. Multiple regression models were adjusted to estimate streamflow using the explanatory variables rainfall and land use and land cover. As result, a direct relationship was found, as the decrease in streamflow in some drainage areas was influenced by the decrease in rainfall over the base period. The relationship between land use and land cover and streamflow was not significant. The reductions in the streamflow regimes over the years in the watershed were influenced by reductions in annual rainfall, which reduced about 19% while the water withdrawals from 2003 to 2014 increased 2350%. The results found in this study are useful to the water managers since they can estimate streamflow in any part of the studied river through rainfall and land use and land cover data. This helps to reduce the risks associated with the water allocation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08782-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Human and mouse melanoma cells recapitulate an EMT-like program in response to mesenchymal stromal cells secretome.

Cancer Lett 2021 Mar 29;501:114-123. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo - 3900 Bandeirantes Avenue, 14048-900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirao Preto - Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The mechanisms underlying the propensity of melanomas to metastasize are not completely understood. We hypothesized that melanoma cells are capable of promptly activating an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like profile in response to stroma-derived factors. Thus, we investigated the role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a cell population considered as a precursor of tumor stroma, on the activation of an EMT-like profile and acquisition of metastatic traits in melanoma cells. After subcutaneous co-injection with mouse B16 melanoma cells, MSCs occupied perivascular sites within tumors and enhanced B16 metastasis to the lungs. In vitro, MSCs' secretome activated an EMT-like profile in B16 cells, reducing their avidity to fibronectin, and increasing their motility and invasiveness. These effects were abrogated upon blocking of MET phosphorylation in B16 cells using small molecule inhibitors. MSCs also activated an EMT-like profile in human melanoma cells from different stages of progression. Activation of EMT in human cells was associated with increased levels of p-STAT1 and p-STAT3. In conclusion, both mouse and human melanoma cells are equipped to activate an EMT-like program and acquire metastatic traits through the activation of distinct pathways by MSCs' secretome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.12.030DOI Listing
March 2021

The Top 100 Most-Cited Papers in Cariology: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Caries Res 2021 18;55(1):32-40. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Child and Adolescent Oral Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil,

A highly cited paper is seen as a landmark in any field and can influence both research and clinical practice. This study aimed to quali-quantitatively analyze the 100 most-cited papers in Cariology. A search strategy was first determined using specific keywords related to the field. A comprehensive search was then conducted in the Thompson Reuters Web of Science citation indexing database up to April 2019. Papers focused on any aspect of Cariology were included. A panel of 4 researchers conducted the selection of papers and extracted data on the number of citations, title, authors, country, year, journals, study design, and topic of interest. Scopus and Google Scholar were also searched to compare the number of citations. The VOSviewer software was used to generate bibliometric networks. The number of citations among the top 100 most-cited papers ranged from 168 to 1,961 with a mean of 292,66. Three papers had more than 1,000 citations. The Journal of Dental Research (20%) and Caries Research (17%) had more top papers. The oldest and the most recent papers were published in 1960 and 2015. Literature reviews (35%) and laboratorial studies (31%) were the most common study designs. The countries with the highest number of most-cited papers were the USA (40%), Sweden (10%), and Japan (9%). The most studied fields of interest were etiology/pathogenesis (41%) and prevention (20%). VOSviewer maps revealed collaborative networks between countries and organizations. The top 100 most-cited papers in Cariology were published mainly by European and Anglo-Saxon American authors and were composed mainly of literature reviews with etiology/pathogenesis as the most frequent topic of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509862DOI Listing
May 2021

Hypoxia-cultured mouse mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and compact bone display different phenotypic traits.

Exp Cell Res 2021 02 16;399(1):112434. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Blood Center of Ribeirão Preto - Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 2501 Tenente Catão Roxo Avenue, 14051-060, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

It has been suggested that the bone marrow microenvironment harbors two distinct populations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), one with a perivascular location and other present in the endosteum. A better understanding of the biology of these MSC subsets has been pursued in order to refine its clinical application. However, most comparative characterizations of mouse MSC have been performed in normoxia. This can result in misleading interpretations since mouse MSC subsets with low/defective p53 activity are known to be selected during culture in normoxia. Here, we report a comprehensive in vitro characterization of mouse MSC isolated from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and compact bone (CB-MSC) expanded and assayed under hypoxia for their morphology, clonogenic efficiency and differentiation capacity. We found that, under hypoxia, compact bone is richer in absolute numbers of MSC and isolation of MSC from compact bone is associated with a reduced risk of hematopoietic cell carryover. In addition, CB-MSC have higher in vitro osteogenic capacity than BM-MSC, while adipogenic differentiation potential is similar. These findings reinforce the hypothesis of the existence of MSC in bone marrow and compact bone representing functionally distinct cell populations and highlight the compact bone as an efficient source of murine MSC under physiological oxygen concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112434DOI Listing
February 2021

Recovery from misinterpretations during online sentence processing.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.

Misinterpretations during language comprehension are common. The ability to recover from processing difficulties is therefore crucial for successful day-to-day communication. Previous research on the recovery from misinterpretations has focused on sentences containing syntactic ambiguities. The present study instead investigated the outcome of comprehension processes and online reading behavior when misinterpretations occurred due to lexical-semantic ambiguity. Ninety-six adult participants read "garden-path" sentences in which an ambiguous word was disambiguated toward an unexpected meaning (e.g., "The ball was crowded"), while their eye movements were monitored. A meaning coherence judgment task required them to decide whether or not each sentence made sense. Results suggested that readers did not always engage in reinterpretation processes but instead followed a "good enough" processing strategy. Successful detection of a violation of sentence coherence and associated reinterpretation processes also required additional processing time compared to sentences that did not induce a misinterpretation. Although these reinterpretation-related processing costs were relatively stable across individuals, there was some evidence to suggest that readers with greater lexical expertise benefited from greater sensitivity to the disambiguating information, and were able to flexibly adapt their online reading behavior to recover from misinterpretations more efficiently. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000936DOI Listing
November 2020

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oral health literacy exert an influence on the occurrence of dental caries in early adolescence.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campina Grande, Brazil.

Little is known regarding the influence of psychosocial factors on dental caries at early adolescence. The study aimed to investigate associations between family environment, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oral health literacy (OHL) with dental caries experience in early adolescence. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 448 12-year-old adolescents at public and private schools in North-eastern Brazil. Parents/guardians and teachers answered the Brazilian version of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales (SNAP- IV) for the evaluation of ADHD and a sociodemographic questionnaire. An OHL instrument (BREALD-30) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) were administered to the adolescents. Caries experience (DMFT) was the dependent variable. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance (α = 5%). Adolescents with more symptoms of ADHD (teachers' reports) (RR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.31-2.28), those with lower OHL (RR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.01-2.51), those with a lower family income (RR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.83), and those from families with a greater number of residents in the home (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06-1.31) had greater caries experience. Family adaptability and cohesion were not associated with caries experience. Dental caries experience in early adolescence was influenced by symptoms of ADHD, OHL, and sociodemographic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12756DOI Listing
November 2020

IRF6, MSX1, TGFA, dental anomalies, and skeletal malocclusion.

Eur J Orthod 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: Verify the presence of association between four variables-transforming growth factor α (TGFA; C/T rs1523305), interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6; A/C rs2013162), muscle segment homeobox 1 (MSX1; A/G rs12532), and dental anomalies-with skeletal malocclusion by comparing these four variables with Angle Classes I, II, and III, and normal, hyperdivergent, and hypodivergent growth patterns.

Methods: A total of 505 orthodontic records of patients older than 8 years were evaluated. The sample consisted of 285 (56.4 per cent) females, 220 (43.6 per cent) males, 304 (60.2 per cent) Whites (the rest were mixed Blacks with Whites), with a mean age of 20.28 (±10.35) years (ranging from 8 to 25 years). Eight cephalometric points, which served as the anatomical framework for obtaining angles and cephalometric measurements, were used for skeletal characterization using the Dolphin Software. Samples of saliva were collected and the DNA was extracted, diluted and quantified. Markers in TGFA, IRF6, and MSX1 were used and genotypes were obtained using TaqMan chemistry. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) calculations, chi-square, Fisher's Exact, Mann-Whitney, and correlation coefficient tests (significance level: 95 per cent) were performed. Bonferroni correction was applied and an alpha of 0.0006 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There was no statistically significant associations between markers in TGFA or IRF6 with skeletal malocclusions. Tooth agenesis was associated with facial convexity (P < 0.001). MSX1 was associated with Class II skeletal malocclusion (P = 0.0001, OR = 0.6, CI = 0.46-0.78).

Conclusion: Individuals with tooth agenesis were more likely to have a convex face. MSX1 was associated with Class II skeletal malocclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjaa064DOI Listing
November 2020

Complete genome sequence and analysis of Alcaligenes faecalis strain Mc250, a new potential plant bioinoculant.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(11):e0241546. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil.

Here we present and analyze the complete genome of Alcaligenes faecalis strain Mc250 (Mc250), a bacterium isolated from the roots of Mimosa calodendron, an endemic plant growing in ferruginous rupestrian grasslands in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The genome has 4,159,911 bp and 3,719 predicted protein-coding genes, in a single chromosome. Comparison of the Mc250 genome with 36 other Alcaligenes faecalis genomes revealed that there is considerable gene content variation among these strains, with the core genome representing only 39% of the protein-coding gene repertoire of Mc250. Mc250 encodes a complete denitrification pathway, a network of pathways associated with phenolic compounds degradation, and genes associated with HCN and siderophores synthesis; we also found a repertoire of genes associated with metal internalization and metabolism, sulfate/sulfonate and cysteine metabolism, oxidative stress and DNA repair. These findings reveal the genomic basis for the adaptation of this bacterium to the harsh environmental conditions from where it was isolated. Gene clusters associated with ectoine, terpene, resorcinol, and emulsan biosynthesis that can confer some competitive advantage were also found. Experimental results showed that Mc250 was able to reduce (~60%) the virulence phenotype of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri when co-inoculated in Citrus sinensis, and was able to eradicate 98% of juveniles and stabilize the hatching rate of eggs to 4% in two species of agricultural nematodes. These results reveal biotechnological potential for the Mc250 strain and warrant its further investigation as a biocontrol and plant growth-promoting bacterium.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241546PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643998PMC
December 2020

Parabens enhance the calcium-dependent testicular mitochondrial permeability transition: Their relevance on the reproductive capacity in male animals.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Mar 2;35(3):e22661. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Biology and Environment, CQVR, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real, Portugal.

Parabens, alkyl ester derivatives from p-hydroxybenzoic acid, are extensively used as antimicrobial preservatives. Nonetheless, due to its widespread and massive employment, several studies highlighted the association between parabens and alterations in the reproductive system. This study aimed to relate the adverse effect of the most commonly used parabens in testis mitochondria with male fertility. From all the parabens used, propyl and butyl were the ones that most negatively decreased the respiratory control ratio. In the case of butyl, inhibitions of 20% and 60% were observed, respectively, at the lowest and highest concentration, when compared to the control group. The membrane potential was only significantly affected by propyl (14%) and butyl (31%), and at a concentration of 250 µM. Succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATPase activities showed a nonsignificant decrease. Cytochrome c reductase, on the other hand, showed statistically significant inhibitions for both propyl (56%) and butylparaben (55%). The susceptibility to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening was increased by all parabens, although this increase was markedly significant for propyl and butyl. These results show that the susceptibility of mitochondria to parabens is dependent on the alkyl chain length and parabens hydrophobicity, and the main mitochondrial target is Complex II-III and MPTP. Hence, this study demonstrates the contribution of parabens exposition to the inhibition of testis mitochondrial function and their putative noxious effect on the male reproductive system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22661DOI Listing
March 2021

Processing of Self-Repairs in Stuttered and Non-Stuttered Speech.

Lang Cogn Neurosci 2020 26;35(1):93-105. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Previous research suggests that listeners can use the presence of speech disfluencies to predict upcoming linguistic input. But how is the processing of typical disfluencies affected when the speaker also produces atypical disfluencies, as in the case of stuttering? We addressed this question in a visual-world eye-tracking experiment in which participants heard self-repair disfluencies while viewing displays that contained a predictable target entity. Half the participants heard the sentences spoken by a speaker who stuttered, and half heard the sentences spoken by the same speaker who produced the sentences without stuttering. Results replicated previous work in demonstrating that listeners engage in robust predictive processing when hearing self-repair disfluencies. Crucially, the magnitude of the prediction effect was reduced when the speaker stuttered compared to when the speaker did not stutter. Overall, the results suggest that listeners' ability to model the production system of a speaker is disrupted when the speaker stutters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2019.1628284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500508PMC
June 2019

Urgency and discontinuity of oral health care in children and adolescents.

Cien Saude Colet 2020 Sep 28;25(9):3677-3684. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Departamento de Estomatologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil,

The aim of the present study was to investigate the discontinuity of oral health care among children and adolescents who accessed emergency services at primary care units and urgent care units. Records were reviewed of patients aged 0 to 17 years treated in the public healthcare system in city of Curitiba, Brazil. Discontinuity was considered when elective treatment was not registered at the primary care unit within six months after urgent care. The sample was stratified based on the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) (≤0.799 or ≥0.800). The association between discontinuity and covariables was assessed using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance (α=0.05). The incidence of discontinuity was 42.2%. In the MHDI≤0.799 stratum, the risk of discontinuity was greater among children younger than five years of age and individuals who had not had a dental appointment in the previous year. In both MHDI strata, the risk of discontinuity was higher in patients who received urgent care at an urgent care unit than those treated at a primary care unit. The incidence of the discontinuity of oral health care was high and was strongly influenced by the characteristics of dental service utilization among individuals living in regions with a lower MHDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232020259.33232018DOI Listing
September 2020

Influence of health care practices on the burden of caregiver mothers.

Rev Bras Enferm 2020 15;73 Suppl 4:e20190154. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: to explore the influence of health care practices on the burden of caregiver mothers of children with special health needs.

Methods: observational, analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study. Participation of 100 caregiver mothers, who responded the following instruments: characterization instrument; Burden Interview for Informal Caregivers; Perceptions of Family-Centered Care - Parents version; Evaluation Instrument for Primary Care - Child Version. For statistical analysis, were used the Spearman's Correlation and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis.

Results: the mean burden score was 47.99. There was a negative correlation between the burden and the domains of collaboration and support of the Perceptions of Family-Centered Care scale. In the multivariate linear regression model, the longitudinality variable maintained a significant relation with the burden (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: a shared, longitudinal and integrated care between families and health services can ease the burden of caregiver mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0154DOI Listing
April 2021

On the development of a nucleophilic methylthiolation methodology.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 07;18(28):5420-5426

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Martelos, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Zip Code 36036-900, Brazil.

Methylthiolation reactions are usually explored to access organosulfur compounds using methanethiol, an extremely flammable and toxic compound. Herein, methylthiomethyl esters were successfully applied as novel methylthiolation reagents in a low cost, transition-metal-free methodology. These reagents allowed the methylthiolation of a wide scope of chalcones, acyl ester derivatives and Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates with good group tolerance, affording the methylthiolated products in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction mechanism was investigated through several control experiments, as well as by theoretical calculations employing Density Functional Theory. The results strongly support that a sulfurane and a sulfonium ylide appear as key intermediates and that a Pummerer type rearrangement is also crucial for the formation of this novel reagent. Furthermore, the methylthiolation mechanism is likely to proceed through the nucleophilic attack of the reagent, followed by an entropically favoured step involving the acetate attack to the positively charged species, then releasing the product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob01149eDOI Listing
July 2020

Distribution of seasonality of calving patterns and milk production in dairy herds across the United States.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Sep 16;103(9):8161-8173. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address:

Calving patterns and milk production are seasonal throughout the United States; however, the distribution of seasonality, and the extent to which this seasonality is due to direct effects of climate on milk production and reproductive performance or farm management, is not well quantified. Summer-to-winter (SW) ratios have been used as measures of seasonality, but other measures such as low-to-peak (LP) ratios have been proposed. Our objectives were (1) to describe the distribution of seasonality in calving pattern and milk production among herds in the United States, (2) to compare SW and LP ratios of calving pattern and milk production, (3) to quantify the effect of a seasonal calving pattern, parity, and percentage of dry cows on seasonality of milk production, and (4) to describe the association between seasonality in calving pattern and milk production, herd size, and daily milk production per cow. The final data set contained Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records from 2015 from 5,292 (calving pattern) and 5,200 (milk production) herds for 41 states in the United States. We used generalized linear regression models with 1 sinusoidal curve to model calving pattern and milk production per cow for each herd. For milk production, a model adjusting for days in milk (DIM) and the interaction of DIM and parity (ADJ) and a model that was not adjusted (NO) were run. Both models included the effect of the percentage of dry cows. We used SW and LP ratios calculated from the parameters of the sinusoidal component of the models as measures of seasonality. The variability within states for all seasonality measures was large. The median LP ratio of calving pattern was 0.61, and small herds were more seasonal (LP ratio 0.56) than large herds (LP ratio 0.75). For milk production, the median LP ratio-NO was 0.88, and the LP ratio-ADJ was 0.90. Small herds were more seasonal (0.89) than large herds (0.92) when their LP ratios-ADJ were compared. States in the south of the United States were the most seasonal for calving patterns and milk production. Adjusting for DIM and parity increased the LP ratio of milk production by 8.9% for 66% of the herds. Adjusting for the percentage of dry cows increased the LP ratio in 72.9% of the herds by a median value of 21.8%. The correlations between SW and LP ratios were weak. Herds that were more seasonal for milk production had a lower average daily milk per cow than less-seasonal herds. In conclusion, seasonality in calving patterns and milk production among herds varied greatly across the United States. Sinusoidal models with covariates allowed for quantification of the effects of calving pattern, DIM, and parity on the seasonality in milk production. The LP ratios captured the maximum seasonality better than SW ratios did.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-18138DOI Listing
September 2020