Publications by authors named "Fernanda Ferrari Esteves Torres"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of curved root canals filled with a new bioceramic sealer: A microcomputed tomographic study using images with different voxel sizes and segmentation methods.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the filling ability of a new premixed bioceramic sealer in comparison with an epoxy resin-based sealer in curved root canals using different segmentation methods and voxel sizes in micro-CT images. Twelve curved mesial roots of mandibular molars with two separated canals were selected. All root canals were prepared by using HyFlex EDM files size 25/.08 and filled by the single cone technique and Bio-C Sealer or AH Plus (n = 12). The samples were scanned by micro-CT at 5 μm. The images were analyzed at 5, 10, and 20 μm for the volumetric analysis of voids in filling. Visual image segmentation was performed by two examiners, and the automatic segmentation was accomplished for comparison. Radiopacity of the sealers was evaluated by radiographic analysis. Data were submitted to the two-way ANOVA and non-paired t tests at a significance level of 5%. AH Plus had the highest radiopacity (p < .05). Root canals filled with AH Plus or Bio-C had similar low percentage of voids (p > .05). There was no difference interobserver, which had similar results to those obtained with automatic segmentation for all voxel sizes evaluated (p > .05). Bio-C Sealer had appropriate filling ability. Visual and automatic segmentation can be applied to micro-CT images with voxel sizes from 5 to 20 μm to evaluate the filling of sealers with adequate radiopacity. Automatic segmentation should be used as a faster method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23855DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of Different Dimensions of Test Samples on the Volumetric Change Assessment Of Endodontic Materials.

Braz Dent J 2021 Jan-Feb;32(1):42-47

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

New methodologies using micro-CT to evaluate solubility besides dimensional and morphological changes of endodontic materials are proposed. However, there is no standardization in the methods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different dimensions of test samples on volumetric change evaluation of different endodontic materials. AH Plus, FillCanal and Sealapex root canal sealers, Biodentine, IRM and MTA root-end filling cements were used in the tests. Samples of each material with a thickness of 1.5 mm and different diameters were manufactured: 6.3, 7.75, and 9.0 mm. The samples were scanned in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) after setting and after 7 days of immersion in distilled water. The volumetric change was evaluated by means of the difference in the total volume of the specimens before and after immersion. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). The size of the samples did not affect the percentage of volumetric change of the materials (p>0.05). All sample sizes had greater volume loss for Sealapex among the sealers and Biodentine for the cements (p<0.05). In conclusion, Biodentine and Sealapex had the highest volume loss after immersion. Samples with 1.5 mm thickness, and diameters ranging between 6.3 and 9.0 mm can be used to assess the stability of endodontic materials using micro-CT without affecting the percentage of volumetric change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202103507DOI Listing
May 2021

A micro-computed tomographic study using a novel test model to assess the filling ability and volumetric changes of bioceramic root repair materials.

Restor Dent Endod 2021 Feb 8;46(1):e2. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objectives: New premixed bioceramic root repair materials require moisture for setting. Using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), this study evaluated the filling ability and volumetric changes of calcium silicate-based repair materials (mineral trioxide aggregate repair high-plasticity [MTA HP] and Bio-C Repair, Angelus), in comparison with a zinc oxide and eugenol-based material (intermediate restorative material [IRM]; Dentsply DeTrey).

Materials And Methods: Gypsum models with cavities 3 mm deep and 1 mm in diameter were manufactured and scanned using micro-CT (SkyScan 1272. Bruker). The cavities were filled with the cements and scanned again to evaluate their filling capacity. Another scan was performed after immersing the samples in distilled water for 7 days to assess the volumetric changes of the cements. The statistical significance of differences in the data was evaluated using analysis of variance and the Tukey test with a 5% significance level.

Results: Bio-C Repair had a greater filling ability than MTA HP ( < 0.05). IRM was similar to Bio-C and MTA HP ( > 0.05). MTA HP presented the largest volumetric change ( < 0.05), showing more volume loss than Bio-C and IRM, which were similar ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: Bio-C Repair is a new endodontic material with excellent filling capacity and low volumetric change. The gypsum model proposed for evaluating filling ability and volumetric changes by micro-CT had appropriate and reproducible results. This model may enhance the physicochemical evaluation of premixed bioceramic materials, which need moisture for setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2021.46.e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906850PMC
February 2021

Safety and Effectiveness of Additional Apical Preparation using a Rotary Heat-treated Nickel-Titanium file with Larger Diameter and Minimum Taper in Retreatment of Curved Root Canals.

Eur J Dent 2021 May 23;15(2):247-252. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective:  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of additional apical preparation using the ProDesign Logic (PDL) 50/.01 rotary heat-treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) file with a larger diameter and minimal taper for retreatment of curved root canals.

Materials And Methods:  Mesial curved root canals of 12 mandibular molars were prepared using PDL 25/.06 and filled using the continuous wave of condensation technique and AH Plus sealer. After retreatment using ProDesign S (PDS) 25/.08, PDL 25/.06 and PDL 35/05, a complementary procedure was performed with PDL 50/.01. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning was performed before and after retreatment procedures. The cyclic fatigue resistance of unused PDS 25/.08, PDL 25/.06, PDL 35/.05 and PDL 50/.01 instruments ( = 12) was evaluated in a stainless-steel device.

Statistical Analysis:  Data on the volumes of the root canals and the remaining filling materials were submitted to the paired t-test. Cyclic fatigue resistance data was submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05).

Results:  Use of PDL 50/.01 decreased the remaining filling materials in the apical third ( 0.05). The root canal volume was similar in the cervical and middle thirds before and after preparation using PDL 50/.01 ( 0.05). PDL 50/.01 presented the highest cyclic fatigue resistance ( 0.05).

Conclusions:  Use of the PDL 50/.01 instrument as an additional apical preparation for retreatment of curved root canals improved filling material removal in the apical third, while maintaining the dentin in the cervical and middle thirds. In addition, PDL 50/.01 presented high-flexural resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184271PMC
May 2021

Effect of obturation technique using a new bioceramic sealer on the presence of voids in flattened root canals.

Braz Oral Res 2021 12;35:e028. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp, School of Dentistry , Department of Restorative Dentistry , Araraquara , SP , Brazil .

The aim of this study was to evaluate the filling ability of a new ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer using thermoplastic or single-cone technique in flattened root canals. Twenty-four flattened distal canals of mandibular molars with a buccolingual diameter 4 or more times larger than the mesiodistal diameter were selected. The root canals were prepared and filled (n = 12), according to the following techniques: thermoplastic or single-cone technique using Bio-C Sealer. The teeth were scanned using Skycan 1176 micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) - voxel size 8.74 µm, before and after filling the root canal. The percentage of voids in the filled root canals was evaluated, and the data were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test (α = 0.05). The root canals filled using the thermoplastic technique created a smaller percentage of voids in the cervical/middle thirds than those filled using the single-cone technique (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of voids using either technique in the apical third (p > 0.05). The flattened root canals in the cervical/middle thirds were better filled using the ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer associated to the thermoplastic technique, compared with the single-cone technique. In the apical third, the techniques showed similar filling ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0028DOI Listing
February 2021

Physicochemical, biological, and antibacterial evaluation of tricalcium silicate-based reparative cements with different radiopacifiers.

Dent Mater 2021 02 13;37(2):311-320. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate tricalcium silicate-based (TCS) experimental materials, associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO), calcium tungstate (CaWO) or niobium oxide (NbO) radiopacifiers, in comparison with MTA Repair HP (Angelus).

Methods: Physicochemical tests: setting time, radiopacity, pH and solubility. In vitro assays: cytotoxicity: MTT and Neutral Red - NR; cell bioactivity: alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), Alzarin red staining (ARS) and real time PCR (qPCR). Antibacterial activity: direct contact on Enterococcus faecalis in the planktonic form. Physicochemical and ARS data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey tests; antibacterial activity, to Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn tests; MTT, NR, ALP and qPCR were analyzed by ANOVA/Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05).

Results: TCS + CaWO presented the longest setting time and MTA HP the shortest. Except for TCS, all the materials presented radiopacity above 3 mmAl. The cements had alkaline pH, antibacterial activity, low solubility and no cytotoxic effects. The highest ALP activity occurred in 14 days, especially to TCS, TCS + ZrO and TCS + CaWO. TCS + ZrO, TCS + NbO and MTAHP had higher mineralized nodule formation than those of the negative control (NC). After 7 days, there was no difference in mRNA expression for ALP, when compared to NC. However, after 14 days there was no overexpressed ALP mRNA, especially TCS + NbO, in relation to the CN. All the materials presented antimicrobial action.

Significance: The pure tricalcium silicate associated with ZrO, CaWO or NbO had appropriate physicochemical properties, antibacterial activity, cytocompatibility and induced mineralization in Saos-2, indicating their use as reparative materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.11.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of voxel size on micro-CT analysis of debris after root canal preparation.

Braz Oral Res 2020 13;35:e008. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp, School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on the evaluation of debris accumulation after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in curved root canals prepared with rotary nickel-titanium files. Mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars with curvature between 25° and 35° were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). PUI was performed after root canal preparation of all root canals. The specimens were scanned using high-resolution (5 μm voxel size) micro-CT imaging before and after experimental procedures. The percentage of debris was analyzed in the middle and apical thirds using images with 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel sizes. Data were compared using unpaired and paired Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests (α = 0.05). There were no differences among the debris analyses performed at different voxel sizes (5, 10 and 20 μm) (p > 0.05). The percentage of debris was similar between the root canals prepared by PDL and HEDM before and after PUI (p > 0.05). In both groups, the percentage of debris decreased in the middle third after PUI (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, it can be concluded that the voxel sizes evaluated did not have a significant impact on the analysis of accumulated debris. However, the results showed a tendency for detection of more debris in the analysis performed using a lower voxel size. PUI decreased the debris accumulation in the middle third of curved root canals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0008DOI Listing
January 2021

Filling Ability and Flow of Root Canal Sealers: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

Braz Dent J 2020 Sep-Oct;31(5):499-504

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) the filling ability in curved root canals, besides the flow of AH Plus (AHP) and Neo MTA Plus (NMTAP) sealers using different methodologies. Mandibular molars mesial roots with two root canals and degree of curvature between 20° and 40° were selected. The specimens were prepared with the ProDesign R system up to size 35.05 and were filled with the sealers by a continuous wave of condensation technique, Thermo Pack II (n=12). The teeth were scanned using μCT after root canal preparation and obturation. The volumetric percentage of filling material and voids were calculated. Flow was evaluated based on ISO 6876/2012 (n=10). Flow and filling were also evaluated in μCT using a glass plate with a central cavity and four grooves from the central cavity (n=6). Flow was linearly calculated into the grooves. The central cavity filling (CCF) and lateral cavity filling (LCF) were calculated in mm³. Data were submitted to non-paired t test with a significance threshold at 5%. The percentage of filling and voids between the root canals filled with AHP or NMTAP was similar (p>0.05). NMTAP presented the lowest flow in conventional test (p<0.05). Using μCT, sealers had similar CCF, LCF and linear flow (p>0.05). In conclusion, NMTAP and AHP had similar filling ability in curved mesial root canals of mandibular molars without presence of isthmus. Although AHP presented better flow than NMTAP using ISO methodology, there was no difference between these materials regarding volumetric filling when evaluated by μCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202003328DOI Listing
November 2020

Micro-computed tomographic evaluation of a new system for root canal filling using calcium silicate-based root canal sealers.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 Aug 9;45(3):e34. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objectives: This study evaluated by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) the filling ability and sealer apical extrusion promoted by a new Sealer Injection System (SIS; Angelus) with side openings needle, in comparison with the conventional injection system, associated with a new ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer (Bio-C Sealer).

Materials And Methods: Acrylic resin models containing a main curved artificial canal and 3 simulated lateral canals in apical, middle and cervical thirds were used. The main root canals were prepared using a rotary system up to size 35.05. The canals were filled with Bio-C sealer by using a single cone technique and the conventional delivery system or SIS. Samples were scanned in micro-CT. The percentage of voids throughout the entire extension of the main root canal and in each third of the lateral canals, besides the apical extrusion of the sealer was calculated. Data were submitted to -test ( < 0.05).

Results: There was no difference between both systems in the main root canals filling. Although the volume percentage of voids was similar in the apical and middle thirds of lateral canals, SIS had the greatest filling ability of the cervical third lateral canal. Moreover, the conventional system showed the highest apical extrusion of the sealer.

Conclusions: The conventional and SIS obturation systems had an appropriate filling ability of the main root canal. SIS had the best filling of the cervical third of the lateral canals, besides lower sealer apical extrusion, suggesting its clinical indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431941PMC
August 2020

How image-processing parameters can influence the assessment of dental materials using micro-CT.

Imaging Sci Dent 2020 Jun 18;50(2):161-168. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of voxel size and different post-processing algorithms on the analysis of dental materials using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).

Materials And Methods: Root-end cavities were prepared in extracted maxillary premolars, filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), and scanned using micro-CT. The volume and porosity of materials were evaluated and compared using voxel sizes of 5, 10, and 20 µm, as well as different software tools (post-processing algorithms). The CTAn or MeVisLab/Materialise 3-matic software package was used to perform volume and morphological analyses, and the CTAn or MeVisLab/Amira software was used to evaluate porosity. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (<0.05).

Results: Using MeVisLab/Materialise 3-matic, a consistent tendency was observed for volume to increase at larger voxel sizes. CTAn showed higher volumes for MTA and IRM at 20 µm. Using CTAn, porosity values decreased as voxel size increased, with statistically significant differences for all materials. MeVisLab/Amira showed a difference for MTA and IRM at 5 µm, and for Biodentine at 20 µm. Significant differences in volume and porosity were observed in all software packages for Biodentine across all voxel sizes.

Conclusion: Some differences in volume and porosity were found according to voxel size, image-processing software, and the radiopacity of the material. Consistent protocols are needed for research evaluating dental materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5624/isd.2020.50.2.161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314609PMC
June 2020

Micro-computed tomographic evaluation of the flow and filling ability of endodontic materials using different test models.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 May 8;45(2):e11. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objectives: This study compared the flow and filling of several retrograde filling materials using new different test models.

Materials And Methods: Glass plates were manufactured with a central cavity and 4 grooves in the horizontal and vertical directions. Grooves with the dimensions used in the previous study (1 × 1 × 2 mm; length, width, and height respectively) were compared with grooves measuring 1 × 1 × 1 and 1 × 2 × 1 mm. Biodentine, intermediate restorative material (IRM), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were evaluated. Each material was placed in the central cavity, and then another glass plate and a metal weight were placed over the cement. The glass plate/material set was scanned using micro-computed tomography. Flow was calculated by linear measurements in the grooves. Central filling was calculated in the central cavity (mm) and lateral filling was measured up to 2 mm from the central cavity.

Results: Biodentine presented the least flow and better filling than IRM when evaluated in the 1 × 1 × 2 model. In a comparison of the test models, MTA had the most flow in the 1 × 1 × 2 model. All materials had lower lateral filling when the 1 × 1 × 2 model was used.

Conclusions: Flow and filling were affected by the size of the test models. Higher grooves and materials with greater flow resulted in lower filling capacity. The test model measuring 1 × 1 × 2 mm showed a better ability to differentiate among the materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239685PMC
May 2020

Physicochemical Properties and Bioactive Potential of a New Epoxy Resin-based Root Canal Sealer.

Braz Dent J 2019 Nov-Dec;30(6):563-568

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical properties and bioactive potential of Sealer Plus, in comparison with MTA Fillapex, Sealapex and AH Plus. Setting time, flow, and radiopacity were evaluated based on ISO 6876 Standard. Flow was also assessed in area (mm²). The solubility and volumetric change of the sealers were evaluated after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. Solubility was evaluated by the difference in mass of materials before and after immersion. Volumetric change was evaluated by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The bioactive potential was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after immersion in PBS. Data were compared using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Sealer Plus presented the shortest setting time (196 min.) and Sealapex the longest (912 min.) (p<0.05). AH Plus showed the highest radiopacity (9.5 mm Al) and MTA Fillapex the lowest (2.7 mm Al) (p<0.05). All the sealers presented flow in accordance with ISO 6876/2012 (>17 mm). Sealer Plus showed low solubility and volumetric change (<1%), and MTA Fillapex showed the highest solubility (>25%), and volumetric change (>4%) after all time intervals (p<0.05). MTA Fillapex was the only sealer that showed bioactive potential. In conclusion, Sealer Plus presented proper physicochemical properties. However, this sealer did not present a bioactive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201802861DOI Listing
December 2019

Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of a New Calcium Silicate-based Sealer, Bio-C Sealer.

J Endod 2019 Oct 22;45(10):1248-1252. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University, School of Dentistry, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Calcium silicate-based materials have been proposed as root canal sealers for root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a new calcium silicate-based sealer (Bio-C Sealer; Angelus, PR, Brazil) compared with a calcium silicate endodontic sealer (TotalFill BC Sealer; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany).

Methods: The setting time and flow were evaluated based on ISO 6876 standard. The pH value was evaluated after different time intervals of storage in deionized water (1, 7, 14, and 21 days). Radiopacity was evaluated by radiographic analysis in millimeters of aluminum. Solubility and volumetric change were evaluated after 30 days of immersion in distilled water. Solubility was assessed by mass loss (%), and volumetric change was evaluated by micro-computed tomographic imaging. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey statistical tests (P < .05).

Results: TotalFill BC Sealer and Bio-C Sealer were similar regarding radiopacity, volumetric change, and pH values (P > .05). Bio-C Sealer presented the shortest setting time and the highest flow and solubility (P < .05). AH Plus showed the highest radiopacity and the lowest flow, pH, solubility, and volumetric change (P < .05).

Conclusions: Bio-C Sealer showed a short setting time, alkalinization ability, and adequate flow and radiopacity as well as low volumetric change. However, this sealer had higher solubility than the rates required by ISO 6876 standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2019.07.006DOI Listing
October 2019

Solubility, Porosity, Dimensional and Volumetric Change of Endodontic Sealers.

Braz Dent J 2019 Jul 22;30(4):368-373. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate physical properties of endodontic sealers (AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Endofill), by conventional and micro-CT tests. Dimensional stability was evaluated after immersion of materials in distilled water for 30 days. Solubility and volumetric change were evaluated after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. Solubility was evaluated by means of mass loss and volumetric change was assessed by micro-CT. Porosity was evaluated under a microscope after 7 days of immersion in distilled water, and by using micro-CT after setting and immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey's test with 5% significance level. MTA Fillapex presented the highest solubility (p<0.05), showing values above the ISO/ADA recommendations. MTA Fillapex presented higher volumetric and dimensional changes, followed by Endofill and AH Plus (p<0.05). Dimensional stability of the MTA Fillapex and AH Plus did not follow ISO/ADA standards. The highest total porosity was observed for MTA Fillapex (p<0.05). Endofill had higher total porosity than AH Plus according to microscope evaluation (p<0,05), and both sealers were similar in micro-CT assessment (p>0,05). In conclusion, MTA Fillapex presented higher solubility, dimensional and volumetric change besides porosity compared to the other evaluated sealers. The assessed physical properties of sealers are related, and the different tests provided complementary data. Micro-CT is a valuable method for assessment of physical properties of endodontic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201902607DOI Listing
July 2019

Solubility, porosity and fluid uptake of calcium silicate-based cements.

J Appl Oral Sci 2018 21;26:e20170465. Epub 2018 May 21.

Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brasil.

Objective: To evaluate the absorption/fluid uptake, solubility and porosity of White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, Biodentine (BIO), and zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE).

Material And Methods: Solubility was evaluated after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Porosity was evaluated using digital inverted microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). For the fluid uptake test, specimens were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Fluid absorption, solubility and porosity of the materials were measured after each period. Statistical evaluation was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests, with a significance level at 5%.

Results: After 7 and 30 days, BIO showed the highest solubility (p<0.05). All methods demonstrated that MTA had total porosity higher than BIO and ZOE (p<0.05). Micro-CT analysis showed that MTA had the highest porosity at the initial period, after its setting time (p<0.05). After 7 and 30 days, ZOE had porosity lower than MTA and BIO (p<0.05). Absorption was similar among the materials (p>0.05), and higher fluid uptake and solubility were observed for MTA in the fluid uptake test (p<0.05).

Conclusions: BIO had the highest solubility in the conventional test and MTA had higher porosity and fluid uptake. ZOE had lower values of solubility, porosity and fluid uptake. Solubility, porosity and fluid uptake are related, and the tests used provided complementary data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2017-0465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953561PMC
May 2018

Physicochemical Properties and Volumetric Change of Silicone/Bioactive Glass and Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Sealers.

J Endod 2017 Dec 9;43(12):2097-2101. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: This study evaluated setting time (ST), radiopacity, pH, flow, solubility, and volumetric change (VC) of a silicone, gutta-percha, and bioactive glass-based sealer, GuttaFlow Bioseal (GFB), and a calcium silicate-based sealer, TotalFill BC Sealer (TFBC), in comparison with AH Plus.

Methods: ST and flow were evaluated in accordance with the ISO 6876 Standard. pH was evaluated after different time intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Radiopacity was evaluated by radiographic analysis in millimeters of aluminum. Solubility was evaluated by means of mass loss (%) after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. VC was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, by using cavities 3 mm deep and 1 mm in diameter in acrylic resin, filled with the materials. The materials were evaluated after setting and after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey statistical tests (P < .05).

Results: TFBC demonstrated the highest pH and solubility. GFB had the shortest ST, and lowest radiopacity and flow values. VC was similar for the sealers in both time intervals.

Conclusions: TFBC presented the highest pH and solubility, but showed similar VC to GFB and AH Plus. GFB showed proper physicochemical properties. Micro-computed tomography complements the physicochemical analysis of endodontic sealers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.07.005DOI Listing
December 2017

Evaluation of physicochemical properties of root-end filling materials using conventional and Micro-CT tests.

J Appl Oral Sci 2017 Jul-Aug;25(4):374-380

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Araraquara, SP, Brasil.

Objective: To evaluate solubility, dimensional stability, filling ability and volumetric change of root-end filling materials using conventional tests and new Micro-CT-based methods.

Material And Methods: 7.

Results: The results suggested correlated or complementary data between the proposed tests. At 7 days, BIO showed higher solubility and at 30 days, showed higher volumetric change in comparison with MTA (p<0.05). With regard to volumetric change, the tested materials were similar (p>0.05) at 7 days. At 30 days, they presented similar solubility. BIO and MTA showed higher dimensional stability than ZOE (p<0.05). ZOE and BIO showed higher filling ability (p<0.05).

Conclusions: ZOE presented a higher dimensional change, and BIO had greater solubility after 7 days. BIO presented filling ability and dimensional stability, but greater volumetric change than MTA after 30 days. Micro-CT can provide important data on the physicochemical properties of materials complementing conventional tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2016-0454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5595109PMC
October 2017

A Novel Model for Evaluating the Flow of Endodontic Materials Using Micro-computed Tomography.

J Endod 2017 May 3;43(5):796-800. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Flow and filling ability are important properties of endodontic materials. The aim of this study was to propose a new technique for evaluating flow using micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging.

Methods: A glass plate was manufactured with a central cavity and 4 grooves extending out horizontally and vertically. The flow of MTA-Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and Biodentine (BIO) (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) was evaluated using International Standards Organization (ISO) 6876/2002 and a new technique as follows: 0.05 ± 0.005 mL of each material was placed in the central cavity, and another glass plate and metal weight with a total mass of 120 g were placed over the material. The plate/material set was scanned using μCT imaging. The flow was calculated by linear measurement (mm) of the material in the grooves. Central cavity filling was calculated in mm in the central cavity. Lateral cavity filling (LCF) was measured by LCF mean values up to 2 mm from the central cavity. Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Tukey tests with a 5% significance level.

Results: ZOE showed the highest flow rate determined by ISO methodology (P < .05). Analysis performed using μCT imaging showed MTA-Angelus and ZOE had higher linear flow rates in the grooves. Central cavity filling was similar for the materials. However, LCF was higher for BIO versus ZOE.

Conclusions: Although ZOE presented better flow determined by ISO methodology, BIO showed the best filling ability. The model of the technique proposed for evaluating flow using μCT imaging showed proper and reproducible results and could improve flow analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2016.12.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2015 11 1;16(11):859-63. Epub 2015 Nov 1.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI).

Materials And Methods: Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level).

Results: EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Negative pressure irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals.

Clinical Significance: Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1771DOI Listing
November 2015

Intermittent or continuous ultrasonically activated irrigation: micro-computed tomographic evaluation of root canal system cleaning.

Clin Oral Investig 2016 Sep 4;20(7):1541-6. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Araraquara School of Dentistry, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) methods and conventional manual irrigation (CMI) in root canal system (RCS) cleaning.

Materials And Methods: Artificial single-rooted teeth were used. Four lateral canals were made 2 and 7 mm short from the apex. Root canals were filled with a contrast solution. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 8): PUI1-intermittent flushing; PUI2-continuous flushing; CMI1-at 1 mm; and CMI2-at 3 mm. Micro-computed tomographic images were obtained. New images were taken after the irrigation protocols enabling the evaluation of the contrast solution volume (in mm(3)) within RCS (main and lateral root canals) in comparison to the initial analysis. The comparison among groups was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests with 5 % significance level.

Results: There was no difference among PUI1, PUI2, and CMI1 regarding the contrast solution removal from RCS (p > 0.05). These methods demonstrated greater cleaning than CMI2. At the apical third, CMI2 showed lower cleaning capacity when compared to the other methods (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: PUI with intermittent or continuous flushing and CMI with the needle placed 1 mm from the working length were efficient in cleaning the main and lateral root canals.

Clinical Relevance: Root canal irrigation plays an important role in cleaning and disinfection of the RCS. Effective apical irrigation is an important procedure during root canal treatment. PUI and CMI (at 1 mm short) were effective in cleaning of the main and simulated lateral root canals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-015-1645-7DOI Listing
September 2016
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