Publications by authors named "Fermin Garcia"

176 Publications

Substrate Characterization and Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Titin Cardiomyopathy: A Multicenter Study.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

- Truncating variants of the titin gene (TTNtv) are a leading cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. This study evaluated the substrate distribution and the acute and long-term outcomes of patients with TTN-related cardiomyopathy undergoing ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation. - This multicenter registry included 15 patients with DCM (age 59±11 years, 93% male, ejection fraction 30±12%) and genotypically confirmed TTNtvs who underwent VT ablation between July 2014 and July 2020. - All patients presented with sustained monomorphic VT, including electrical storm in 4 of them. A median of 2 VTs per patient were induced during the procedure (cycle-length 318±68 ms) and the predominant morphologies were left bundle branch block with inferior axis (39%) and right bundle branch block with inferior axis (29%). A complete map of the left ventricle (LV) was created in 12 patients and showed voltage abnormalities mainly at the periaortic (92%) and basal septal region (58%). A preprocedural cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was available in 13 patients and in 11 there was evidence of LV delayed gadolinium enhancement, with predominantly midmyocardial distribution. Sequential ablation from both sides of the septum was required in 47% of patients to target septal intramural substrate and epicardial ablation was performed in 20%. At the end of the procedure, the clinical VT was noninducible in all patients, while in 3 cases a non-clinical VT was still inducible. After a follow-up of 26.5±23.0 months, 53% of patients experienced VT recurrence, 20% received transplant or mechanical circulatory support and 7% died. - The arrhythmogenic substrate in TTN-related cardiomyopathy involves the basal septal and perivalvular regions. Long-term outcomes of catheter ablation are modest, with high recurrence rate, likely related to an intramural location of VT circuits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.121.010006DOI Listing
July 2021

Radiofrequency Ablation Strategies for Intramural Ventricular Arrhythmias.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2021 Apr 25;17(1):8-12. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Hospital of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Catheter ablation is an established treatment strategy for ventricular arrhythmias. However, the presence of intramural substrate poses challenges with mapping and delivery of radiofrequency energy, limiting overall success of catheter ablation. Advances over the past decade have improved our understanding of intramural substrate and paved the way for innovative treatment approaches. Modifications in catheter ablation techniques and development of novel ablation technologies have led to improved clinical outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we explore mapping techniques to identify intramural substrate and describe available radiofrequency energy delivery techniques that can improve overall success rates of catheter ablation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14797/PEYF3776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158442PMC
April 2021

Preface.

Card Electrophysiol Clin 2021 06;13(2):xv

Cardiac Electrophysiology, Fundacion CardioInfantil, Calle 163A # 13B-60, Bogota, Colombia. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2021.04.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Interatrial septal tachycardias following atrial fibrillation ablation or cardiac surgery: Electrophysiological features and ablation outcomes.

Heart Rhythm 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Electrophysiology Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Interatrial septal tachycardias (IAS-ATs) following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation or cardiac surgery are rare, and their management is challenging.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological features and outcomes associated with catheter ablation of IAS-AT.

Methods: We screened 338 patients undergoing catheter ablation of ATs following AF ablation or cardiac surgery. Diagnosis of IAS-AT was based on activation mapping and analysis of response to atrial overdrive pacing.

Results: Twenty-nine patients (9%) had IAS-AT (cycle length [CL] 311 ± 104 ms); 16 (55%) had prior AF ablation procedures (median 3; range 1-5), 3 (10%) had prior surgical maze, and 12 (41%) had prior cardiac surgery (including atrial septal defect surgical repair in 5 and left atrial myxoma resection in 1). IAS substrate abnormalities were documented in all patients. Activation mapping always demonstrated a diffuse early IAS breakout with centrifugal biatrial activation, and atrial overdrive pacing showed a good postpacing interval (equal or within 25 ms of the AT CL) only at 1 or 2 anatomically opposite IAS sites in all cases. Ablation was acutely successful in 27 patients (93%) (from only the right IAS in 2, only the left IAS in 9, both IAS sides with sequential ablation in 13, and both IAS sides with bipolar ablation in 3). After median follow-up of 15 (6-52) months, 17 patients (59%) remained free from recurrent arrhythmias.

Conclusion: IAS-ATs are rare and typically occur in patients with evidence of IAS substrate abnormalities and prior cardiac surgery. Catheter ablation can be challenging and may require sequential unipolar ablation or bipolar ablation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.04.036DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel approach to mapping and ablation of septal outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias: Insights from multipolar intraseptal recordings.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Periprocedural Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Structural Heart Disease Undergoing Catheter Ablation of VT.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 02 28;7(2):174-186. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to examine the impact of periprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI) in scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on short- and long-term outcomes.

Background: The clinical significance of periprocedural AKI in patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA has not been previously investigated.

Methods: This study included 317 consecutive patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA (age: 64 ± 13 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 33 ± 13%, 55% ischemic cardiomyopathy). Periprocedural AKI was defined as an absolute increase in creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl over 48 h or an increase of >1.5× the baseline values within 1 week post-procedure.

Results: Periprocedural AKI occurred in 31 patients (10%). Independent predictors of AKI included chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48 to 7.96; p = 0.004), atrial fibrillation (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.01 to 5.78; p = 0.047), and peri-procedural acute hemodynamic decompensation (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.17 to 13.52; p = 0.003). After a median follow-up of 39 months (interquartile range: 6 to 65 months), 95 patients (30%) died. Periprocedural AKI was associated with increased risk of early mortality (within 30 days; hazard ratio [HR]: 9.91; 95% CI: 2.87 to 34.22; p < 0.001) and late mortality (within 1 year) (HR: 4.57; 95% CI: 2.08 to 10.05; p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, AKI remained independently associated with increased risk of early and late mortality (HR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.1 to 18.36; p = 0.04, and HR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.43 to 7.49; p = 0.005, respectively).

Conclusions: Periprocedural AKI occurs in 10% of patients undergoing RFCA of scar-related VT and is strongly associated with increased risk of early and late post-procedural mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.08.018DOI Listing
February 2021

Validation of diagnostic codes and epidemiologic trends of Huntington disease: a population-based study in Navarre, Spain.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 02 10;16(1):77. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Health Sciences, Universidad Pública de Navarra, IdiSNA, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: There is great heterogeneity on geographic and temporary Huntington disease (HD) epidemiological estimates. Most research studies of rare diseases, including HD, use health information systems (HIS) as data sources. This study investigates the validity and accuracy of national and international diagnostic codes for HD in multiple HIS and analyses the epidemiologic trends of HD in the Autonomous Community of Navarre (Spain).

Methods: HD cases were ascertained by the Rare Diseases Registry and the reference Medical Genetics Centre of Navarre. Positive predictive values (PPV) and sensitivity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Overall and 9-year periods (1991-2017) HD prevalence, incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and trends were assessed by Joinpoint regression.

Results: Overall PPV and sensitivity of combined HIS were 71.8% (95% CI: 59.7, 81.6) and 82.2% (95% CI: 70.1, 90.4), respectively. Primary care data was a more valuable resource for HD ascertainment than hospital discharge records, with 66% versus 50% sensitivity, respectively. It also had the highest number of "unique to source" cases. Thirty-five per cent of HD patients were identified by a single database and only 4% by all explored sources. Point prevalence was 4.94 (95% CI: 3.23, 6.65) per 100,000 in December 2017, and showed an annual 6.1% increase from 1991 to 1999. Incidence and mortality trends remained stable since 1995-96, with mean annual rates per 100,000 of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.47) and 0.23 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.32), respectively. Late-onset HD patients (23.1%), mean age at onset (49.6 years), age at death (66.6 years) and duration of disease (16.7 years) were slightly higher than previously reported.

Conclusion: HD did not experience true temporary variations in prevalence, incidence or mortality over 23 years of post-molecular testing in our population. Ascertainment bias may largely explain the worldwide heterogeneity in results of HD epidemiological estimates. Population-based rare diseases registries are valuable instruments for epidemiological studies on low prevalence genetic diseases, like HD, as long as they include validated data from multiple HIS and genetic/family information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01699-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877055PMC
February 2021

Stroke, Timing of Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosis, and Risk of Death.

Neurology 2021 03 3;96(12):e1655-e1662. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (A.B., Y.B., M.C.H., J.A., D.J.C., N.C., S.D., A.E.E., D.S.F., F.C.G., R.K., J.J.L., D.L., S.N., M.P.R., P.S., R.D.S., G.E.S., F.M., R.D.), and Department of Neurology (S.R.M., S.E.K.), Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; Department of Biostatistics (R.K.), University of Washington, Seattle; and Division of Cardiology (P.J.P.), St. Vincent Medical Group, Indianapolis, IN.

Objective: To evaluate the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke according to the timing of an atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis, we created an inception cohort of incident stroke events and compared the risk of death between patients with stroke with (1) sinus rhythm, (2) known AF (KAF), and (3) AF diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS).

Methods: We used the Penn AF Free study to create an inception cohort of patients with incident stroke. Mortality events were identified after linkage with the National Death Index through June 30, 2017. We also evaluated initiation of anticoagulants and antiplatelets across the study duration. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between stroke subtypes and death.

Results: We identified 1,489 individuals who developed an incident ischemic stroke event: 985 did not develop AF at any point during the study period, 215 had KAF before stroke, 160 had AF detected ≤6 months after stroke, and 129 had AF detected >6 months after stroke. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years (interquartile range 1.9-6.8), 686 deaths occurred. The annualized mortality rate was 8.8% in the stroke, no AF group; 12.2% in the KAF group; 15.8% in the AFDAS ≤6 months group; and 12.7% in the AFDAS >6 months group. Patients in the AFDAS ≤6 months group had the highest independent risk of all-cause mortality even after multivariable adjustment for demographics, clinical risk factors, and the use of antithrombotic therapies (hazard ratio 1.62 [1.22-2.14]). Compared to the stroke, no AF group, those with KAF had a higher mortality risk that was rendered nonsignificant after adjustment.

Conclusions: The AFDAS group had the highest risk of death, which was not explained by comorbidities or use of antithrombotic therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011633DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic Value of Nonischemic Ringlike Left Ventricular Scar in Patients With Apparently Idiopathic Nonsustained Ventricular Arrhythmias.

Circulation 2021 Apr 6;143(14):1359-1373. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiovascular Division (D.M., S.A.C., I.L., A.E., J.J.L., S.D., R.D., F.C.G., D.J.C., D.S.F., F.E.M., P.S.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Background: Left ventricular (LV) scar on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance has been correlated with life-threatening arrhythmic events in patients with apparently idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). We investigated the prognostic significance of a specific LV-LGE phenotype characterized by a ringlike pattern of fibrosis.

Methods: A total of 686 patients with apparently idiopathic nonsustained VA underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance. A ringlike pattern of LV scar was defined as LV subepicardial/midmyocardial LGE involving at least 3 contiguous segments in the same short-axis slice. The end point of the study was time to the composite outcome of all-cause death, resuscitated cardiac arrest because of ventricular fibrillation or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia and appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy.

Results: A total of 28 patients (4%) had a ringlike pattern of scar (group A), 78 (11%) had a non-ringlike pattern (group B), and 580 (85%) had normal cardiac magnetic resonance with no LGE (group C). Group A patients were younger compared with groups B and C (median age, 40 vs 52 vs 45 years; <0.01), more frequently men (96% vs 82% vs 55%; <0.01), with a higher prevalence of family history of sudden cardiac death or cardiomyopathy (39% vs 14% vs 6%; <0.01) and more frequent history of unexplained syncope (18% vs 9% vs 3%; <0.01). All patients in group A showed VA with a right bundle-branch block morphology versus 69% in group B and 21% in group C (<0.01). Multifocal VAs were observed in 46% of group A patients compared with 26% of group B and 4% of group C (<0.01). After a median follow-up of 61 months (range, 34-84 months), the composite outcome occurred in 14 patients (50.0%) in group A versus 15 (19.0%) in group B and 2 (0.3%) in group C (<0.01). After multivariable adjustment, the presence of LGE with ringlike pattern remained independently associated with increased risk of the composite end point (hazard ratio, 68.98 [95% CI, 14.67-324.39], <0.01).

Conclusions: In patients with apparently idiopathic nonsustained VA, nonischemic LV scar with a ringlike pattern is associated with malignant arrhythmic events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047640DOI Listing
April 2021

Continuous rhythm monitoring-guided anticoagulation after atrial fibrillation ablation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Feb 9;32(2):345-353. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) based on estimated stroke risk is recommended following catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF), regardless of the extent of arrhythmia control. However, discontinuing OAC in selected patients may be safe. We sought to evaluate a strategy of OAC discontinuation following AF ablation guided by continuous rhythm monitoring.

Methods And Results: We prospectively studied AF ablations performed at our institution from June 2015 to December 2019. Patients that had pre-existing cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) or underwent insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) implantation immediately following AF ablation were included. OAC was continued for 6 weeks following CA in all patients, following which OAC management was guided by CHA DS -VASc score and continuous rhythm monitoring results, according to a prespecified protocol. AF recurrence was defined as ≥30 s (CIEDs) or ≥2 min (ICM). We studied 196 patients (mean age 64.7 ± 11.3 years, 66.8% male, 85.7% ICM, 14.3% CIEDs). Mean CHA DS VASc score was 2.2  ± 1.5. One-year AF-free survival following CA was 83% for paroxysmal AF and 63% for persistent AF patients. Over 3 year follow-up, OAC was discontinued in 57 (33.7%) patients, mean 7.4 ± 7.1 months following ablation. Following discontinuation, OAC was restarted for AF recurrence in 9 (15.8%) patients, mean 11.7 ± 6.8 months after stopping. This discontinuation protocol led to a 21.9% reduction in overall time exposed to OAC. There were no thromboembolic or major bleeding events.

Conclusion: OAC can be discontinued in a significant percentage of patients following CA of AF. When guided by continuous rhythm monitoring, this practice does not unacceptably increase the risk of thromboembolic events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14864DOI Listing
February 2021

Catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias following lung transplant: Electrophysiological findings and outcomes.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 01 25;32(1):49-57. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Data on the mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias (AAs) and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) in lung transplantation (LT) patients are insufficient. We evaluated the electrophysiologic features and outcomes of CA of AAs in LT patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of all the LT patients who underwent CA for AAs at our institution between 2004 and 2019. A total of 15 patients (43% males, age: 61 ± 10 years) with a history of LT (60% bilateral and 40% unilateral) were identified. All patients had documented organized AA on surface electrocardiogram and seven patients also had atrial fibrillation (AF; 47% with >1 clinical arrhythmia). At electrophysiological study, 19 organized AAs were documented (48% focal and 52% macro-re-entrant). Focal atrial tachycardias/flutters were targeted along the pulmonary vein (PV) anastomotic site at the left inferior PV (n = 2), ridge and carina of the left superior PV (n = 2), left atrium (LA) posterior wall (n = 3), LA roof (n = 1), and tricuspid annulus (n = 1). Macro-re-entrant AAs included cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter (n = 2), incisional LA flutter (n = 4), LA roof-dependent flutter (n = 1), and mitral annular flutter (n = 3). In patients with LA mapping (n = 13), PV reconnection on the side of the LT was found in six patients (40%, all with clinically documented AF), with a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 PVs reconnected per patient. Patients with AF underwent successful PV isolation. After a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 6-86 months), 75% of patients remained free from recurrent AAs. No procedural major complications occurred.

Conclusion: In patients with prior LT, recurrent AAs are typically associated with substrate surrounding the surgical anastomotic lines and/or chronically reconnected PVs. CA of AAs in this population is safe and effective to achieve long-term arrhythmia control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14816DOI Listing
January 2021

Strategies for Catheter Ablation of Left Ventricular Papillary Muscle Arrhythmias: An Institutional Experience.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 10 16;6(11):1381-1392. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiology Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to address whether technological innovations such as contact force sensing (CFS) can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of left ventricular papillary muscle (LV PAP) ventricular arrhythmias (VAs).

Background: Catheter ablation of LV PAP VAs has been less efficacious than another focal VAs. It remains unclear whether technological innovations such as CFS can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of LV PAP VA.

Methods: From January 2015 to December 2019, a total of 137 patients underwent LV PAP VA ablation. VA site of origin (SOO) was identified using activation and pace-mapping guided by intracardiac echocardiography. Radiofrequency energy (20 to 50 W for 60 to 90 s) was delivered by irrigated catheter with or without CFS. We defined acute success as complete suppression of targeted VA ≥30 min post ablation and clinical success as ≥80% VA burden reduction at outpatient follow-up.

Results: VA manifested as premature ventricular complexes in 98 (71%), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 18 (13%), sustained ventricular tachycardia in 12 (9%) and premature ventricular complexes induced ventricular fibrillation in 9 (7%). VA SOO was anterolateral PAP in 51 (37%), posteromedial PAP in 73 (53%), and both PAPs in 13 (10%). VAs were targeted using CFS in 97 (71%) and non-CFS in 40 (29%). After a single procedure, acute success was achieved in 130 (95%) and clinical success was achieved in 112 (82%); neither was impacted by VA SOO and/or CFS. Complications occurred in 5 patients (3.6%).

Conclusion: Independent of CFS technology, intracardiac echocardiography-guided catheter ablation is highly efficacious and may be considered as first-line therapy in the management of LV PAP VA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.06.026DOI Listing
October 2020

Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias From the Left Ventricular Apex in Patients Without Ischemic Heart Disease.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 09 27;6(9):1089-1102. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the incidence, clinical characteristics, and electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of LVA VA in the absence of CAD and to describe the experience with catheter ablation (CA) in this group.

Background: The left ventricular apex (LVA) is a well-described source of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and history of apical infarction but is a rare source of VA in the absence of CAD.

Methods: Patients referred for CA of VA at our institution were retrospectively reviewed, and those with LVA VA in the absence of CAD were identified.

Results: Of 3,710 consecutive patients undergoing VA ablation, CA of LVA VA was performed in 24 patients (20 with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, 4 with premature ventricular contractions or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 18 men; mean age: 54 ± 15 years). These cases comprised 10 of 35 (29%) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 of 789 (1.2%) nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 5 of 1,432 (0.4%) idiopathic VA ablation procedures. VA QRS morphology was predominantly right bundle with slurred upstroke and right superior frontal plane axis with precordial transition ≤V3. Epicardial ablation was performed in 14 of 24 (58%). After a median of 1 procedure (range 1 to 4) at this institution and median follow-up of 47 months (range 0-176), VA recurred in 1 patient (4%).

Conclusions: LVA VA in the absence of CAD is unusual and may occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic cardiomyopathy or, rarely, in the absence of structural heart disease. It can be recognized by characteristic ECG features. CA of LVA VA is challenging; multiple procedures, including epicardial approaches, may be required to achieve VA control over long-term follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.021DOI Listing
September 2020

Percutaneous recanalization of superior vena cava occlusions for cardiac implantable electronic device implantation: Tools and techniques.

Heart Rhythm 2020 11 26;17(11):2010-2015. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.06.021DOI Listing
November 2020

COVID-19 and cardiac arrhythmias.

Heart Rhythm 2020 Sep 22;17(9):1439-1444. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Early studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may cause injury to cardiac myocytes and increase arrhythmia risk.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiac arrest and arrhythmias including incident atrial fibrillation (AF), bradyarrhythmias, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in a large urban population hospitalized for COVID-19. We also evaluated correlations between the presence of these arrhythmias and mortality.

Methods: We reviewed the characteristics of all patients with COVID-19 admitted to our center over a 9-week period. Throughout hospitalization, we evaluated the incidence of cardiac arrests, arrhythmias, and inpatient mortality. We also used logistic regression to evaluate age, sex, race, body mass index, prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and intensive care unit (ICU) status as potential risk factors for each arrhythmia.

Results: Among 700 patients (mean age 50 ± 18 years; 45% men; 71% African American; 11% received ICU care), there were 9 cardiac arrests, 25 incident AF events, 9 clinically significant bradyarrhythmias, and 10 NSVTs. All cardiac arrests occurred in patients admitted to the ICU. In addition, admission to the ICU was associated with incident AF (odds ratio [OR] 4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-13.18) and NSVT (OR 8.92; 95% CI 1.73-46.06) after multivariable adjustment. Also, age and incident AF (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02-1.09) and prevalent heart failure and bradyarrhythmias (OR 9.75; 95% CI 1.95-48.65) were independently associated. Only cardiac arrests were associated with acute in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: Cardiac arrests and arrhythmias are likely the consequence of systemic illness and not solely the direct effects of COVID-19 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.06.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307518PMC
September 2020

Risk Stratification of Patients With Apparently Idiopathic Premature Ventricular Contractions: A Multicenter International CMR Registry.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 06 18;6(6):722-735. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia; Cardiac Imaging Unit, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of concealed myocardial abnormalities identified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with apparently idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs).

Background: The role of CMR imaging in patients with frequent PVCs and otherwise negative diagnostic workup is uncertain.

Methods: This was a multicenter, international study that included 518 patients (age 44 ± 15 years; 57% men) with frequent (>1,000/24 h) PVCs and negative routine diagnostic workup. Patients underwent a comprehensive CMR protocol including late gadolinium enhancement imaging for detection of necrosis and/or fibrosis. The study endpoint was a composite of sudden cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and nonfatal episodes of ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia that required appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

Results: Myocardial abnormalities were found in 85 (16%) patients. Male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 4.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06 to 8.93; p = 0.01), family history of sudden cardiac death and/or cardiomyopathy (OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.33 to 9.82; p = 0.01), multifocal PVCs (OR: 11.12; 95% CI: 4.35 to 28.46; p < 0.01), and non-left bundle branch block inferior axis morphology (OR: 14.11; 95% CI: 7.35 to 27.07; p < 0.01) were all significantly related to the presence of myocardial abnormalities. After a median follow-up of 67 months, the composite endpoint occurred in 26 (5%) patients. Subjects with myocardial abnormalities on CMR had a higher incidence of the composite outcome (n = 25; 29%) compared with those without abnormalities (n = 1; 0.2%; p < 0.01).

Conclusions: CMR can identify concealed myocardial abnormalities in 16% of patients with apparently idiopathic frequent PVCs. Presence of myocardial abnormalities on CMR predict worse clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.10.015DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of Radiofrequency Ablation Irrigation Type: In Vivo Comparison of Normal Versus Half-Normal Saline Lesion Characteristics.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 06 27;6(6):684-692. Epub 2020 May 27.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: This study investigated the impact of the type of catheter irrigant used during delivery of radiofrequency ablation.

Background: The use of half-normal saline (HNS) as an irrigant has been suggested as a method for increasing ablation lesion size but has not been rigorously studied in the beating heart or the use of a low-flow irrigation catheter.

Methods: Sixteen swine underwent left ventricular mapping and ablation using either normal saline (NS) (group 1: n = 9) or half-normal saline (HNS) (group 2: n = 7). All lesions were delivered using identical parameters (40 W with 10-second ramp, 30-second duration, 15 ml/min flow, and 8- to14-g target contact force). An occurrence of steam pop, catheter char, or thrombus was assessed using intracardiac echocardiography and catheter inspection following each application. Lesion depth, width, and area were measured using electronic calibers.

Results: A total of 109 lesions were delivered in group 1 and 77 in group 2. There were significantly more steam pops in group 2 (32 of 77 [42%] vs. 24 of 109 [22%], respectively). The frequencies of catheter tip char were similar (group 1: 9 of 109 [8%] vs. group 2: 10 of 77 [13%]; p = 0.29). Lesion depths, widths, and areas also were similar in both groups.

Conclusions: The use of an HNS irrigant using a low-flow open irrigated ablation catheter platform results in more tissue heating due to higher radiofrequency current delivery directed to tissue, but this can lead to higher rate of steam pops. In this in vivo porcine beating-heart model, the use of HNS does not appear to significantly increase lesion size in normal myocardium despite evidence of increased radiofrequency heating.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.02.013DOI Listing
June 2020

aVL/aVR discordance: Value for localization of ventricular arrhythmias.

J Electrocardiol 2020 May - Jun;60:A1-A2. Epub 2020 May 15.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2020.05.007DOI Listing
November 2020

QRS morphology in lead V for the rapid localization of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular papillary muscles: A novel electrocardiographic criterion.

Heart Rhythm 2020 10 23;17(10):1711-1718. Epub 2020 May 23.

Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria have been developed to identify idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) from the left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles (PAPs), but accurate localization remains a challenge.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop ECG criteria for accurate localization of LV PAP VAs using lead V exclusively.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing mapping and ablation of VAs from the LV PAPs guided by intracardiac echocardiography from 2007 to 2018 were reviewed (study group). The QRS morphology in lead V was compared to patients with VAs with a "right bundle branch block" morphology from other LV locations (reference group). Patients with structural heart disease were excluded.

Results: One hundred eleven patients with LV PAP VAs (mean age 54 ± 16 years; 65% men) were identified, including 64 (55%) from the posteromedial PAP and 47 (42%) from the anterolateral PAP. The reference group included patients with VAs from the following LV locations: fascicles (n = 21), outflow tract (n = 36), ostium (n = 37), inferobasal segment (n = 12), and apex (5). PAP VAs showed 3 distinct QRS morphologies in lead V 93% of the time: Rr (53%), R with a slurred downslope (29%), and RR (11%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the 3 morphologies combined are 93%, 98%, 98%, and 93%, respectively. The intrinsicoid deflection of PAP VAs in lead V was shorter than that of the reference group (63 ± 13 ms vs 79 ± 24 ms; P < .001). An intrinsicoid deflection time of <74 ms best differentiated the 2 groups (sensitivity 79%; specificity 87%).

Conclusion: VAs originating from the LV PAPs manifest unique QRS morphologies in lead V, which can aid in rapid and accurate localization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.05.021DOI Listing
October 2020

Durability of posterior wall isolation after catheter ablation among patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation.

Heart Rhythm 2020 10 7;17(10):1740-1744. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Section for Cardiac Electrophysiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Electrical posterior wall isolation (PWI) is increasingly being used for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Few data exist on the durability of PWI using current technology.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and location of posterior wall reconnection at the time of repeat catheter ablation for AF.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing repeat AF ablation after previous PWI. Durability of PWI was assessed at the time of repeat ablation based on posterior wall entrance and exit block. Sites of posterior wall reconnection were characterized based on review of recorded electrical signals and electroanatomic maps.

Results: At the time of repeat ablation, mean age was 67 ± 10 years, 31 of 50 patients had persistent AF, and mean CHADS-VASc score was 3.0 ± 1.8. Of the 50 patients, 30 had durable PWI at repeat ablation, 1.4 ± 1.6 years after the index procedure. Patients with posterior wall reconnection required repeat ablation earlier (0.9 ± 0.6 years vs1.8 ± 1.9 years from index PWI; P = .048) and were more likely to have atypical atrial flutter (55% vs 27%; P = .043). Among patients with posterior wall reconnection, the roof was the most common site of reconnection (14/20), and 12 patients had multiple regions of reconnection noted.

Conclusion: Posterior wall reconnection is noted in 40% of patients undergoing repeat ablation after an index PWI. The roof of the left atrium is the most common site of posterior wall reconnection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.05.005DOI Listing
October 2020

Wire countertraction for sheath placement through stenotic and tortuous veins: The "body flossing" technique.

Heart Rhythm O2 2020 Apr 27;1(1):21-26. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Innominate vein stenosis and venous tortuosity are common findings during cardiac implantable electronic device upgrades or replacements and present a challenge to the implanting physician. Various techniques have been described to facilitate lead placement, including serial dilation, balloon venoplasty, and percutaneous access medial to the stenosis, each with its own benefits and risks.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the wire countertraction ("body flossing") technique to facilitate sheath placement through tortuous and stenotic vessels.

Methods: Patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device procedures requiring the body flossing technique due to inability to place vascular sheaths over the wire through stenoses or tortuosity were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics, procedural equipment, and outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Simultaneous countertraction was successful in all attempted cases, including 8 patients with stenoses and 2 with tortuosity. In 2 of the stenosis cases, venoplasty had previously failed. No complications occurred.

Conclusion: Simultaneous countertraction (body flossing) is an effective tool to overcome venous stenosis and tortuosity that are amenable to wire advancement but not to vascular sheaths. It seems to be a safe and effective alternative to other techniques used in these scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hroo.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183965PMC
April 2020

Collateral injury of the conduction system during catheter ablation of septal substrate in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 07 5;31(7):1726-1739. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS).

Methods And Results: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01).

Conclusions: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14498DOI Listing
July 2020

Ablation strategies for intramural ventricular arrhythmias.

Heart Rhythm 2020 07 20;17(7):1176-1184. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Division of Cardiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Intramural origin of ventricular arrhythmias is one of the reasons for failure of catheter ablation, especially in nonischemic substrates. Conventional unipolar ablation has limited efficacy for the creation of deep transmural lesions in the ventricular myocardium, and alternative ablation strategies have been developed to overcome this problem. These novel approaches include simultaneous unipolar ablation, bipolar ablation, use of low-ionic irrigant solution, needle ablation, and ethanol ablation. This review provides an overview of each one of these techniques, including their main advantages and limitations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.02.010DOI Listing
July 2020

Non-Scar-Related and Purkinje-Related Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Structural Heart Disease: Prevalence, Mapping Features, and Clinical Outcomes.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 02 18;6(2):231-240. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, mapping features, and ablation outcomes of non-scar-related ventricular tachycardia (NonScar-VT) and Purkinje-related VT (Purkinje-VT) in patients with structural heart disease.

Background: VT in structural heart disease is typically associated with scar-related myocardial re-entry. NonScar-VTs arising from areas of normal myocardium or Purkinje-VTs originating from the conduction system are less common.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 690 patients with structural heart disease who underwent VT ablation between 2013 and 2017.

Results: A total of 37 (5.4%) patients (16 [43%] with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 16 [43%] with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 [14%] others) demonstrated NonScar/Purkinje-VTs, which represented the clinical VT in 76% of cases. Among the 37 VTs, 31 (84%) were Purkinje-VTs (28 bundle branch re-entrant VT). The remaining 6 (16%) VTs were NonScar-VTs and included 4 idiopathic outflow tract VTs. A total of 16 patients had prior history of VT ablations: empirical scar substrate modification was performed in 6 (38%) patients and residual inducibility of VT had not been assessed in 7 (44%). In all 37 patients, the NonScar/Purkinje-VT was successfully ablated. After a median follow-up of 18 months, the targeted NonScar/Purkinje-VT did not recur in any patients, and 28 (76%) of patients were free from any recurrent VT episodes.

Conclusions: NonScar/Purkinje-VTs can be identified in 5.4% of patients undergoing VT ablation in the setting of structural heart disease. Careful effort to induce, characterize, and map these VTs is important because substrate-based ablation strategies would fail to eliminate these types of VT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.09.014DOI Listing
February 2020

Trends in Successful Ablation Sites and Outcomes of Ablation for Idiopathic Outflow Tract Ventricular Arrhythmias.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 02 27;6(2):221-230. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years.

Background: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs.

Methods: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed.

Results: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups).

Conclusions: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.10.004DOI Listing
February 2020

Incidence of Left Atrial Appendage Triggers in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Catheter Ablation.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 01 30;6(1):21-30. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Electrophysiology Section, Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study sought to investigate incidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or organized atrial tachycardias (OAT) in patients undergoing AF ablation and to evaluate outcomes after ablation.

Background: Although LAA isolation is being increasingly performed during AF ablation, the true incidence of LAA triggers for AF remains unclear.

Methods: All patients with LAA triggers of AF and/or OAT during AF ablation from 2001 to 2017 were included. LAA triggers were defined as atrial premature depolarizations from the LAA, which initiated sustained AF and/or OAT.

Results: Out of 7,129 patients undergoing AF ablation over 16 years, LAA triggers were observed in 21 (0.3%) subjects (age 60 ± 9 years; 57% males; 52% persistent AF). Twenty (95%) patients were undergoing repeat ablation. The LAA was the only nonpulmonary vein trigger in 3 patients; the remaining 18 patients had both LAA and other nonpulmonary vein triggers. LAA triggers were eliminated in all patients (focal ablation in 19 patients; LAA isolation in 2 patients). Twelve months after ablation, 47.6% remained free from recurrent arrhythmia. After overall follow-up of 5.0 ± 3.6 years (median: 3.7 years; interquartile range: 1.4 to 8.9 years), 38.1% were arrhythmia-free. All 3 patients with triggers limited to the LAA remained free of AF recurrence. One patient undergoing LAA isolation developed LAA thrombus during follow-up.

Conclusions: The incidence of true LAA triggers is very low (0.3%). Most patients with LAA triggers have additional nonpulmonary vein triggers, and despite elimination of LAA triggers, long-term arrhythmia recurrence rates remain high. Potential risks of empiric LAA isolation during AF ablation (especially first-time AF ablation) may outweigh benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.08.012DOI Listing
January 2020

Epicardial Connections Involving Pulmonary Veins: The Prevalence, Predictors, and Implications for Ablation Outcome.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 01 15;13(1):e007544. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Unit, Centro integral de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (HM CIEC), Hospital Universitario HM Monteprincipe, HM Hospitales, University CEU-San Pablo, Madrid, Spain (M.T.B.-L., J.G.-M., A.B., E.C., M.A., M.O., J.A.).

Background: The presence of epicardial connections (ECs) between pulmonary veins (PVs) and other anatomic structures may hinder PV isolation. In this study, we analyzed their prevalence, location, associated factors, and clinical implications.

Methods: Five hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing radiofrequency ablation were included. We considered that an EC was present if: (1) the first pass around the PV antrum did not produce PV isolation and (2) subsequent atrial activation during PV pacing showed that the earliest site was located away from the ablation line and later activation sites were observed near the ablation line. Clinical and electrophysiological variables were collected from all patients. Patients were followed during 12.9±9.4 months, and any documented atrial tachyarrhythmia after the 3-month blanking period was classified as a recurrence.

Results: Out of the 534 patients included, 72 (13.5%) were found to have 81 ECs. There was a significant association between the presence of ECs and structural heart disease (15.3% in patients without ECs versus 36.5% in patient with ECs; <0.001) and patent foramen ovale (4.6% versus 13.5%; =0.002). The presence of a left common trunk was significantly associated with the absence of ECs (29.6% in patients without ECs versus 16.2% in patients with ECs; =0.014). Patients with ECs had lower acute success in PV isolation compared with patients without ECs (99.1% versus 86.1%; <0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, type of atrial fibrillation, left atrium area, hypertension, structural heart disease, presence of left common trunk, patent foramen ovale, and time for atrial fibrillation diagnosis to the ablation, we found a significantly higher risk of atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrences in patients with ECs compared with patients without ECs (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.9]; =0.04).

Conclusions: ECs between PVs and other adjacent structures are frequent in patient with atrial fibrillation (prevalence: 13.5%). Structural heart disease and a patent foramen ovale are strongly associated with the presence of ECs. ECs reduce the acute and chronic success of PV isolation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.007544DOI Listing
January 2020

Characterization of Structural Changes in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy With Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia After Ablation: Insights From Repeat Electroanatomic Voltage Mapping.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 01 10;13(1):e007611. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Background: Data characterizing structural changes of arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are limited.

Methods: Patients presenting with left bundle branch block ventricular tachycardia in the setting of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy with procedures separated by at least 9 months were included.

Results: Nineteen consecutive patients (84% males; mean age 39±15 years [range, 20-76 years]) were included. All 19 patients underwent 2 detailed sinus rhythm electroanatomic endocardial voltage maps (average 385±177 points per map; range, 93-847 points). Time interval between the initial and repeat ablation procedures was mean 50±37 months (range, 9-162). No significant progression of voltage was observed (bipolar: 38 cm [interquartile range (IQR), 25-54] versus 53 cm [IQR, 25-65], =0.09; unipolar: 116 cm [IQR, 61-209] versus 159 cm [IQR, 73-204], =0.36) for the entire study group. There was a significant increase in RV volumes (percentage increase, 28%; 206 mL [IQR, 170-253] versus 263 mL [IQR, 204-294], <0.001) for the entire study population. Larger scars at baseline but not changes over time were associated with a significant increase in RV volume (bipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.6965, =0.006; unipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.5743, =0.03). Most patients with progressive RV dilatation (8/14, 57%) had moderate (2 patients) or severe (6 patients) tricuspid regurgitation recorded at either initial or repeat ablation procedure.

Conclusions: In patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy presenting with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, >10% increase in RV endocardial surface area of bipolar voltage consistent with scar is uncommon during the intermediate term. Most recurrent ventricular tachycardias are localized to regions of prior defined scar. Voltage indexed scar area at baseline but not changes in scar over time is associated with progressive increase in RV size and is consistent with adverse remodeling but not scar progression. Marked tricuspid regurgitation is frequently present in patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy who have progressive RV dilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.007611DOI Listing
January 2020

Impact of a nurse-led limited risk factor modification program on arrhythmia outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing catheter ablation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2020 02 15;31(2):423-431. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of a nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM) program for improving weight loss and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) care among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

Objective: We now report its impact on arrhythmia outcomes in a subgroup of patients undergoing catheter ablation.

Methods: Participating patients with obesity and/or need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA) underwent in-person consultation and monthly telephone calls with the nurse for up to 1 year. Arrhythmias were assessed by office ECGs and ≥2 wearable monitors. Outcomes, defined as Arrhythmia control (0-6 self-terminating recurrences, with ≤1 cardioversion for nonparoxysmal AF) and Freedom from arrhythmias (no recurrences on or off antiarrhythmic drugs), were compared at 1 year between patients undergoing catheter ablation who enrolled and declined RFM.

Results: Between 1 November 2016 and 1 April 2018, 195 patients enrolled and 196 declined RFM (body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.7 vs 34.3 ± 6.3 kg/m ; 50% vs 50% paroxysmal AF; P = NS). At 1 year, enrolled patients demonstrated significant weight loss (4.7% ± 5.3% vs 0.3% ± 4.4% in declined patients; P < .0001) and improved OSA care (78% [n = 43] of patients diagnosed with OSA began treatment). However, outcomes were similar between enrolled and declined patients undergoing ablation (arrhythmia control in 80% [n = 48] vs 79% [n = 38]; freedom from arrhythmia in 58% [n = 35] vs 71% [n = 34]; P = NS).

Conclusion: Despite improving weight loss and OSA care, our nurse-led RFM program did not impact 1-year arrhythmia outcomes in patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14336DOI Listing
February 2020
-->