Publications by authors named "Fentaw Tadese"

10 Publications

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Spatial patterns and associated factors of HIV Seropositivity among adults in Ethiopia from EDHS 2016: a spatial and multilevel analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Oct 14;20(1):751. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors of HIV Seropositivity. This study therefore showed the spatial variation of HIV Seropositivity and related factors in Ethiopia.

Methods: A total sample of 25,774 individual data collected from the 2016 EDHS data were primarily HIV biomarkers, IR, MR, and GPS. Spatial heterogeneity analysis was used with methods such as Morans I, Interpolation, and Kulldorff 's scan statistic. Spatial analysis was conducted using open source tools (QGIS, GeoDa, SaTScan). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata14 to identify HIV-associated factors. Finally, the AOR with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the mixed-effect logistic regression result in the full model.

Result: The prevalence of HIV / AIDS at national level was 0.93%. The highest prevalence regions were Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari and Diredawa, accounting for 4.79, 3.36, 2.65 and 2.6%, respectively. Higher HIV seropositive spatial clusters have been established in the Gambela and Addis Ababa regions. Multilevel analysis at the individual level being married [AOR = 2.19 95% CI: (1.11-4.31)] and previously married [AOR = 6.45, 95% CI: (3.06-13.59)], female [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: (1.19-2.72)], first-sex at age ≤15 [AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: (1.70-11.34)], 18-19 [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], middle age group (25-34) [AOR = 6.53, 95% CI: (3.67-11.75)], older age group (>34) [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], primary school [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI: (1.92-4.79)], secondary school [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: (1.92-5.92) were significantly associated with serropositivity. Regarding household level, place of residence [urban: AOR = 6.13 CI: (3.12, 12.06)], female-headed households (AOR = 2.24 95% CI: (1.57-3.73), media exposure [low exposure (AOR = 0.53 95% CI: (0.33-0.86), no exposure AOR = 0.39 95% CI: (0.23-0.65)] and increased household size [AOR = 0.72 95% CI: (0.65-0.8)] were associated with HIV Seropositivity.

Conclusion: High cluster HIV cases were found in Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari, and Diredawa. Having a history of married, start sex at a younger age, female-headed household, urban residence, and lower household size is more affected by HIV/AIDS. So any concerned body work around this risk group and area can be effective in the reduction of transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05456-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557038PMC
October 2020

Trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016.

BMC Public Health 2020 Aug 24;20(1):1276. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Campbelltown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Nutritional, epidemiological and demographic transitions have been associated with the emergence of the double burden of malnutrition globally. In Ethiopia, there has been no nationally representative investigation of trends and determinants of both underweight and overweight/obesity among urban women. This study examined the trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity in urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016.

Methods: Trends in the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity were investigated based on a series of the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data for the years 2000 (n = 2559), 2005 (n = 1112), 2011 (n = 3569), and 2016 (n = 3106). Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the association between socioeconomic, demographic, behavioural, and community-level factors with underweight and overweight/obesity.

Results: The prevalence of underweight in urban Ethiopian women reduced significantly from 23.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3, 26.3%) in 2000 to 14.8% (95% CI: 13.1, 16.7%) in 2016, while overweight/obesity increased significantly from 10.9% (95% CI: 9.1, 13.0%) in 2000 to 21.4% (95% CI: 18.2, 25.1%) in 2016. Urban women from rich households and those who had never married were less likely to be underweight. Urban women who were from wealthy households and those who attained at least secondary education were more likely to be overweight/obese. Women who were informally employed and listened to the radio were less likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who were unemployed and did not listen to the radio, respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight/obesity increased from 2000 to 2016, with a concurrent reduction in the prevalence of underweight. Interventions aiming to reduce overweight and obesity should target urban women with higher education, those who resided in wealthier households and those who watched the television.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09345-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447570PMC
August 2020

Factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in reproductive age Tanzanian women.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(8):e0237720. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity are major public health challenges among reproductive-age women of lower- and middle-income countries (including Tanzania). In those settings, obesogenic factors (attributes that promote excessive body weight gain) are increasing in the context of an existing high burden of undernutrition. The present study investigated factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.

Methods: This study used 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 11735). To account for the hierarchical nature of the data (i.e., reproductive age women nested within clusters), multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between individual-level (socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural) and community-level factors with underweight, overweight, and obesity.

Results: Reproductive age women who were informally employed (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.96), those who were currently married (RRR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) and those who used contraceptives (RRR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90) were less likely to be underweight. Reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.03) and those who watched the television (RRR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50) were more likely to be overweight. The risk of experiencing obesity was higher among reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.61), those who were formally employed (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 4.77; 95% CI: 3.03, 7.50), those who used alcohol (RRR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.82) and/or watched the television (RRR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.13).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that relevant government jurisdictions need to identify, promote, and implement evidence-based interventions that can simultaneously address underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237720PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444815PMC
October 2020

Antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients enrolled after the initiation of the Universal Test and Treat strategy in Dessie town: a cross-sectional study.

Int J STD AIDS 2020 Aug;31(9):886-893

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Poor adherence was the major challenge in providing treatment, care, and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Evidence of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) after initiation of the Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy was limited in Ethiopia. So, this study aimed to determine the proportion of ART adherence after the initiation of UTT strategy and associated factors among adult PLHIV in Dessie town using two adherence measurements. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 293 PLHIV selected using a systematic sampling technique. The data were collected by face-to face-interview using a pretested questionnaire; chart review was also used to collect the data. The proportion of ART adherence measured by using the Morisky scale and seven-day recall was 49.3% (95% CI: [43.5%, 54.8%]) and 95.9% (95% CI: [93.2%, 98.2%]), respectively. Being urban in residence (AOR = 3.72, 95% CI: [1.80, 7.68]), the absence of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.72, 95% CI: [1.22, 11.35]), taking one tablet per day (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI: [1.64, 6.49]), and the absence of concomitant illness (AOR = 0.23, 95% CI: [0.09, 0.59]) were factors associated with ART adherence. The proportion of ART adherence measured by the Morisky scale was very low; however, adherence measured by seven-day recall was higher and consistent with World Health Organization recommendations. Residence, depression, and the number of tablets taken per day had a positive association with good ART adherence whereas having concomitant illness had a negative association with good ART adherence. Efforts should be made to improve adherence and interventions should be given to overcome factors linked with poor adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420927205DOI Listing
August 2020

Nutritional Status and Associated Factors among Adult Psychiatric Patients in Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia.

Psychiatry J 2020 3;2020:5087573. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Psychiatric illnesses involve alterations in the brain or nervous system function and result in altered perception, responses to the environment, and daily functioning, which ultimately diminish the capacity to cope with the regular demands of life, including nutritional intake. Little is known about nutritional status in psychiatric patients in our setup, particularly in northeast Ethiopia. Thus, this study is aimed at assessing the nutritional status and associated factors among adult psychiatric patients in Dessie referral hospital, northeast Ethiopia.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was employed among 530 psychiatric patients using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were taken from April 10 to June 20, 2018. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors with the nutritional status of adult psychiatric patients.

Results: The study revealed that the proportion of undernutrition and overnutrition was 20.0% (95% CI: 16.80-23.60) and 23.4% (95% CI: 19.80-27.00), respectively. Being male (AOR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.28-4.47), private employed (AOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02-0.31), and not consuming alcohol (AOR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.56-0.74) were factors associated with undernutrition. Whereas not involved in physical activity (AOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.37-6.49), being newly diagnosed patient (AOR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.01-3.42), and not chewing (AOR: 3.92, 95% CI: 1.63-9.42) were factors associated with overnutrition of adult psychiatric patients.

Conclusion: The proportion of both undernutrition and overnutrition was above the national average. Notably, nutrition significantly affects the production and use of neurotransmitters, and this may result in significant effects on physical, mental, or emotional processes. This undoubtedly affects the stabilization processes of neuropsychiatric patients. Therefore, healthcare managers, supervisors, and policymakers identify those vulnerable groups early and thereby design effective nutritional strategies to intervene in malnutrition among adult patients with a psychiatric disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5087573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160719PMC
April 2020

Global Mortality From Firearms, 1990-2016.

Authors:
Mohsen Naghavi Laurie B Marczak Michael Kutz Katya Anne Shackelford Megha Arora Molly Miller-Petrie Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Nadia Akseer Rajaa M Al-Raddadi Khurshid Alam Suliman A Alghnam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Olatunde Aremu Amit Arora Mohsen Asadi-Lari Reza Assadi Tesfay Mehari Atey Leticia Avila-Burgos Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar James R Bennett Ashish Bhalla Zulfiqar A Bhutta Arebu Issa Bilal Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Alexandra Brazinova Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon Félix Carvalho Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Paul I Dargan Diego De Leo Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Eric L Ding Huyen Phuc Do David Teye Doku Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Dumessa Edessa Ziad El-Khatib Aman Yesuf Endries Alireza Esteghamati Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Valery L Feigin Florian Fischer Kyle J Foreman Richard Charles Franklin Nancy Fullman Neal D Futran Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Reyna Alma Gutiérrez Nima Hafezi-Nejad Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Josep Maria Haro Hamid Yimam Hassen Caitlin Hawley Delia Hendrie Martha Híjar Guoqing Hu Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Sudha Jayaraman Jost B Jonas Amaha Kahsay Amir Kasaeian Peter Njenga Keiyoro Yousef Khader Ibrahim A Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Yun Jin Kim Soewarta Kosen Kristopher J Krohn G Anil Kumar Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Heidi Jane Larson Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Amanda J Mason-Jones Richard Matzopoulos Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Tuomo J Meretoja Haftay Berhane Mezgebe Ted R Miller Shafiu Mohammed Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rintaro Mori Devina Nand Cuong Tat Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Felix Akpojene Ogbo Andrew T Olagunju George C Patton Michael R Phillips Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Chhabi Lal Ranabhat David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Ali Rowhani-Rahbar Mahdi Safdarian Saeid Safiri Rajesh Sagar Joseph S Salama Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Maheswar Satpathy David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Nigussie Tadesse Sharew Ivy Shiue Jasvinder A Singh Mekonnen Sisay Vegard Skirbekk Adauto Martins Soares Filho Dan J Stein Mark Andrew Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Mamta Swaroop Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Fentaw Tadese Bach Xuan Tran Tung Thanh Tran Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Tommi Juhani Vasankari Vasily Vlassov Andrea Werdecker Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Simon I Hay Stephen S Lim Alan D Lopez Ali H Mokdad Theo Vos Christopher J L Murray

JAMA 2018 08;320(8):792-814

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Understanding global variation in firearm mortality rates could guide prevention policies and interventions.

Objective: To estimate mortality due to firearm injury deaths from 1990 to 2016 in 195 countries and territories.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study used deidentified aggregated data including 13 812 location-years of vital registration data to generate estimates of levels and rates of death by age-sex-year-location. The proportion of suicides in which a firearm was the lethal means was combined with an estimate of per capita gun ownership in a revised proxy measure used to evaluate the relationship between availability or access to firearms and firearm injury deaths.

Exposures: Firearm ownership and access.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cause-specific deaths by age, sex, location, and year.

Results: Worldwide, it was estimated that 251 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 195 000-276 000) people died from firearm injuries in 2016, with 6 countries (Brazil, United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala) accounting for 50.5% (95% UI, 42.2%-54.8%) of those deaths. In 1990, there were an estimated 209 000 (95% UI, 172 000 to 235 000) deaths from firearm injuries. Globally, the majority of firearm injury deaths in 2016 were homicides (64.0% [95% UI, 54.2%-68.0%]; absolute value, 161 000 deaths [95% UI, 107 000-182 000]); additionally, 27% were firearm suicide deaths (67 500 [95% UI, 55 400-84 100]) and 9% were unintentional firearm deaths (23 000 [95% UI, 18 200-24 800]). From 1990 to 2016, there was no significant decrease in the estimated global age-standardized firearm homicide rate (-0.2% [95% UI, -0.8% to 0.2%]). Firearm suicide rates decreased globally at an annualized rate of 1.6% (95% UI, 1.1-2.0), but in 124 of 195 countries and territories included in this study, these levels were either constant or significant increases were estimated. There was an annualized decrease of 0.9% (95% UI, 0.5%-1.3%) in the global rate of age-standardized firearm deaths from 1990 to 2016. Aggregate firearm injury deaths in 2016 were highest among persons aged 20 to 24 years (for men, an estimated 34 700 deaths [95% UI, 24 900-39 700] and for women, an estimated 3580 deaths [95% UI, 2810-4210]). Estimates of the number of firearms by country were associated with higher rates of firearm suicide (P < .001; R2 = 0.21) and homicide (P < .001; R2 = 0.35).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study estimated between 195 000 and 276 000 firearm injury deaths globally in 2016, the majority of which were firearm homicides. Despite an overall decrease in rates of firearm injury death since 1990, there was variation among countries and across demographic subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.10060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143020PMC
August 2018

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years.

Authors:
Ashkan Afshin Mohammad H Forouzanfar Marissa B Reitsma Patrick Sur Kara Estep Alex Lee Laurie Marczak Ali H Mokdad Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mohsen Naghavi Joseph S Salama Theo Vos Kalkidan H Abate Cristiana Abbafati Muktar B Ahmed Ziyad Al-Aly Ala’a Alkerwi Rajaa Al-Raddadi Azmeraw T Amare Alemayehu Amberbir Adeladza K Amegah Erfan Amini Stephen M Amrock Ranjit M Anjana Johan Ärnlöv Hamid Asayesh Amitava Banerjee Aleksandra Barac Estifanos Baye Derrick A Bennett Addisu S Beyene Sibhatu Biadgilign Stan Biryukov Espen Bjertness Dube J Boneya Ismael Campos-Nonato Juan J Carrero Pedro Cecilio Kelly Cercy Liliana G Ciobanu Leslie Cornaby Solomon A Damtew Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Samath D Dharmaratne Bruce B Duncan Babak Eshrati Alireza Esteghamati Valery L Feigin João C Fernandes Thomas Fürst Tsegaye T Gebrehiwot Audra Gold Philimon N Gona Atsushi Goto Tesfa D Habtewold Kokeb T Hadush Nima Hafezi-Nejad Simon I Hay Masako Horino Farhad Islami Ritul Kamal Amir Kasaeian Srinivasa V Katikireddi Andre P Kengne Chandrasekharan N Kesavachandran Yousef S Khader Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Daniel Kim Yun J Kim Yohannes Kinfu Soewarta Kosen Tiffany Ku Barthelemy Kuate Defo G Anil Kumar Heidi J Larson Mall Leinsalu Xiaofeng Liang Stephen S Lim Patrick Liu Alan D Lopez Rafael Lozano Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Deborah C Malta Mohsen Mazidi Colm McAlinden Stephen T McGarvey Desalegn T Mengistu George A Mensah Gert B M Mensink Haftay B Mezgebe Erkin M Mirrakhimov Ulrich O Mueller Jean J Noubiap Carla M Obermeyer Felix A Ogbo Mayowa O Owolabi George C Patton Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Rajesh K Rai Chhabi L Ranabhat Nikolas Reinig Saeid Safiri Joshua A Salomon Juan R Sanabria Itamar S Santos Benn Sartorius Monika Sawhney Josef Schmidhuber Aletta E Schutte Maria I Schmidt Sadaf G Sepanlou Moretza Shamsizadeh Sara Sheikhbahaei Min-Jeong Shin Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Hirbo S Roba Diego A S Silva Jonathan I Silverberg Jasvinder A Singh Saverio Stranges Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Fentaw Tadese Bemnet A Tedla Balewgizie S Tegegne Abdullah S Terkawi J S Thakur Marcello Tonelli Roman Topor-Madry Stefanos Tyrovolas Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan A Uthman Masoud Vaezghasemi Tommi Vasankari Vasiliy V Vlassov Stein E Vollset Elisabete Weiderpass Andrea Werdecker Joshua Wesana Ronny Westerman Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Gerald Yonga Zoubida Zaidi Zerihun M Zenebe Ben Zipkin Christopher J L Murray

N Engl J Med 2017 07 12;377(1):13-27. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Background: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain.

Methods: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015.

Results: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477817PMC
July 2017

Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

Authors:
Nicholas Kassebaum Hmwe Hmwe Kyu Leo Zoeckler Helen Elizabeth Olsen Katie Thomas Christine Pinho Zulfiqar A Bhutta Lalit Dandona Alize Ferrari Tsegaye Tewelde Ghiwot Simon I Hay Yohannes Kinfu Xiaofeng Liang Alan Lopez Deborah Carvalho Malta Ali H Mokdad Mohsen Naghavi George C Patton Joshua Salomon Benn Sartorius Roman Topor-Madry Stein Emil Vollset Andrea Werdecker Harvey A Whiteford Kalkidan Hasen Abate Kaja Abbas Solomon Abrha Damtew Muktar Beshir Ahmed Nadia Akseer Rajaa Al-Raddadi Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu Khalid Altirkawi Amanuel Alemu Abajobir Azmeraw T Amare Carl A T Antonio Johan Arnlov Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Umar Bacha Balem Demtsu Betsu Aleksandra Barac Till Winfried Bärnighausen Estifanos Baye Neeraj Bedi Isabela M Bensenor Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Oscar Alberto Bernal Addisu Shunu Beyene Sibhatu Biadgilign Boris Bikbov Cheryl Anne Boyce Alexandra Brazinova Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Austin Carter Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Fiona J Charlson Abdulaal A Chitheer Jee-Young Jasmine Choi Liliana G Ciobanu John Crump Rakhi Dandona Robert P Dellavalle Amare Deribew Gabrielle deVeber Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Manisha Dubey Amanuel Yesuf Endries Holly E Erskine Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Joao C Fernandes Daniel Obadare Fijabi Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Luisa Sorio Flor Kyle J Foreman Richard C Franklin Maya S Fraser Joseph J Frostad Nancy Fullman Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs Alemseged Aregay Gebru Johanna M Geleijnse Katherine B Gibney Mahari Gidey Yihdego Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Tessema Assefa Gizachew Elizabeth Glaser Audra L Gold Ellen Goldberg Philimon Gona Atsushi Goto Harish Chander Gugnani Guohong Jiang Rajeev Gupta Fisaha Haile Tesfay Graeme J Hankey Rasmus Havmoeller Martha Hijar Masako Horino H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Mihajlo B Jakovljevic Sudha P Jayaraman Vivekanand Jha Tariku Jibat Catherine O Johnson Jost Jonas Amir Kasaeian Norito Kawakami Peter N Keiyoro Ibrahim Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar A Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Niranjan Kissoon Luke D Knibbs Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Rachel Kulikoff G Anil Kumar Dharmesh Kumar Lal Hilton Y Lam Heidi J Larson Anders Larsson Dennis Odai Laryea Janni Leung Stephen S Lim Loon-Tzian Lo Warren D Lo Katharine J Looker Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Desalegn Markos Shifti Mohsen Mazidi Peter A Meaney Kidanu Gebremariam Meles Peter Memiah Walter Mendoza Mubarek Abera Mengistie Gebremichael Welday Mengistu George A Mensah Ted R Miller Charles Mock Alireza Mohammadi Shafiu Mohammed Lorenzo Monasta Ulrich Mueller Chie Nagata Aliya Naheed Grant Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Elaine Nsoesie In-Hwan Oh Anselm Okoro Jacob Olusegun Olusanya Bolajoko O Olusanya Alberto Ortiz Deepak Paudel David M Pereira Norberto Perico Max Petzold Michael Robert Phillips Guilherme V Polanczyk Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Usha Ram Zane Rankin Giuseppe Remuzzi Andre M N Renzaho Hirbo Shore Roba David Rojas-Rueda Luca Ronfani Rajesh Sagar Juan Ramon Sanabria Muktar Sano Kedir Mohammed Itamar S Santos Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Ben Schöttker David C Schwebel James G Scott Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Masood Ali Shaikh June She Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder Singh Naris Silpakit Alison Smith Chandrashekhar Sreeramareddy Jeffrey D Stanaway Dan J Stein Caitlyn Steiner Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Fentaw Tadese Mohammad Tavakkoli Bineyam Taye Stephanie Teeple Teketo Kassaw Tegegne Girma Temam Shifa Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Bernadette Thomas Alan J Thomson Ruoyan Tobe-Gai Marcello Tonelli Bach Xuan Tran Christopher Troeger Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Elisabete Weiderpass Robert Weintraub Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot Ronny Westerman Hywel C Williams Charles D A Wolfe Rachel Woodbrook Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Elias Asfaw Zegeye Liesl Joanna Zuhlke Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2017 06;171(6):573-592

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.

Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.

Evidence Review: Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.

Findings: Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.

Conclusions And Relevance: Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540012PMC
June 2017

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Christine Allen Ryan M Barber Lars Barregard Zulfiqar A Bhutta Hermann Brenner Daniel J Dicker Odgerel Chimed-Orchir Rakhi Dandona Lalit Dandona Tom Fleming Mohammad H Forouzanfar Jamie Hancock Roderick J Hay Rachel Hunter-Merrill Chantal Huynh H Dean Hosgood Catherine O Johnson Jost B Jonas Jagdish Khubchandani G Anil Kumar Michael Kutz Qing Lan Heidi J Larson Xiaofeng Liang Stephen S Lim Alan D Lopez Michael F MacIntyre Laurie Marczak Neal Marquez Ali H Mokdad Christine Pinho Farshad Pourmalek Joshua A Salomon Juan Ramon Sanabria Logan Sandar Benn Sartorius Stephen M Schwartz Katya A Shackelford Kenji Shibuya Jeff Stanaway Caitlyn Steiner Jiandong Sun Ken Takahashi Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Joseph A Wagner Haidong Wang Ronny Westerman Hajo Zeeb Leo Zoeckler Foad Abd-Allah Muktar Beshir Ahmed Samer Alabed Noore K Alam Saleh Fahed Aldhahri Girma Alem Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu Raghib Ali Rajaa Al-Raddadi Azmeraw Amare Yaw Amoako Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Niguse Atnafu Ashish Awasthi Huda Ba Saleem Aleksandra Barac Neeraj Bedi Isabela Bensenor Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabé Balem Betsu Agnes Binagwaho Dube Boneya Ismael Campos-Nonato Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Peggy Chiang Chioma Chibueze Abdulaal Chitheer Jee-Young Choi Benjamin Cowie Solomon Damtew José das Neves Suhojit Dey Samath Dharmaratne Preet Dhillon Eric Ding Tim Driscoll Donatus Ekwueme Aman Yesuf Endries Maryam Farvid Farshad Farzadfar Joao Fernandes Florian Fischer Tsegaye Tewelde G/Hiwot Alemseged Gebru Sameer Gopalani Alemayehu Hailu Masako Horino Nobuyuki Horita Abdullatif Husseini Inge Huybrechts Manami Inoue Farhad Islami Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer James Mehdi Javanbakht Sun Ha Jee Amir Kasaeian Muktar Sano Kedir Yousef S Khader Young-Ho Khang Daniel Kim James Leigh Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Wagner Marcenes Desalegn Markos Yohannes A Melaku Kidanu G Meles Walter Mendoza Desalegn Tadese Mengiste Tuomo J Meretoja Ted R Miller Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Alireza Mohammadi Shafiu Mohammed Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Gabriele Nagel Devina Nand Quyen Le Nguyen Sandra Nolte Felix A Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Eyal Oren Mahesh Pa Eun-Kee Park David M Pereira Dietrich Plass Mostafa Qorbani Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Mahfuzar Rahman Saleem M Rana Kjetil Søreide Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Jun She Ivy Shiue Hirbo Roba Shore Mark G Shrime Samuel So Samir Soneji Vasiliki Stathopoulou Konstantinos Stroumpoulis Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Fentaw Tadese Bemnet Amare Tedla Gizachew Assefa Tessema J S Thakur Bach Xuan Tran Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Elisabete Weiderpass Mamo Wubshet Terefe Henock Gebremedhin Yebyo Hassen Hamid Yimam Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Christopher J L Murray Mohsen Naghavi

JAMA Oncol 2017 Apr;3(4):524-548

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.

Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.

Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.

Conclusion And Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103527PMC
April 2017

Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health 2016 08 24;16(1):862. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Markos University, PO Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Refuse collectors are at a high risk for fatal and non-fatal occupational accidents. This is more intensified in developing countries, like Ethiopia, due to physically demanding nature of the job. However, information on occupational injuries and related factors are almost non-existent in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and its associated factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region from February to May 2015. Computer generated simple random sampling technique was used to select the samples. Interviewer administrated questionnaires were used for the data collection process. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between outcome variables and explanatory variables.

Results: In this study, the annual prevalence of at least one occupational injury among solid waste workers was 34.3 % (95 % CI: 29.52, 39.10). Of these, 50.7 % of them were visited health facility to receive health care. The independent predictors of at least one occupational injury were shorter service years, low monthly salary, history of job related stress, and sleeping disturbance related to the job. Being illiterate, having lower monthly income, and those who reported sleeping disturbance were significantly and positively associated with severe occupational injuries of solid waste collectors.

Conclusion: The magnitude of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors is lower than other similar studies conducted in Ethiopia. Based on the finding of this and other studies, job rotation among work components, improvement of employees' income, job specific guideline regarding maximum production limits, and replacement of bags and bins with wheeled containers are an interventions expected to cope with the problem. There is also a need of specific periodic health surveillance (PHS) for refuse collectors to detect early signs of work related complaints and to monitor work ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3483-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995673PMC
August 2016