Publications by authors named "Feng Zhai"

59 Publications

Automated detection of hippocampal sclerosis: Comparison of a composite MRI-based index with conventional MRI measures.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Aug 9;174:106638. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aims to compare the performance of an MRI-based composite index (HSI) with conventional MRI-based measures in hippocampal sclerosis (HS) detection and postoperative outcome estimation.

Methods: Seventy-two temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with pathologically confirmed HS and fifteen TLE patients without HS were included retrospectively. The T1-weighted and FLAIR images of these patients were processed with AccuBrain to quantify the hippocampal volume (HV) and the hippocampal FLAIR signal. The HSI index that considered both HV and hippocampal FLAIR signal was also calculated. Two experienced neuropathologists rated the HS severity with the resected tissue and reached an agreement for all cases. The asymmetry indices of the MRI measures were used to lateralize the sclerotic side, and the original MRI measures were applied to detect HS vs. normal hippocampi. Operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed for these predictions. We also investigated the sensitivity of the ipsilateral MRI measures in characterizing the pathological severity of HS and the associations of the MRI measures with postoperative outcomes (Engel class categories).

Results: With the optimal cutoffs, the asymmetry indices of HSI and HV both achieved excellent performance in differentiating left vs. right HS (accuracy = 100 %), and the absolute value of the asymmetry index of HSI performed best in differentiating unilateral vs. bilateral HS (accuracy = 91.7 %). Regarding the detection of HS, HSI performed better in sensitivity (94.4 % vs. 87.5 %) while HV performed better in specificity (93.6 % vs. 89.4 %) when the contralateral site of unilateral HS and both sides of non-HS patients were considered as the normal reference, and HSI performed even better than HV when only both sides of non-HS patients were considered as the normal reference (AUC: 0.956 vs. 0.934, p = 0.038). The ipsilateral HSI presented the strongest association with the pathological rating of HS severity (r = 0.405, p < 0.001). None of the ipsilateral or contralateral MRI measures was associated with the postoperative outcomes. Among the asymmetry indices, only the absolute value of the asymmetry index of HV presented a significant association with the Engel classifications for the Year 2∼3 visit (r = -0.466, p = 0.004) or the latest visit with >1 year follow-up (r = -0.374, p = 0.003) while controlling for disease duration and follow-up duration.

Conclusion: The HSI index and HV presented comparable good performance in HS detection, and HSI may have better sensitivity than HV in differentiating pathological HS severity. Higher magnitude of HV dissymmetry may indicate better post-surgical outcomes for HS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106638DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk Factors for Failure in First-Time Hearing Screening Tests among High-Risk Neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 Apr 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate into the risk factors for failure in the first-time screening test among high-risk neonates in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in order to further clarify the etiology of neonatal hearing impairment, thus providing insights into early prevention and intervention.

Methods: We performed automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), and acoustic immittance (AI) on 2,194 high-risk neonates admitted into the NICU of Shanghai Children's Medical Center from January 2015 to December 2019, and the risk factors, including premature birth, hyperbilirubinemia, and infant respiratory distress syndrome, were analyzed retrospectively by the univariate χ2 test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.

Results: The pass rates of AABR, DPOAE, and AI were 70.21, 78.44, and 93.12%, respectively, in 2,194 cases of high-risk neonates screened, which are significantly lower than those of healthy controls. The most common diagnoses included artificial feeding, preterm birth, C-section, low birth weight (LBW), neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), congenital heart disease (CHD), gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, advanced maternal age (AMA), twins, and in vitro fertilization. Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that the AABR pass rate was negatively correlated with LBW (p = 0.002), NHB (p < 0.001), NRDS (p = 0.007), artificial or mixed feeding (p = 0.018), and CHD (p = 0.005). The pass rate of DPOAE was negatively correlated with artificial or mixed feeding (p = 0.041), NHB (p < 0.001), LBW (p = 0.007), very LBW (VLBW) (p = 0.008), and C-section (p < 0.001). The pass rate of AI was negatively correlated with revised AMA (≥40 year) (p < 0.001), NHB (p = 0.043), C-section (p = 0.005), and artificial/mixed feeding (p = 0.036).

Conclusion: The hearing screening pass rates of high-risk neonates in the NICU were lower than those of normal neonates, among which the rate of AABR was significantly lower than that of DPOAE. NRDS, NHB, LBW, revised AMA, CHD, C-section, and artificial feeding are potential risk factors of hearing impairment. The combination of different hearing screening tests is necessary for accurate diagnosis of congenital hearing disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512761DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictors and Long-term Outcome of Resective Epilepsy Surgery in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Single-centre Retrospective Cohort Study.

Seizure 2021 May 25;88:45-52. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, XiangshanYikesong 50, Haidian District, Beijing 100093, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify prognostic factors and long-term seizure outcomes for patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who underwent resective treatment for epilepsy.

Methods: We enrolled 81 patients with TSC who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery at Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, between April 2004 and June 2019. We estimated cumulative probability of remaining seizure-free and plotted survival curves. Variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's correlation, continuity correction, and Fisher's exact chi-square tests. Prognostic predictors were analysed using log-rank (Mantel-Cox) tests and Cox regression models.

Results: At the last follow-up, 48 (59.3%) patients were classified as International League Against Epilepsy Class 1 (including 14 patients who had seizures <3 times postoperatively on the same or different day and were seizure-free at all other times). The estimated cumulative probability of remaining seizure-free postoperatively was 69.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.8-79.2%), 61.9% (95% CI 51.1-72.7%), and 55.0% (95% CI 42.8-67.2%) at 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The mean time of remaining seizure-free was 7.24 ± 0.634 years (95% CI 6.00-8.49); en bloc resection was an essential positive predictor of postoperative seizure freedom, as was age at seizure onset, regional interictal video-electroencephalography pattern, and temporal lobe surgery. The longer the seizure-free time, the less likely a relapse. Patients who postoperatively experienced seizures remained likely to recover.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the efficacy of surgical treatment for patients with TSC and intractable epilepsy. Detailed perioperative tests are a reliable predictor of postoperative seizure freedom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.03.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Epileptic seizures in a heterogeneous excitatory network with short-term plasticity.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Feb 16;15(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 100093.

Epilepsy involves a diverse group of abnormalities, including molecular and cellular disorders. These abnormalities prove to be associated with the changes in local excitability and synaptic dynamics. Correspondingly, the epileptic processes including onset, propagation and generalized seizure may be related with the alterations of excitability and synapse. In this paper, three regions, epileptogenic zone (EZ), propagation area and normal region, were defined and represented by neuronal population model with heterogeneous excitability, respectively. In order to describe the synaptic behavior that the strength was enhanced and maintained at a high level for a short term under a high frequency spike train, a novel activity-dependent short-term plasticity model was proposed. Bifurcation analysis showed that the presence of hyperexcitability could increase the seizure susceptibility of local area, leading to epileptic discharges first seen in the EZ. Meanwhile, recurrent epileptic activities might result in the transition of synaptic strength from weak state to high level, augmenting synaptic depolarizations in non-epileptic neurons as the experimental findings. Numerical simulation based on a full-connected weighted network could qualitatively demonstrate the epileptic process that the propagation area and normal region were successively recruited by the EZ. Furthermore, cross recurrence plot was used to explore the synchronization between neuronal populations, and the global synchronization index was introduced to measure the global synchronization. Results suggested that the synchronization between the EZ and other region was significantly enhanced with the occurrence of seizure. Interestingly, the desynchronization phenomenon was also observed during seizure initiation and propagation as reported before. Therefore, heterogeneous excitability and short-term plasticity are believed to play an important role in the epileptic process. This study may provide novel insights into the mechanism of epileptogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-020-09582-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947086PMC
February 2021

Boosting the Metathesis Activity of Molybdenum Oxo Alkylidenes by Tuning the Anionic Ligand σ Donation.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 21;60(10):6875-6880. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

The catalytic performances of molecular and silica-supported molybdenum oxo alkylidene species bearing anionic O ligands [OR, OTPP, OHMT - where OR = OC(CF), OTPP = 2,3,5,6-tetraphenylphenoxy, OHMT = hexamethylterphenoxy] with different σ-donation abilities and sizes are evaluated in the metathesis of both internal and terminal olefins. Here, we show that the presence of the anionic nonafluoro--butoxy X ligand in Mo(O){═CH-4-(MeO)CH}(THF){X} (; X = OR) significantly increases the catalytic performances in the metathesis of both terminal and internal olefins. Its silica-supported equivalent displays slightly lower activity, albeit with improved stability. In sharp contrast, the molecular complexes with large aryloxy anionic X ligands show little activity, whereas the activity of the corresponding silica-supported systems is greatly improved, illustrating that surface siloxy groups are significantly smaller anionic ligands. Of all of the systems, compound stands out because of its unique high activity for both terminal and internal olefins. Density functional theory modeling indicates that the OR ligand is ideal in this series because of its weak σ-donating ability, avoiding overstabilization of the metallacyclobutane intermediates while keeping low barriers for [2 + 2] cycloaddition and turnstile isomerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03173DOI Listing
May 2021

Anisotropic and gate-tunable valley filtering based on 8-Pmmn borophene.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jan;32(2):025205

Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, People's Republic of China.

We propose a valley filter based on 8-Pmmn borophene which hosts two tilted Dirac cones. It is found that the application of a magnetic-electric barrier provided by a single ferromagnetic gate is sufficient to create valley-polarized current in 8-Pmmn borophene. The valley polarization of output current depends on the barrier orientation. Due to an intrinsic symmetry, it vanishes when the barrier orientation is along the tilted direction of Dirac cones. For the barrier orientation perpendicular to the tilted direction, the valley polarization for a realistic magnetic barrier can approach nearly 100% at proper Fermi energy and gate voltage. The remarkable valley contrast of conductance in this case is attributed to a new transmission resonance. The tilting of Dirac cones is essential for the predicted valley filtering. Our findings are helpful for valleytronic applications of two-dimensional materials with tilted Dirac cones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abbbd7DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparisons of the seizure-free outcome and visual field deficits between anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Seizure 2020 Oct 7;81:228-235. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of our study is to compare seizure-free outcome and the incidence of visual field deficits (VFD) between anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) among patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases using keywords related to ATL, SAH and VFD. Previous studies that compared ATL and SAH with seizure-free outcome and the incidence of VFD were included. A fixed-effect model was used to conduct meta-analysis. Risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals were pooled and used to elucidate each outcome.

Results: Twenty-three retrospective and three prospective studies were recruited with a total of 2930 cases (1390 cases for SAH and 1540 cases for ATL). The meta-analysis showed no significant difference in seizure freedom (SAH 63.5% vs ATL 63.8%) of these two procedures (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.90-1.01, P = 0.102), but the odds of seizure freedom in ATL was higher than transsylvian SAH approach (RR 0.89 95% CI 0.82-0.96, P =  0.004). Comparing with ATL for TLE, SAH for TLE caused lower frequency of postoperative VFD. (RR 0.87, 95%CI 0.76-0.99, P = 0.034).

Conclusions: There was no significant difference on seizure freedom between ATL and SAH procedures, while subgroup analysis demonstrated that ATL was associated with higher opportunity to achieve seizure-free than transsylvian SAH approach. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative VFD was significantly lower in SAH than ATL. Individualized treatment achieving balance between seizure free and collateral damage should be considered in clinical practice. Well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials would be necessary to validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.07.024DOI Listing
October 2020

The association between the seasonality of pediatric pandemic influenza virus outbreak and ambient meteorological factors in Shanghai.

Environ Health 2020 06 17;19(1):71. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1678 Dongfang Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background And Objectives: The number of pediatric patients diagnosed with influenza types A and B is increasing annually, especially in temperate regions such as Shanghai (China). The onset of pandemic influenza viruses might be attributed to various ambient meteorological factors including temperature, relative humidity (Rh), and PM concentrations, etc. The study aims to explore the correlation between the seasonality of pandemic influenza and these factors.

Methods: We recruited pediatric patients aged from 0 to 18 years who were diagnosed with influenza A or B from July 1st, 2017 to June 30th, 2019 in Shanghai Children's Medical Centre (SCMC). Ambient meteorological data were collected from the Shanghai Meteorological Service (SMS) over the same period. The correlation of influenza outbreak and meteorological factors were analyzed through preliminary Pearson's r correlation test and subsequent time-series Poisson regression analysis using the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM).

Results: Pearson's r test showed a statistically significant correlation between the weekly number of influenza A outpatients and ambient meteorological factors including weekly mean, maximum, minimum temperature and barometric pressure (P < 0.001), and PM (P < 0.01). While the weekly number of influenza B outpatients was statistically significantly correlated with weekly mean, maximum and minimum temperature (P < 0.001), barometric pressure and PM (P < 0.01), and minimum Rh (P < 0.05). Mean temperature and PM were demonstrated to be the statistically significant variables in the DLNM with influenza A and B outpatients through time-series Poisson regression analysis. A U-shaped curve relationship was noted between the mean temperature and influenza A cases (below 15 °C and above 20 °C), and the risks increased for influenza B with mean temperature below 10 °C. PM posed a risk after a concentration of 23 ppm for both influenza A and B. High PM, low and the high temperature had significant effects upon the number of influenza A cases, whereas low temperature and high PM had significant effects upon the number of influenza B cases.

Conclusion: This study indicated that mean temperature and PM were the primary factors that were continually associated with the seasonality of pediatric pandemic influenza A and B and the recurrence in the transmission and spread of influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00625-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298927PMC
June 2020

Prognostic factors of postoperative seizure outcomes in older patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 04;48(4):E7

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University.

Objective: The authors of this study aimed to investigate surgical outcomes and prognostic factors in older patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who had undergone resective surgery.

Methods: Data on patients older than 45 years of age with drug-resistant TLE who had undergone resective surgery at Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, between January 2009 and August 2017 were retrospectively collected. Postoperative seizure outcomes were evaluated according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification. Patients belonging to ILAE classes 1 and 2 were classified as having a favorable outcome, whereas patients belonging to ILAE classes 3-6 were classified as having an unfavorable outcome. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the potential predictors of seizure outcomes.

Results: A total of 45 patients older than 45 years of age who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery for TLE were included in the present study. Eight (17.8%) of 45 patients had preoperative comorbidity in addition to seizures. The average age at the time of surgery was 51.76 years, and the average duration of epilepsy at the time surgery was 18.01 years. After an average follow-up period of 4.53 ± 2.82 years (range 2-10 years), 73.3% (33/45) of patients were seizure free. Surgical complications were observed in 13.3% of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that an MRI-negative finding is the only independent predictor of unfavorable seizure outcomes (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.67, p = 0.023).

Conclusions: Resective surgery is a safe and effective treatment for older patients with drug-resistant TLE. An MRI-negative finding independently predicts unfavorable seizure outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.FOCUS19796DOI Listing
April 2020

Maturation of Voltage-induced Shifts in SLC26a5 (Prestin) Operating Point during Trafficking and Membrane Insertion.

Neuroscience 2020 04 13;431:128-133. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Prestin (SLC26a5) is an integral membrane motor protein in outer hair cells (OHC) that underlies cochlear amplification. As a voltage-dependent protein, it relies on intrinsic sensor charge to respond to transmembrane voltage (receptor potentials), thereby effecting conformational changes. The protein's electromechanical actively is experimentally monitored as a bell-shaped nonlinear capacitance (NLC), whose magnitude peaks at a characteristic voltage, V. This voltage denotes the midpoint of prestin's charge-voltage (Q-V) Boltzmann distribution and region of maximum gain of OHC electromotility. It is an important factor in hearing capabilities for mammals. A variety of biophysical forces can influence the distribution of charge, gauged by shifts in V, including prior holding voltage or membrane potential. Here we report that the effectiveness of prior voltage augments during the delivery of prestin to the membranes in an inducible HEK cell line. The augmentation coincides with an increase in prestin density, maturing at a characteristic membrane areal density of 870 functional prestin units per square micrometer, and is likely indicative of prestin-prestin cooperative interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.02.003DOI Listing
April 2020

Surgical histopathologic findings of 232 Chinese children cases with drug-resistant seizures.

Brain Behav 2020 04 14;10(4):e01565. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Pathology, SanBo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijng, China.

Objectives: The drug-resistant seizures are characterized by frequent and severe onset of seizures in childhood. There is only little literature had extensively explored the types of pathological brain damage in Chinese children cases. The present study aims to investigate the histopathologic findings and seizure outcomes of drug-resistant seizures in cases of 0-14-year-old children.

Materials And Methods: About 232 children cases were retrospectively who underwent epilepsy surgery. The medical records, onset age, age of surgery, disease course, seizure type, pathological reports, and seizure outcomes of these patients were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: The most common categories were malformations of cortical development (focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) was the most common type (94.36%, 67/71), found in 30.60% of the patients, tumors in 18.11%, glial scar in 12.50%, and encephalitis in 11.63%). It was found that the effective seizure outcome of FCD cases with shorter duration of epilepsy (<2 years, 87.23%) was better than that with longer duration (≥2 years, 60.00%) and the difference was statistically significant (χ  = 4.76, p < .05). Patients with FCD I, FCD II, and tumor showed the relatively better postsurgical seizure outcome than patients with other pathological types.

Conclusion: The malformations of cortical development (MCD) (most FCD) were the most common pathological type for children cases in China with drug-resistant seizures. It was speculated further that the FCD patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery seem to have a higher ratio of being seizure-free after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177591PMC
April 2020

The impact of MEG results on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with focal encephalomalacia: a single-center experience.

J Neurol 2020 Mar 26;267(3):812-822. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To analyze the impact of magnetoencephalography (MEG) results on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with encephalomalacia who underwent MEG followed by resection surgery. Patients were subdivided into concordant MEG group and dis-concordant MEG group for analysis based on whether the MEG results were in concordance with epileptogenic zones or not.

Results: 121 patients were included in the present study. The MEG spike sources of 73 (60.33%) patients were in concordance with epileptogenic zones while the MEG spike sources of the other 48 (39.67%) were in dis-concordance with epileptogenic zones. Favorable seizure outcomes were achieved in 79.45% (58 of 73) of patients with concordant MEG results while only 62.50% (30 of 48) of patients with dis-concordant MEG results were seizure free with a follow-up of 2-10 years. The differences of seizure-free rate between patients with concordant MEG results and dis-concordant MEG results were statistically significant. For patients with concordant MEG results, bilateral lesions on MRI are the only independent predictor of unfavorable seizure outcomes. For patients with discordant MEG results, duration of seizures is the only independent predictor of unfavorable seizure outcomes.

Conclusions: Concordant MEG results are associated with favorable seizure outcomes. Bilateral lesions on MRI independently predict unfavorable seizure outcomes in patients with concordant MEG results while longer seizure durations independently predict unfavorable seizure outcomes in patients with dis-concordant MEG results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09638-wDOI Listing
March 2020

Extreme nonlinear strong-field photoemission from carbon nanotubes.

Nat Commun 2019 10 25;10(1):4891. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Division of Nanophotonics, CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, China.

Strong-field photoemission produces attosecond (10 s) electron pulses that are synchronized to the waveform of the incident light. This nonlinear photoemission lies at the heart of current attosecond technologies. Here we report a new nonlinear photoemission behaviour-the nonlinearity in strong-field regime sharply increases (approaching 40th power-law scaling), making use of sub-nanometric carbon nanotubes and 800 nm pulses. As a result, the carrier-envelope phase sensitive photoemission current shows a greatly improved modulation depth of up to 100% (with a total modulation current up to 2 nA). The calculations reveal that the behaviour is an interplay of valence band optical-field emission with charge interaction, and the nonlinear dynamics can be tunable by changing the bandgap of carbon nanotubes. The extreme nonlinear photoemission offers a new means of producing extreme temporal-spatial resolved electron pulses, and provides a new design philosophy for attosecond electronics and photonics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12797-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814826PMC
October 2019

Resective surgery for drug-resistant posttraumatic epilepsy: predictors of seizure outcome.

J Neurosurg 2019 Oct 4:1-8. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University.

Objective: The object of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes and prognosis factors in patients with drug-resistant posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) who had undergone resective surgery.

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with drug-resistant PTE who had undergone resective surgery at Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, in the period from January 2008 to December 2016. All patients had a follow-up period of at least 2 years. Seizure outcomes were evaluated according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification. Patients in ILAE classes 1 and 2 during the last 2 years of follow-up were classified as having a favorable outcome; patients in all other classes were considered to have an unfavorable outcome. Univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model in a backward fashion were used to identify the potential predictors of seizure outcomes.

Results: Among 90 patients with a follow-up of 2-10 years (mean ± standard deviation, 5.79 ± 2.84 years), 70% (63 patients) were seizure free, of whom 68.9% (62 patients) had an ILAE class 1 outcome and 1.1% (1 patient) had an ILAE class 2 outcome. Permanent neurological deficits were observed in 10 patients (11.1%). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that only the duration of seizures ≤ 8 years was an independent predictor of a favorable seizure outcome (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.92).

Conclusions: Resective surgery is an effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant PTE with an acceptable incidence of complications. The information on prognosis factors suggests that early surgery may offer more benefits to patients with drug-resistant PTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.7.JNS191233DOI Listing
October 2019

Upregulation of adenosine A2A receptor and downregulation of GLT1 is associated with neuronal cell death in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

Brain Pathol 2020 03 22;30(2):246-260. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Brian Institute, Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy Research, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100093, China.

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a severe pediatric inflammatory brain disease characterized by unilateral inflammation and atrophy of the cerebral cortex, drug-resistant focal epilepsy and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. The etiology and pathogenesis of RE remain unclear. Our previous results demonstrated that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and the major adenosine-removing enzyme adenosine kinase play an important role in the etiology of RE. Because the downstream pathways of inhibitory A1R signaling are modulated by stimulatory A2AR signaling, which by itself controls neuro-inflammation, glial activation and glial glutamate homeostasis through interaction with glutamate transporter GLT-1, we hypothesized that maladaptive changes in adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression are associated with RE. We used immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to examine the expression of A2ARs, glutamate transporter-I (GLT-1) and the apoptotic marker Bcl-2 in surgically resected cortical specimens from RE patients (n = 18) in comparison with control cortical tissue. In lesions of the RE specimen we found upregulation of A2ARs, downregulation of GLT-1 and increased apoptosis of both neurons and astroglia. Double staining revealed colocalization of A2ARs and Bcl-2 in RE lesions. These results suggest that maladaptive changes in A2AR expression are associated with a decrease in GLT-I expression as a possible precipitator for apoptotic cell loss in RE. Because A2AR antagonists are already under clinical evaluation for Parkinson's disease, the A2AR might likewise be a tractable target for the treatment of RE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12770DOI Listing
March 2020

Silica-Supported Molybdenum Oxo Alkylidenes: Bridging the Gap between Internal and Terminal Olefin Metathesis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 08 11;58(34):11816-11819. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Chemistry and Applied Bioscience, ETH Zürich, Vladimir Prelog Weg 2, 8093, Zürich, Switzerland.

Grafting a molybdenum oxo alkylidene on silica (partially dehydroxylated at 700 °C) affords the first example of a well-defined silica-supported Mo oxo alkylidene, which is an analogue of the putative active sites in heterogeneous Mo-based metathesis catalysts. In contrast to its tungsten analogue, which shows poor activity towards terminal olefins because of the formation of a stable off-cycle metallacyclobutane intermediate, the Mo catalyst shows high metathesis activity for both terminal and internal olefins that is consistent with the lower stability of Mo metallacyclobutane intermediates. This Mo oxo metathesis catalyst also outperforms its corresponding neutral silica-supported Mo and W imido analogues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201903325DOI Listing
August 2019

Surgical outcomes and prognostic factors of drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia.

Epilepsia 2019 05 13;60(5):948-957. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in patients who underwent surgical resection for drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia.

Methods: A total of 143 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent surgical resection with a follow-up of at least 5 years were included. Seizure outcomes were evaluated based on the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model in a backward fashion were used to identify the potential predictors of seizure outcomes.

Results: Three months after surgery, 102 of 143 (71.3%) patients had achieved favorable seizure outcomes. Five years after surgery, 107 of 143 (74.8%) patients had achieved favorable seizure outcomes. Changes in the postoperative seizure status were observed in 22 of 143 (15.4%) patients during follow-up, but the difference in the seizure-free rate between 3 months and 5 years after surgery was not significant. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that only a monthly seizure frequency of >30 seizures (odds ratio = 3.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-9.76) and bilateral ictal onset rhythms (odds ratio = 4.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.61-12.39) were independent predictors of unfavorable seizure outcomes.

Significance: Surgical resection is an effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia. Knowledge of the predictors of seizure outcomes may help during preoperative counseling and selection of optimal candidates for epilepsy surgery among patients with drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14733DOI Listing
May 2019

Multiple harmonics control of edge pseudomagnetoplasmons in strained grapheme.

Opt Express 2018 Dec;26(25):33453-33462

Valley-resolved edge plasmons are relevant to nano-optics at subwavelength scales. However, less attention has been paid to their tunable properties in time domain. In this work we investigate edge pseudomagnetoplasmons in a strained graphene modulated by multiple harmonics with frequency in the THz regime. The edge plasmon is described by a set of nonlinear hydrodynamic equations, which are self-consistently solved by the flux-corrected transport method. Without the applied voltage, there exist two unidirectional-propagating edge-plasmon modes with weak valley polarization P. It is demonstrated that by varying the amplitude of multiple harmonics one can alter both the amplitude and the polarity of the valley polarization in the edge plasmon. One can achieve a full valley polarization P=1 at the instant of half cycle of the multiple harmonics and P=-1 at the instant of one cycle. The edge-plasmon density and the transverse velocity vanish for the frozen valley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.033453DOI Listing
December 2018

Preliminary study on the mechanism underlying the interaction of balance dysfunction and anxiety disorder.

Neuroreport 2019 01;30(2):53-59

Department of Etiology, Qidong People's Hospital, Qidong, China.

This study aims to explore the anxiety-related behavioral changes and the concentration alterations of monoamine neurotransmitters in balance/anxiety-related nuclei of intratympanic gentamicin (GT)-induced balance disorder models. GT was administrated intratympanically in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to establish the vestibular impaired animal model. Rotarod was applied to test the vestibular function, and elevated plus maze and open field test were harnessed to evaluate the anxiety level. Monoamines and their metabolites were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rotarod test revealed that 6 days after GT administration, the average latency decreased significantly compared with the control group. Three days after GT administration, the travel distance and the central zone time obtained from open field and the duration of open arm stay and the times of open arm entries from elevated plus maze were apparently lower than those of the control group, whereas no significant differences were noted between 2-week group and the control group. Three days after GT administration, the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) within medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); the concentration of NE, serotonin (5-HT), and 5-HIAA within locus coeruleus (LC); and the concentration of NE, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid within dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) increased significantly compared with the control group. Two weeks after the administration, the concentrations of part of the neurotransmitters were lower than those of the 3-day group, indicating the rapid activation and slow deactivation of MVN-LC and MVN-DRN pathways. Vestibular impairment could lead to elevated anxiety level. The elevated anxiety levels might be attributed to increased monoamine concentrations within MVN, LC, and DRN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000977DOI Listing
January 2019

Syntheses of Molybdenum Oxo Benzylidene Complexes.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 10 10;140(42):13609-13613. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry 6-331 , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.

The reaction between Mo(O)(CHAr)(OR)(PMe) (Ar = ortho-methoxyphenyl, OR = OCMe(CF)) and 2 equiv of LiOHMT (OHMT = O-2,6-(2,4,6-MeCH)CH) leads to Mo(O)(CHAr)(OHMT), an X-ray structure of which shows it to be a trigonal bipyramidal anti benzylidene complex in which the o-methoxy oxygen is coordinated to the metal trans to the apical oxo ligand. Addition of 1 equiv of water (in THF) to the benzylidyne complex, Mo(CAr)(OR)(THF) (Ar = para-methoxyphenyl, OR = OR or OC(CF) (OR)) leads to formation of {Mo(CAr)(OR)(μ-OH)(THF)}(μ-THF) complexes. Addition of 1 equiv of a phosphine (L) to Mo(CAr)(OR)(THF) in THF, followed by addition of 1 equiv of water, all at room temperature, yields Mo(O)(CHAr)(OR)(L) complexes in good yields for several phosphines (e.g., PMePh (69% by NMR), PMePh (59%), PEt (69%), or P( i-Pr) (65%)). The reaction between Mo(O)(CHAr)(OR)(PEt) and 2 equiv of LiOHMT proceeds smoothly at 90 °C in toluene to give Mo(O)(CHAr)(OHMT), a four-coordinate syn alkylidene complex. Mo(O)(CHAr)(OHMT) reacts with ethylene (1 atm in CD) to give (in solution) a mixture of Mo(O)(CHAr)(OHMT), Mo(O)(CH)(OHMT), and an unsubstituted square pyramidal metallacyclobutane complex, Mo(O)(CHCHCH)(OHMT), along with ethylene and ArCH═CH. Mo(O)(CHAr)(OHMT) also reacts with 2,3-dicarbomethoxynorbornadiene to yield syn and anti isomers of the "first-insertion" products that contain a cis C═C bond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b09616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341480PMC
October 2018

New Chinese dietary guidelines: healthy eating patterns and food-based dietary recommendations.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(4):908-913

Chinese Nutrition Society, Beijing, China.

Background And Objectives: The Chinese Dietary Guidelines (CDGs) were first released to the public in 1989 by the Chinese Nutrition Society (CNS). In 2016, the Ministry of Health commissioned the CNS to revise and publish new CDGs.

Methods And Study Design: The CNS convened an expert committee of leaders in the fields of nutrition, epidemiology, public health, preventive medicine, and food science. The CDGs were revised according to the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development procedures. The expert committee recommended key inclusions for the CDGs on the basis of the current status of public health and priority health challenges affecting the Chinese population, as well as the quality of scientific evidence.

Results: The CDGs (2016) provide six key dietary recommendations for the general Chinese population aged 2 years and above. In addition to a newly revised Chinese Food Guide Pagoda, both the Chinese Food Guide Plate and Chinese Food Guide Abacus are newly created pictorial models in the CDGs (2016); the Chinese Food Guide Abacus is specifically designed for children. Seven additional dietary guidelines targeting specific populations are included; these guidelines emphasize the different physiological and nutritional requirements of particular populations, including dietary guidelines for vegetarians for the first time.

Conclusions: The CDGs (2016) is an official document published by the National Health Commission of China. Its content highlights the current status of public health and offers advice to address health concerns faced by the Chinese population. The CDGs (2016) have been widely disseminated and accepted in the Chinese population; the National Nutrition Week is a major national event in which the CDG are used as its core to increase public awareness towards a healthy diet and lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.072018.03DOI Listing
September 2019

Crystal structure of 3-[(2-acetamido-phen-yl)imino]-butan-2-one.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2018 Feb 19;74(Pt 2):193-195. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, Il 60637, USA.

In the title compound, 3-[(2-acetamido-phen-yl)imino]-butan-2-one, CHNO, the imine C=N bond is essentially coplanar with the ketone C=O bond in an conformation. The benzene ring is twisted away from the plane of the C=N bond by 53.03 (14)°. The acetamido unit is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected into chains along the axis through C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with two adjacent chains being hinged by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2056989018000749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956335PMC
February 2018

Bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy in the treatment of insular and insulo-opercular epilepsy explored by stereoelectro-encephalography.

Epilepsy Res 2018 09 24;145:18-26. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China; Beijing Key Lab. of Epilepsy, Beijing, PR China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of insular and insulo-opercular epilepsy remain underexplored because the insula is covered by the insulo-opercular and a dense vascular curtain. Stereoelectro-encephalography (SEEG) is a reliable and recommended technique for locating the epileptic zone, especially in insular and insulo-opercular regions (Isnard et al., 2000, 2004). Bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy is an alternative therapy for treating drug-resistant epilepsy and is more convenient and less likely to cause adverse complications. We report 20 patients with insular and insulo-opercular epilepsy diagnosed through SEEG who underwent surgical treatment via bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy. The outcomes and findings are presented as a retrospective analysis (Cui et al., 2012; Zhai et al., 2015).

Method: We performed a retrospective analysis of 20 insular and insulo-opercular epilepsy patients. All patients involved in the analysis had undergone a comprehensive presurgical evaluation, including video electro-encephalographic recordings (at least 1 insultus), SEEG (at least 3 electrodes placed at insular depth), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magneto-encephalography. All patients underwent bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy surgery. The follow-up time was over 24 months.

Result: After bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy surgical treatment, 16 of the 20 patients (80.0%) were seizure free (Engel class I), and all patients achieved satisfactory seizure control (Engel class I-III) with a mean follow-up of 29.6 months (range, 24-39 months). Histopathological findings demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in 14 patients (70.0%), neuro-damage in 3 patients (15.0%), ganglioglioma in 2 patients (10.0%), and gliosis in 1 patient (5.0%). Sixteen of the 20 patients reported no complications (80.0%), 3 exhibited temporary complications that recovered within 3 months (15.0%), and 1 patient experienced permanent complications (5.0%).

Significance: Bipolar electro-coagulation with cortextomy of the insular and insulo-opercular cortex explored by SEEG findings can be performed safely and resulted in satisfactory seizure control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.05.007DOI Listing
September 2018

Current status and future developments in preparation and application of nonspherical polymer particles.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Jun 20;256:126-151. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Nonspherical polymer particles (NPPs) are nano/micro-particulates of macromolecules that are anisotropic in shape, and can be designed anisotropic in chemistry. Due to shape and surface anisotropies, NPPs bear many unique structures and fascinating properties which are distinctly different from those of spherical polymer particles (SPPs). In recent years, the research on NPPs has surprisingly blossomed in recent years, and many practical materials based on NPPs with potential applications in photonic device, material science and biomedical engineering have been generated. In this review, we give a systematic, balanced and comprehensive summary of the main aspects of NPPs related to their preparation and application, and propose perspectives for the future developments of NPPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2018.04.010DOI Listing
June 2018

Optically Unraveling the Edge Chirality-Dependent Band Structure and Plasmon Damping in Graphene Edges.

Adv Mater 2018 May 17;30(22):e1800367. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing, China.

The nontrivial topological origin and pseudospinorial character of electron wavefunctions make edge states possess unusual electronic properties. Twenty years ago, the tight-binding model calculation predicted that zigzag termination of 2D sheets of carbon atoms have peculiar edge states, which show potential application in spintronics and modern information technologies. Although scanning probe microscopy is employed to capture this phenomenon, the experimental demonstration of its optical response remains challenging. Here, the propagating graphene plasmon provides an edge-selective polaritonic probe to directly detect and control the electronic edge state at ambient condition. Compared with armchair, the edge-band structure in the bandgap gives rise to additional optical absorption and strongly absorbed rim at zigzag edge. Furthermore, the optical conductivity is reconstructed and the anisotropic plasmon damping in graphene systems is revealed. The reported approach paves the way for detecting edge-specific phenomena in other van der Waals materials and topological insulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201800367DOI Listing
May 2018

Localization of Epileptogenic Zone With the Correction of Pathological Networks.

Front Neurol 2018 14;9:143. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy are potential candidates for surgery. Stereo-electroencephalograph (SEEG) is often considered as the "gold standard" to identify the epileptogenic zone (EZ) that accounts for the onset and propagation of epileptiform discharges. However, visual analysis of SEEG still prevails in clinical practice. In addition, epilepsy is increasingly understood to be the result of network disorder, but the specific organization of the epileptic network is still unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively localize the EZ and investigate the nature of epileptogenic networks. In this study, intracranial recordings from 10 patients were analyzed through adaptive directed transfer function, and the out-degree of effective network was selected as the principal indicator to localize the epileptogenic area. Furthermore, a coupled neuronal population model was used to qualitatively simulate electrical activity in the brain. By removing individual populations, virtual surgery adjusting the network organization could be performed. Results suggested that the accuracy and detection rate of the EZ localization were 82.86 and 85.29%, respectively. In addition, the same stage shared a relatively stable connectivity pattern, while the patterns changed with transition to different processes. Meanwhile, eight cases of simulations indicated that networks in the ictal stage were more likely to generate rhythmic spikes. This indicated the existence of epileptogenic networks, which could enhance local excitability and facilitate synchronization. The removal of the EZ could correct these pathological networks and reduce the amount of spikes by at least 75%. This might be one reason why accurate resection could reduce or even suppress seizures. This study provides novel insights into epilepsy and surgical treatments from the network perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861205PMC
March 2018

Preparation of Humidity-Sensitive Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Inverse Opal Micropatterns Using Colloidal Lithography.

Materials (Basel) 2017 Sep 5;10(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Humidity-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) inverse opals with micropatterns of 2 μm wide anti-swell-broken grooves were prepared using polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals as templates and colloidal lithography. Monodisperse PS colloids were deposited in an ordered manner onto glass slides using a double-substrate vertical deposition method to form colloidal crystal templates. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) with photoinitiator was infiltrated into the interspaces of the colloidal crystals and photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation through a photomask. After removal the PS templates and unexposed PEGDA by tetrahydrofuran (THF), PEG hydrogel micropatterns with three-dimensional ordered porous structures were obtained. The band gaps of the PS colloidal crystals and corresponding PEG hydrogel inverse opals were measured by UV-VIS reflection spectrometer, calculated by Bragg law and simulated by Band SOLVE. The obtained PEG hydrogel inverse opal micropatterns can be used as sensors for humidity sensing due to absorption and desorption of moisture in the band gap structures. The sensor had a very reliable performance after repeated humidity sensing, and could be mass produced facilely with very low cost. The photopatterned anti-swell-broken grooves play an important role in the reliability of the sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma10091035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615690PMC
September 2017

Identification of the epileptogenic zone of temporal lobe epilepsy from stereo-electroencephalography signals: A phase transfer entropy and graph theory approach.

Neuroimage Clin 2017 24;16:184-195. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Epilepsy Center and Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, 50, Xiang-shan-yi-ke-song, Haidian District, Beijing 100093, China.

The aim of this research is to apply an approach based on phase transfer entropy (PTE) and graph theory to study the interactions between the stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) activities recorded in multilobar origin, in order to evaluate their ability to detect the epileptogenic zone (EZ) of temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Forty-three patients were included in this retrospective study. Five to sixteen (median = 12) multilead electrodes were implanted per patient, and, for each patient, a sub-set of between 10 and 32 (median = 22) bipolar derivations was selected for analysis. The leads were classified into the onset leads (OLs), the early propagation leads (EPLs), and the rest of the leads (RLs). The results showed that a significantly different dynamic trend of the out/in ratio (more obvious in the gamma band) distinguishes the OLs from RLs in the 23 patients who were seizure-free not only during the ictal event (significant elevation), but also during the inter-,pre-, late-ictal periods, and especially in the post-ictal (sharp decline) state. However, in the 20 patients who were not-seizure-free, the differences between the OLs and RLs during the post-ictal period were not found in any frequency band. The dynamic trend was used to predict surgical outcome, and the results showed that the sensitivity was 91% and the specificity was 70%. In brief, this study indicates that our approach may add new and valuable information, providing efficient quantitative measures useful for localizing the EZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.07.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542420PMC
April 2018

Upregulation of Neuronal Adenosine A1 Receptor in Human Rasmussen Encephalitis.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2017 Aug;76(8):720-731

Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy Research, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (GL, XW, YG, FZ); Department of Brain Institute, Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy Research, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (XW, QG, JD, YC, TL); and Department of Neurology, Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (JW, TL).

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by unilateral inflammation of cerebral cortex and other structures, most notably the hippocampus, progressive cognitive deterioration, and pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. The pathogenesis of RE with unilateral cortical atrophy and focal seizures is still enigmatic. Activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) has been proven to prevent the spatial spread of seizures. We hypothesized that the epileptogenic mechanisms underlying RE are related to changes in neuronal A1R expression. Immunnohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of A1R and adenosine kinase (ADK) in cortical specimens from RE (n = 12), and compared with control cortical tissue. The quantification of A1R and ADK expression was evaluated by Western blot. A1R was predominantly localized in perinuclear of neurons and not in astrocytes or microglia. Upregulation of neuronal A1R was observed in the lesions of RE. Reactive astrocytes and subpopulation of remaining neurons demonstrated over-expression of the ADK within the lesions of RE. Significant increase of A1R and ADK expression in RE compared with controls was confirmed by Western blot. These results suggest that over-expression of ADK is a common pathologic hallmark of RE, and that upregulation of neuronal A1R in RE is crucial in preventing the spread of seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlx053DOI Listing
August 2017

FGF18 inhibits MC3T3‑E1 cell osteogenic differentiation via the ERK signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2017 Oct 26;16(4):4127-4132. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, P.R. China.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 is a member of the FGF family and serves a key role in skeletal growth and development. The present study investigated the effect of FGF18 on pre‑osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and the signaling pathways involved by performing an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MC3T3‑E1 cells incubated in a culture medium supplemented with FGF18 exhibited increased viability when compared with the untreated control cells. In addition, ALP activity was decreased in MC3T3‑E1 cells treated with FGF18 plus an osteogenic medium (OM) for 7 and 14 days when compared with untreated and OM‑treated controls. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) results demonstrated that the expression of osteoblastic‑associated genes was significantly repressed in FGF18 plus OM‑treated MC3T3‑E1 cells, including ALP, collagen type I, osteocalcin, bone sialo protein and osterix. These results suggested that the expression levels of genes associated with osteogenesis were mainly repressed. In addition, combined treatment of MC3T3‑E1 cells with OM and FGF18 led to a significant reduction in mineral deposition when compared with the OM‑only treated group. Furthermore, FGF18 activated the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase pathway in MC3T3‑E1 cells, which may have been responsible for the observed decrease in the expression of osteoblastic‑associated genes. In conclusion, the results suggest that FGF18 may be involved in MC3T3‑E1 cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.7088DOI Listing
October 2017