Publications by authors named "Feng Yao"

307 Publications

Effects of pristine microplastics and nanoplastics on soil invertebrates: A systematic review and meta-analysis of available data.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;788:147784. Epub 2021 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture, China-New Zealand Joint Laboratory for soil Molecular Ecology, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

In laboratory studies, microplastics and/or nanoplastics (MPs/NPs) have been shown to cause a variety of ecotoxicological effects on soil invertebrates. Existing data on the effects of these plastic debris on biological functions and physiological systems, showed a great variability among studies. Thus, how soil invertebrates respond to different types, shapes, sizes and concentrations of pristine MPs/NPs remains to be further characterized. The present work is an up-to-date review on quantitative and qualitative data on the effects of pristine MPs/NPs on soil invertebrates in laboratory conditions. Research priorities are also discussed. Out of a total of 1061 biological endpoints investigated in 56 studies, 49% were significantly affected after exposed to pristine MPs/NPs. The polymers with chloro and phenyl groups had more negative impacts on soil invertebrates than other polymers. Most studies used earthworm and nematode species as model organisms. For nematodes, the impact of MPs/NPs seemed to be concentration-dependent and higher concentrations of pristine MPs/NPs appeared to have more adverse impacts on biological functions and physiological systems, but this trend was not confirmed in earthworms. Meta-analysis revealed that pristine MP/NP concentrations higher than 1 g kg (in soil) may decrease growth and survival of earthworms, while a concentration higher than 1 μg L (in water) may affect nematode reproductive fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147784DOI Listing
September 2021

Targeting histone deacetylase enhances the therapeutic effect of Erastin-induced ferroptosis in -activating mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Apr;10(4):1857-1872

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Intrinsic or acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is common, thus strategies for the management of EGFR-TKIs resistance are urgently required. Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of cell death that has been implicated in tumorigenesis and resistance treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that ferroptosis can be therapeutically exploited for the treatment of solid tumors; however, whether ferroptosis can be targeted to treat mutant lung cancer and/or overcome the resistance to EGFR-TKIs is still unknown.

Methods: The effect of ferroptosis inducers on a panel of mutant lung cancer cell lines, including those with EGFR-TKI intrinsic and acquired (generated by long-term exposure to the third-generation EGFR-TKI osimertinib), was determined using cytotoxicity assays. Further, drug candidates to enhance the effect of ferroptosis inducers were screened through implementing WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) and CMAP (connectivity map) analysis. Flow cytometry-based apoptosis and lipid hydroperoxides measurement were used to evaluate the cell fates after treatment.

Results: Compared with EGFR-TKI-sensitive cells, those with intrinsic or acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI display high sensitivity to ferroptosis inducers. In addition, Vorinostat, a clinically used inhibitor targeting histone deacetylase, can robustly enhance the efficacy of ferroptosis inducers, leading to a dramatic increase of hydroperoxides in mutant lung cancer cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI. Mechanistically, Vorinostat promotes ferroptosis via xCT downregulation.

Conclusions: Ferroptosis-inducing therapy shows promise in -activating mutant lung cancer cells that display intrinsic or acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Vorinostat can further promote ferroptosis by inhibiting xCT expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-21-303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107764PMC
April 2021

pN1 but not pN0/N2 predicts survival benefits of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer patients after surgery.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):562

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been shown to reduce brain metastases and provide survival benefits in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, its role in limited-stage SCLC patients after surgery remains unclear. Further, it is unknown whether the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation is generalizable in these patients with different pathological nodal (N0-N2) stages, a state indicating the presence of tumor metastases.

Methods: We combined data from a single medical center and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Propensity score matching analyses were performed (1:2) to evaluate the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in SCLC patients after surgery. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify predictors of survival.

Results: 124 (18.7%) out of 664 surgically-treated SCLC patients received prophylactic cranial irradiation treatment. Within the entire cohort, multivariate Cox regression analysis identified dataset source, age, pathological T and N stages, adjuvant chemotherapy, resection type, and histology as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Prophylactic cranial irradiation appeared to be associated with a better overall survival, but the difference is marginally significant (P=0.063). Further, we stratified patients based on the pathological N0-N2 stages using propensity score matching analyses, which showed that prophylactic cranial irradiation treatment was superior to non-prophylactic cranial irradiation treatment for surgically-treated SCLC patients with N1 stage only (univariate analysis: P=0.026; multivariate Cox: P=0.004), but not N0/N2 stage (univariate analysis: P=0.65 and P=0.28, respectively; multivariate Cox: P=0.99 and P=0.35, respectively).

Conclusions: Prophylactic cranial irradiation provides survival benefits for SCLC patients with pN1 after surgery but not with pathological N0/N2 stage. Our findings may provide helpful stratifications for clinical decision-making of prophylactic cranial irradiation intervention in SCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105819PMC
April 2021

Letter to "Aortic dissection during pregnancy and puerperium: A Japanese nationwide survey".

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14822DOI Listing
May 2021

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is required for endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation and tumorigenesis via the IL-6/STAT3 pathway.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Aim: To study the functions and signaling pathways controlled by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in endometrial carcinoma (EC).

Methods: DPPIV expression in EC cells was detected by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphorylate STAT3, cellular Myc, and vascular endothelial growth factor in EC cells were measured by Western blot. Colony formation assays were used to assess the clonogenicity of EC cells. Ki67 immunostaining and cell counting were used to test the proliferative ability of EC cells. Nude mouse tumorigenicity assay was used to confirm DPPIV promotes the tumorigenicity of EC cells. A cell counting kit-8 assay was used to determine the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of sitagliptin.

Results: Overexpression of DPPIV in EC cells with low DPPIV expression promoted cell proliferation in vitro (p < 0.01) and enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo (p < 0.05). Conversely, knocking down DPPIV expression in EC cells with high DPPIV expression inhibited cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and in vivo tumorigenicity (p < 0.01). DPPIV promoted EC cell proliferation via activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, and that IL-6 could trigger a positive feedback loop that increased DPPIV expression (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the DPPIV inhibitor reduced STAT3 expression (p < 0.01) and inhibited growth of EC cells (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: DPPIV enhances the properties that allow tumorigenesis in EC via IL-6 and STAT3 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14788DOI Listing
May 2021

Hydroxytyrosol Acetate Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Cell Pyroptosis via the HDAC11 Signaling Pathway in Atherosclerosis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:656272. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), a natural polyphenolic compound in olive oil, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Pyroptosis is a newly discovered form of programmed inflammatory cell death and is suggested to be involved in the atherosclerosis (AS) process. However, the effect of HT-AC on vascular endothelial cell pyroptosis remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of HT-AC on vascular endothelial cell pyroptosis in AS and related signaling pathways. studies showed that HT-AC alleviated the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited pyroptosis in the aortic intima of ApoE mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. , we found that HT-AC treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) alleviated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced pyroptosis by decreasing the number of PI positive cells, decreasing the enhanced protein expressions of activated caspase-1 and gasdermin D (GSDMD), as well as by decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Besides, HT-AC down-regulated HDAC11 expression in the aortic intima of HFD-fed ApoE mice and TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. To determine the underlying mechanism of action, molecular docking and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) were utilized to identify whether HDAC11 protein is a target of HT-AC. The molecular docking result showed good compatibility between HT-AC and HDAC11. DARTS study's result showed that HDAC11 protein may be a target of HT-AC. Further study demonstrated that knockdown of HDAC11 augmented the inhibition of HT-AC on pyroptosis in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. These findings indicate that HT-AC might prevent vascular endothelial pyroptosis through down-regulation of HDAC11 related signaling pathway in AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.656272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100680PMC
April 2021

The dilemmas in the diagnosis and management of angular pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):582-583

Department of Ultrasonography, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.040DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and efficacy of transcarotid artery revascularisation versus carotid endarterectomy: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 4;11(5):e043039. Epub 2021 May 4.

China International Neuroscience Institute (China-INI), Beijing, China

Introduction: In recent years, the transcarotid artery revascularisation (TCAR) with flow reversal technique has been developed to treat carotid artery stenosis. The superiority of TCAR over transfemoral carotid artery stenting has been demonstrated. However, the safety and efficacy of TCAR and carotid endarterectomy remain unclear. This study aims to introduce a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the morbidity and mortality rates between TCAR and carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis.

Methods And Analysis: This protocol was drafted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols statement. Herein, major databases will be searched, including Medline, Web of Science, Embase and the Cochrane Library, and randomised controlled trials and high-quality observational studies will be included. We will screen all studies published from January 2000 to March 2021. Bias risk will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria or Methodological Index for Non-randomised Studies criteria, depending on the study type. Two reviewers will select eligible studies and extract the data independently. The primary outcome will include stroke or death during the perioperative period and follow-up. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be performed to explore any potential sources of heterogeneity. Specific results will be described in a narrative form when available eligible studies are insufficient for meta-analysis. Publication bias will be assessed using a funnel plot.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study will summarise and analyse the existing literature; hence, ethics approval will not be required. The final results may be published at a relevant academic conference or in a journal.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020178691.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098965PMC
May 2021

Additions to the Genus (Apiosporaceae) From Bamboos in China.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:661281. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Guizhou Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang, China.

has a widespread distribution occurring in various substrates (e.g., air, soil debris, plants, lichens, marine algae and even human tissues). It is characterized by the basauxic conidiogenesis in the asexual morph, with apiospores in the sexual morph. In this study, seventeen isolates of were collected in China. Based on their morphology and phylogenetic characterization, four new species (, , , and ) are described and seven known species (, , , , , and ) are identified, of which the sexual morph of three species (, and ) and asexual morph of are reported for the first time. The detailed descriptions, illustrations and comparisons with related taxa of these new collections are provided. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, TUB2, and TEF sequence data support their placements in the genus and justify the new species establishments and identifications of known species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.661281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086194PMC
April 2021

Factors Influencing Recanalization After Mechanical Thrombectomy With First-Pass Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:628523. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

China International Neuroscience Institute, Beijing, China.

First-pass effect (FPE) is increasingly recognized as a predictor of good outcome in large vessel occlusion (LVO). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the factors influencing recanalization after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with FPE in treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Main databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies reporting influencing factors of MT with FPE in AIS. Recanalization was assessed by the modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) score. Both successful (mTICI 2b-3) and complete recanalization (mTICI 2c-3) were observed. Risk of bias was assessed through different scales according to study design. The statistic was used to evaluate the heterogeneity, while subgroup analysis, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis were performed to investigate the source of heterogeneity. Visual measurement of funnel plots was used to evaluate publication bias. A total of 17 studies and 6,186 patients were included. Among them, 2,068 patients achieved recanalization with FPE. The results of meta-analyses showed that age [mean deviation (MD):1.21,95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-2.16; = 0.012], female gender [odds ratio (OR):1.12,95% CI: 1.00-1.26; = 0.046], diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR:1.17,95% CI: 1.01-1.35; = 0.032), occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) (OR:0.71,95% CI: 0.52-0.97; = 0.033), occlusion of M2 segment of middle cerebral artery (OR:1.36,95% CI: 1.05-1.77; = 0.019), duration of intervention (MD: -27.85, 95% CI: -42.11-13.58; < 0.001), time of onset to recanalization (MD: -34.63, 95% CI: -58.45-10.81; = 0.004), general anesthesia (OR: 0.63,95% CI: 0.52-0.77; < 0.001), and use of balloon guide catheter (BGC) (OR:1.60,95% CI: 1.17-2.18; = 0.003) were significantly associated with successful recanalization with FPE. At the same time, age, female gender, duration of intervention, general anesthesia, use of BGC, and occlusion of ICA were associated with complete reperfusion with FPE, but M2 occlusion and DM were not. Age, gender, occlusion site, anesthesia type, and use of BGC were influencing factors for both successful and complete recanalization after first-pass thrombectomy. Further studies with more comprehensive observations indexes are need in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.628523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062801PMC
April 2021

endothelialization and neointimal hyperplasia assessment after rabbit carotid endarterectomy with bovine pericardium.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):471

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Previous studies have reported that the use of a patch in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery can reduce the rate of restenosis and perioperative complications. The goal of this study was to compare the short- and medium-term outcomes of endothelialization and neointimal hyperplasia of patch closure (PC) angioplasty in CEA with direct closure (DC) in a rabbit model. A bovine pericardial patch (BPP) was used in the PC procedures.

Methods: Two carotid arteries were dried by air flow to simulate endarterectomy and selected for PC and DC in each rabbit. Different animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after the procedure. The endarterectomized segments were extracted and examined microscopically with histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, and electron-microscopy measurements.

Results: In all, 19 rabbits were included in this study; 3 rabbits were placed in a 2-week postoperative group and 4 rabbits were placed in the 1-, 3-, 4-, and 8-week postoperative group respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed neointima on the PC side at an early stage (1-week postoperatively), and intimal hyperplasia could be seen on both sides. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Ki-67 was higher on the PC side than on the DC side at an early stage (1,661.5±1,122.9 cells/mm, P=0.060). In the 2-week postoperative group, von Willebrand factor (vWF) was higher on the DC side (-377.0±155.6 cells/mm, P=0.052). Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) values were comparable on both sides (P>0.05). Electron microscopy measurements showed that functional endothelial cells exhibited a cobblestone-like morphology and were nicely elongated in the direction of blood flow.

Conclusions: The use of BPP in PC angioplasty during CEA can maintain stability and also provide rapid endothelialization. PC with BPP has comparable ability of efficient endothelialization with DC, but is more likely to have early endothelialization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-8103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039648PMC
March 2021

miR-143 is implicated in growth plate injury by targeting IHH in precartilaginous stem cells.

Int J Med Sci 2021 3;18(9):1999-2007. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215000, China.

Precartilaginous stem cells (PCSCs) are able to initiate chondrocyte and bone development. The present study aimed to investigate the role of and the underlying mechanisms involved in PCSC proliferation. In a rat growth plate injury model, tissue from the injury site was collected and the expression of and its potential targets was determined. PCSCs were isolated from the rabbits' distal epiphyseal growth plate. Cell viability, DNA synthesis, and apoptosis were determined with MTT, BrdU, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Real time PCR and western blot were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of the indicated genes. Indian hedgehog () was identified as a target gene for with luciferase reporter assay. Decreased expression of and increased expression of gene were observed in the growth plate after injury. mimics decreased cell viability and DNA synthesis and promoted apoptosis of PCSCs. Conversely, siRNA-mediated inhibition of led to increased growth and suppressed apoptosis of PCSCs. Transfection of decreased luciferase activity of wild-type but had no effect when the 3'-UTR of was mutated. Furthermore, the effect of overexpression was neutralized by overexpression of IHH. Our study showed that is involved in growth plate behavior and regulates PCSC growth by targeting , suggesting that may serve as a novel target for PCSC-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.46474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040405PMC
March 2021

NF2 and Canonical Hippo-YAP Pathway Define Distinct Tumor Subsets Characterized by Different Immune Deficiency and Treatment Implications in Human Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

(1) Inactivation of the tumor suppressor NF2 is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) by deregulating the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. However, NF2 has functions beyond regulation of the Hippo pathway, raising the possibility that NF2 contributes to MPM via Hippo-independent mechanisms. (2) We performed weighted gene co-expression analysis (WGCNA) in transcriptomic and proteomic datasets obtained from The Cancer Gene Atlas (TCGA) MPM cohort to identify clusters of co-expressed genes highly correlated with NF2 and phospho (p)-YAP protein, surrogate markers of active Hippo signaling and YAP inactivation. The potential targets are experimentally validated using a cell viability assay. (3) MPM tumors with NF2 loss-of-function are not associated with changes in p-YAP level nor YAP/TAZ activity score, but are characterized by a deficient B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Conversely, MPM tumors with YAP activation display exhausted CD8 T-cell-mediated immunity together with significantly upregulated PD-L1, which is validated in an independent MPM cohort, suggesting a potential benefit of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in this patient subset. In support of this, mutations in core Hippo signaling components including LATS2, but not NF2, are independently associated with better overall survival in response to ICI in patients. Additionally, based on cancer cell line models, we show that MPM cells with a high Hippo-YAP activity are particularly sensitive to inhibitors of BCR-ABL/SRC, stratifying a unique MPM patient subset that may benefit from BCR-ABL/SRC therapies. Furthermore, we observe that NF2 physically interacts with a considerable number of proteins that are not involved in the canonical Hippo-YAP pathway, providing a possible explanation for its Hippo-independent role in MPM. Finally, survival analyses show that YAP/TAZ scores together with p-YAP protein level, but not NF2, predict the prognosis of MPM patients. (4) NF2 loss-of-function and dysregulated Hippo-YAP pathway define distinct MPM subsets that differ in their molecular features and prognosis, which has important clinical implications for precision oncology in MPM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036327PMC
March 2021

General anesthesia versus conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 25;86:10-17. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; China International Neuroscience Institute (China-INI), Beijing, China; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is the first-line treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the optimal anesthetic modality during EVT is unclear. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed to summarize the current literatures from RCTs to provide new clinical evidence of choosing anesthetic modality for AIS patients when receiving EVT.

Methods: Literature search was conducted in following databases, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing general anesthesia (GA) and conscious sedation (CS) for AIS patients during EVT. We used the Cochrane Collaboration criteria for assessment of risk bias of included studies. The heterogeneity of outcomes was assessed by Istatistic.

Results: 5 RCTs with 498 patients were included. GA was conducted in 251 patients and CS in 247 patients. EVT under GA in AIS patients had higher rates of successful recanalization (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23; P = 0.004; I = 40.6%) and functional independence at 3 months (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.55; P = 0.013; I = 18.2%) than CS. However, GA was associated with higher risk of mean arterial pressure (MAP) drop (RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.19-2.47; P < 0.01; I = 80%) and pneumonia (RR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.37; P = 0.009; I = 33.5%). There was no difference between GA and CS groups in mortality at 3 months, interventional complications, intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction after 30 days.

Conclusions: GA was superior over CS in successful recanalization and functional independence at 3 months when performing EVT in AIS patients. However, GA was associated with higher risk of MAP drop and pneumonia. Therefore, results of ongoing RCTs will provide new clinical evidence of anesthetic modality selection during EVT in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.01.012DOI Listing
April 2021

Open reduction and internal fixation for displaced Salter-Harris type II fractures of the distal tibia: a retrospective study of sixty-five cases in children.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Mar 27;16(1):224. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Children's Hospital of Soochow University, No.92 Zhongnan Street, Suzhou Industiral Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu province, China.

Background: The treatment for displaced Salter-Harris II (S-H II) distal tibia fractures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to review S-H II distal tibia fractures and evaluate the rate of premature physeal closure (PPC) treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).

Methods: We reviewed the charts and radiographs of S-H II fractures of the distal tibia with displacement > 3 mm between 2012 and 2019 treated by ORIF. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. CT scans of injured side or contralateral ankle radiograph were obtained if there was any evidence of PPC. Any angular deformity or shortening of the involved leg was documented. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for the occurrence of PPC.

Results: A total of 65 patients with a mean age of 11.8 years were included in this study. The mean initial displacement was 8.0 mm. All patients but one were treated within 7 days after injury and the mean interval was 3.7 days. Supination-external rotation injuries occurred in 50 patients, pronation-eversion external rotation in 13, and supination-plantar flexion in two. The residual gap was less than 1 mm in all patients following ORIF and all fractures healed within 4-6 weeks. Superficial skin infection developed in one patient. Ten patients complained of the cosmetic scar. The rate of PPC was 29.2% and two patients with PPC developed a varus deformity of the ankle. Patients with associated fibular fracture had 7 times greater odds of developing PPC. Age, gender, injured side, mechanism of injury, amount of initial displacement, interval from injury to surgery, or energy of injury did not significantly affect the rate of PPC.

Conclusions: ORIF was an effective choice of treatment for S-H II distal tibia fractures with displacement > 3 mm to obtain a satisfactory reduction. PPC is a common complication following ORIF. The presence of concomitant fibula fracture was associated with PPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02359-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004420PMC
March 2021

Identification of NTRK gene fusions in lung adenocarcinomas in the Chinese population.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Jul 26;7(4):375-384. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China.

The molecular profile of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK) gene fusions in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is not fully understood. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and pan-tyrosine kinase receptor (TRK) immunohistochemistry (IHC) are powerful tools for NTRK fusion detection. In this study, a total of 4,619 LUAD formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were collected from patients who underwent biopsy or resection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital during 2017-2019. All specimens were screened for NTRK1 rearrangements using DNA-based NGS. Thereafter, the cases with NTRK1 rearrangements and cases negative for common driver mutations were analyzed for NTRK1/2/3 fusions using total nucleic acid (TNA)-based NGS and pan-TRK IHC. Overall, four NTRK1/2 fusion events were identified, representing 0.087% of the original sample set. At the DNA level, seven NTRK1 rearrangements were identified, while only two TPM3-NTRK1 fusions were confirmed on TNA-based NGS as functional. In addition, two NTRK2 fusions (SQSTM1-NTRK2 and KIF5B-NTRK2) were identified by TNA-based NGS in 350 'pan-negative' cases. Two patients harboring NTRK1/2 fusions were diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma, while the other two were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. All four samples with NTRK fusions were positive for the expression of pan-TRK. The two samples with NTRK2 fusions showed cytoplasmic staining alone, while the other two samples with NTRK1 fusions exhibited both cytoplasmic and membranous staining. In summary, functional NTRK fusions are found in early-stage LUAD; however, they are extremely rare. According to this study's results, they are independent oncogenic drivers, mutually exclusive with other driver mutations. We demonstrated that NTRK rearrangement analysis using a DNA-based approach should be verified with an RNA-based assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185368PMC
July 2021

Exosomes Protect Against Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats by Regulating the Renin-Angiotensin System.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Jun 30;30(12):622-631. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cardiovascular Medicine Center and Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhangjiang, China.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been suggested to play an important role in cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We have confirmed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-EX) had similar types of repair like effects upon tissues as BMSC, but the mechanisms remain unknown. BMSC were cultured to the third generation and were induced to release exosomes. Rats were injected with exosomes (100 μg/mL) or stem cells (1 × 10/mL) through the tail vein immediately after AMI was built, compared to those treated with physiological saline. Thereafter, all groups were analyzed for cardiac function, infarction sizes, and the levels of expression of BNP, ACE, ACE2, AngII, Ang1-7, and other factors in the plasma. After HO makes contact with H9C2 cardiomyocytes, cell proliferation activity and apoptotic rates were measured by using CCK8 kits, to facilitate investigation of the effect of exosomes on H9C2 cells. In vivo, the index of cardiac remodeling and cardiac function was improved in both groups of exosomes and stem cells after AMI. Furthermore, exosomes may have helped to regulate the balance of the RAS system, upregulate ACE2-Ang1-7-Mas, and downregulate the ACE-AngII-ATIR pathway. Therefore, its effects were such as to accelerate the conversion of Ang II to Ang 1-7, thereby improving cardiac remodeling and forming sustained myocardial protection. In vitro, exosomal intervention was found to have increased the levels of activity of H9C2 cardiomyocytes under HO injury and improved adverse effects of AngII upon H9C2 cells. All procedures for this study were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Guangdong Medical University. BMSC-EX improved cardiac remodeling and cardiac function, and had effects upon RAS system-related factors in plasma. Similarly, BMSC-EX also helped to protect H9C2 cells under attack from HO or AngII, and may thus play beneficial roles by facilitating regulation of the balance of the RAS system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0132DOI Listing
June 2021

[Molecular cytogenetic study of a case with ring chromosome 15].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Mar;38(3):238-241

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China.

Objective: To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring developmental delay.

Methods: The patient and her parents were subjected to G- and C-banded chromosomal karyotyping analysis. The proband was also analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The result was verified by using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Results: The proband's karyotype was ascertained as 46,XX, r(15)(p11.2q26.3)[92]/45,XX,-15[9]/46,XX, dic r(15)(p11.2q26.3;p11.2q26.3)[4]. SNP-array revealed that she has carried a de novo deletion at 15q26.3 (98 957 555-102 429 040) spanning approximately 3.4 Mb, which encompassed the IGF1R gene. qPCR has confirmed haploinsufficiency of exons 3, 10 and 20 of the IGF1R gene. Both of her parents had a normal karyotype.

Conclusion: The abnormal phenotype of the proband may be attributed to the microdeletion at 15q26.3, in particular haploinsuffiency of the IGF1R gene and instability of the ring chromosome. Cytogenetic method combined with SNP-array and qPCR can efficiently delineate chromosomal aberrations and provide accurate information for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200214-00080DOI Listing
March 2021

Numerical study of virus transmission through droplets from sneezing in a cafeteria.

Phys Fluids (1994) 2021 Feb 25;33(2):023311. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Heat Fluid Flow Technology and Energy Application, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, People's Republic of China.

To provide a comprehensive understanding of virus transmission inside small indoor spaces, numerical simulation of sneezing droplets spreading in a cafeteria is conducted through computational fluid dynamics. The numerical results show that dining face to face is extremely vulnerable to direct infection by others' respiratory droplets. Different heights of droplet sources are compared, which indicates that sneezing from a standing person results in a longer survival time of droplets in the air. Scenarios with fewer customers without face to face seating and turning off the horizontal supplying air conditioner are examined as well. Various surfaces are still detected with droplets in 300 s after sneezing. The horizontal supplying air conditioner causes increment in the velocities of the droplets and leads to further spreading of the droplets. It is essential to sanitize all surfaces in a cafeteria including the walls, floor, ceiling, and tables that are not occupied by any customer. Keeping a safe distance in small indoor spaces such as cafeterias does not offer sufficient protection for activities without wearing a face mask. It is recommended that cafeterias and canteens only accept take-away orders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0040803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976044PMC
February 2021

Postoperative atrial fibrillation in pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):789-802

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study assessed the incidence and risk factors (RFs) of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer.

Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, this monocentric retrospective study enrolled 324 consecutive pneumonectomy patients for primary lung cancer from our institution and 350 lobectomy and 349 segmentectomy cases matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). RF for POAF and postoperative death in pneumonectomy patients were assessed by logistic regression, and long-term outcomes after a median follow-up of 30 (range, 2-61) months by Cox proportional hazard model. Electrophysiology study (EPS) files of 30 AF patients with lung resection history were reviewed.

Results: POAF developed more often after pneumonectomy than lobectomy and segmentectomy (23.2% 6.6% 1.4%, respectively; P<0.001). Among 75 pneumonectomy patients with POAF, POAF was solitary in 55 patients (73.3%) and concurrent with other complications in 3 patients (4%). POAF risk after pneumonectomy was 4 and 22 times that after lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively, with age >60 years and left atrial diameter (LAd) ≥35 mm as independent predictors. POAF, infection and hemorrhage were independent RFs for perioperative death after pneumonectomy; however, POAF was not RF for long-term death. Pulmonary vein (PV) trigger was identified in 60% (18/30) of AF patients with lung resection history, with stump PVs being more active than non-stump PVs (38.2% 10.5%, P<0.001).

Conclusions: Post-pneumonectomy AF, with remarkable incidence, risk and independent predictors including age >60 years and LAd ≥35 mm, was mostly solitary and possibly secondary to stump and non-stump PV triggers. POAF, along with infection and hemorrhage, was a RF for perioperative death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947480PMC
February 2021

T Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase in Osteoimmunology.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:620333. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Implantology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Osteoimmunology highlights the two-way communication between bone and immune cells. T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), also known as protein-tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 2 (PTPN2), is an intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) essential in regulating immune responses and bone metabolism dephosphorylating target proteins. knockout in systemic or specific immune cells can seriously damage the immune function, resulting in bone metabolism disorders. This review provided fresh insights into the potential role of TCPTP in osteoimmunology. Overall, the regulation of osteoimmunology by TCPTP is extremely complicated. TCPTP negatively regulates macrophages activation and inflammatory factors secretion to inhibit bone resorption. TCPTP regulates T lymphocytes differentiation and T lymphocytes-related cytokines signaling to maintain bone homeostasis. TCPTP is also expected to regulate bone metabolism by targeting B lymphocytes under certain time and conditions. This review offers a comprehensive update on the roles of TCPTP in osteoimmunology, which can be a promising target for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.620333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938726PMC
February 2021

Learning Tubule-Sensitive CNNs for Pulmonary Airway and Artery-Vein Segmentation in CT.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jun 1;40(6):1603-1617. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Training convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmentation of pulmonary airway, artery, and vein is challenging due to sparse supervisory signals caused by the severe class imbalance between tubular targets and background. We present a CNNs-based method for accurate airway and artery-vein segmentation in non-contrast computed tomography. It enjoys superior sensitivity to tenuous peripheral bronchioles, arterioles, and venules. The method first uses a feature recalibration module to make the best use of features learned from the neural networks. Spatial information of features is properly integrated to retain relative priority of activated regions, which benefits the subsequent channel-wise recalibration. Then, attention distillation module is introduced to reinforce representation learning of tubular objects. Fine-grained details in high-resolution attention maps are passing down from one layer to its previous layer recursively to enrich context. Anatomy prior of lung context map and distance transform map is designed and incorporated for better artery-vein differentiation capacity. Extensive experiments demonstrated considerable performance gains brought by these components. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, our method extracted much more branches while maintaining competitive overall segmentation performance. Codes and models are available at http://www.pami.sjtu.edu.cn/News/56.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3062280DOI Listing
June 2021

Protective effect of SIRT6 on cholesterol crystal-induced endothelial dysfunction via regulating ACE2 expression.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 22;402(1):112526. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China. Electronic address:

Sirtuins are a family of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzymes. Among the sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT6 participate in the regulation of endothelial functions and play significant roles in the physiological and pathological processes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, our study found that minute cholesterol crystals (CC) can be endocytosed by endothelial cells and further impair endothelial functions. Since previous studies have reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) involves Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced inflammation in endothelial cells, this study was designed to investigate the role of SIRT1 and SIRT6 in CC-induced variation of ACE2 expression and the related mechanism between SIRT6 and ACE2. We found that ACE2 is involved in CC-induced endothelial dysfunction, which inhibits decreases in nitric oxide (NO) level and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increases in inflammatory factors and adhesion molecules. Besides, SIRT1 and SIRT6 regulated the protein expression of ACE2 in CC-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, bioinformatics analysis from the Enrichr database indicated that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), is highly correlated with genes that significantly upregulated after infection with the SIRT6 adenovirus vector. In CC-induced HUVECs, ACE2 expression was up-regulated in cells transfected with ATF2 siRNA. However, further mechanism studies revealed that overexpression of SIRT6 decreases the accumulation of p-ATF2 in the nucleus, but did not affect p-ATF2 expression in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these data indicated that SIRT6 regulates ACE2 might via inhibiting the accumulation of nucleus p-ATF2 in CC-induced endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112526DOI Listing
May 2021

Profiling of Serum Exosome MiRNA Reveals the Potential of a MiRNA Panel as Diagnostic Biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pathophysiology, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the older adults. Although much effort has been made in the analyses of diagnostic biomarkers, such as amyloid-β, tau, and neurofilament light chain, identifying peripheral blood-based biomarkers is in extremely urgent need for their minimal invasiveness and more convenience. Here we characterized the miRNA profile by RNA sequencing in human serum exosomes from AD patients and healthy controls (HC) to investigate its potential for AD diagnosis. Subsequently, Gene Ontology analysis and pathway analysis were performed for the targeted genes from the differentially expressed miRNAs. These basic functions were differentially enriched, including cell adhesion, regulation of transcription, and the ubiquitin system. Functional network analysis highlighted the pathways of proteoglycans in cancer, viral carcinogenesis, signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, and cellular senescence in AD. A total of 24 miRNAs showed significantly differential expression between AD and HC with more than ± 2.0-fold change at p value < 0.05 and at least 50 reads for each sample. Logistic regression analysis established a model for AD prediction by serum exosomal miR-30b-5p, miR-22-3p, and miR-378a-3p. Sequencing results were validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The data showed that miR-30b-5p, miR-22-3p, and miR-378a-3p were significantly deregulated in AD, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.668, 0.637, and 0.718, respectively. The combination of the three miRs gained a better diagnostic capability with AUC of 0.880. This finding revealed a miR panel as potential biomarker in the peripheral blood to distinguish AD from HC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02323-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Breast milk EPA associated with infant distractibility when EPA level is low.

Nutrition 2021 06 11;86:111143. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) may affect infants' executive function (EF), although it remains unclear whether this may be the effect of total ω-3 PUFAs or any specific ω-3 PUFA. We assessed the associations between ω-3 PUFAs in breast milk and EF in infants at 8 mo of age.

Methods: Milk samples from the mothers of 120 breast-fed infants were collected at 42 d and 8 mo postpartum in Beijing, China. Infant's EF was evaluated by planning tasks and A-not-B tasks, including working memory, distractibility, and inhibition of prepotent response at age 8 mo.

Results: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations in breast milk were significantly higher at 42 d than 8 mo postpartum. Breast milk EPA levels at both 42 d (P = 0.037) and 8 mo (P = 0.005) postpartum were negatively associated with infant distractibility when EPA levels were low (< 0.05%). No significant association was observed for other ω-3 PUFAs with infant EF scores.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a beneficial effect of higher EPA in breast milk (improving infant's attention) when its levels are below a certain threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111143DOI Listing
June 2021

Paclitaxel Coated Balloon vs. Bare Metal Stent for Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Origin Stenosis Patients: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Neurol 2020 18;11:579238. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Stenting treatment for refractory symptomatic patients with vertebral artery origin stenosis (VAOS) is safe; however, there is a high rate of in-stent restenosis. Although drug-eluting stents can reduce the incidence of restenosis to some extent, there is still a risk caused by stent fracture. Drug-coated balloon (DCB) has been proven to reduce the rate of restenosis in peripheral and coronary artery disease. DCB can prevent inflammation caused by extraneous material stimulation and allow the subsequent treatment that is characteristic of "leave nothing behind." The purpose of this trial is to compare the efficacy and safety of DCB and bare metal stent (BMS) in the treatment of VAOS. This trial is a 1:1 randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority trial that compares the DCB to BMS in terms of angiographically assessed target lesion binary restenosis (≥50%) at 12 months in endovascular treatment of symptomatic patients with VAOS. A total of 180 patients with symptomatic VAOS who match the trial eligibility criteria will be randomized 1:1 to treatment with DCB ( = 90) or BMS ( = 90). An angiographic core laboratory-adjudicated target lesion binary restenosis (≥50%) at 12 months of follow-up was selected as primary efficacy endpoint to assess the DCB treatment effect. A clinical events committee will assess the safety endpoints of all-cause death, target vessel related transient ischemic attack and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke events. A data safety monitoring board will periodically review safety data for subject safety, the study conduct, and progress. In this trial, randomization is only allowed after successful pre-dilatation. We anticipate that this trial will provide rigorous data to clarify whether DCBs are beneficial in patients with symptomatic VAOS. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03910166.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.579238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874044PMC
January 2021

Risk Factors of New Cerebral Infarctions After Endovascular Treatment for Basilar Artery Stenosis Based on High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Neurol 2020 20;11:620031. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

China International Neuroscience Institute (China-INI), Beijing, China.

The current study aims to analyze the risk factors of new cerebral infarctions in the distribution of basilar artery (BA) detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after endovascular treatment in patients with severe BA stenosis. Data was collected from the electronic medical records of patients with severely atherosclerotic basilar artery stenosis (≥70%) who underwent endovascular treatment. The plaque characteristics, including the plaque distribution, plaque burden, plaque enhancement index, remodeling ratio, and stenosis degree, were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The characteristics of the procedure, such as the type of treatment, balloon diameter, balloon length, stent diameter, and stent length, were analyzed. A total of 107 patients with severe basilar artery stenosis (≥70%) who underwent endovascular treatment were enrolled. The study participants included 77 men and 30 women, with an average age of 61.6 ± 8.1 years. The rate of postoperative new cerebral infarctions was 55.1% (59/107), of which 74.6% (44/59) were caused by artery-to-artery embolism, 6.8% (4/59) due to perforator occlusion, and 18.6% (11/59) were caused by a mixed mechanism. Twelve of 59 patients had ischemic events, with nine cases of stroke and three cases of transient ischemic attacks (TIA). The plaque burden in the DWI-positive group was significantly larger than that in the DWI-negative group (3.7% vs. -8.5%, = 0.016). Positive remodeling was more common in the DWI-positive group than in the DWI-negative group (35.6% vs. 16.7%, = 0.028). Smoking was inversely correlated with the rate of new cerebral infarctions (odds ratio, 0.394; 95% confidence interval, 0.167-0.926; = 0.033). The plaque characteristics are not associated with new cerebral infarctions in the distribution of BA, although a large plaque burden and positive remodeling are more likely to appear in patients with new cerebral infarctions after BA stenting, which warrants further studies with a larger sample size. As for smoking, the inverse correlation with new cerebral infarctions in the BA territory needs large-scale prospective randomized controlled trials to verify.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.620031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855455PMC
January 2021

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Nonagenarians: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Jun 2;12(3):394-405. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

China International Neuroscience Institute (China-INI), Beijing, China.

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current literature on mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in nonagenarians and to provide updated clinical evidence of its feasibility, effectiveness, and safety in nonagenarians. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies that reported the clinical outcomes of nonagenarians with acute ischemic stroke after undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Risk of bias was assessed using different scales. I statistic was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the results, while meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the source of heterogeneity. Thirteen studies and 657 patients were included. The estimated rate of successful revascularization was 80.82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.48-83.97%), and the rate of favorable outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS] 0-2) was 21.60% (95% CI: 13.81-30.41%). The rate of good outcome (mRS score 0-3) was 23.08% (95% CI: 18.88-27.55%). The estimated risk of death during hospitalization was 20.55% (95% CI: 15.93-25.55%), while the mortality rate at 3 months was 44.38% (95% CI: 33.66-55.36%). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occurrence was 12.84% (95% CI: 5.27-22.68%), while the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) was 3.52% (95% CI: 1.67-5.85%). The rate of hospital-related complications was 26.93% (95% CI: 10.53-47.03%). MT in nonagenarians demonstrated a high rate of successful revascularization. Conversely, the rate of futile revascularization is high with a low functional independence proportion. Therefore, MT should not be indiscriminately advocated in nonagenarians. Satisfactory results require careful selection of patients. Further high-quality studies are needed to clarify the selection algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00894-5DOI Listing
June 2021

The safety and feasibility of three-dimension single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Dec;12(12):7257-7265

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used in the lung resections. Reports regarding three-dimension (3D) single-port VATS are very limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perioperative outcomes of 3D single-port VATS in a single medical center.

Methods: Totally 523 clinical stage I lung cancer patients underwent surgical resection through VATS operation between September 2016 and October 2017 in our single institution were retrospectively collected and 374 were enrolled. The comparison between 3D single-port VATS and conventional VATS (c-VATS), single-port VATS was conducted focusing on intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed through SPSS software.

Results: The 3D singe-port VATS demonstrated no significant difference neither on the intraoperative outcomes including the operative time and the intraoperative blood loss nor the postoperative outcomes including the length of drainage duration and postoperative complications when against c-VATS and single-port VATS. Besides, 3D singe-port VATS elucidated comparable ability of lymph node dissection with c-VATS in subgroup analysis (P=0.192), both of which were better than single-port VATS group (P<0.001). What's more, the rate of conversion as well as hospital stays of 3D single-port group were also comparable. In subgroup analysis, 3D singe-port VATS also elucidated its safety and feasibility when dealing with routine thoracic surgeries including lobectomy and segmentectomy.

Conclusions: 3D single-port VATS, integrating the advantages of single-port VATS and three-dimensional vision of 3D VATS, is a safe and feasible technique and is promising for next-generation thoracoscopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-19-3465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797815PMC
December 2020

CD73, Tumor Plasticity and Immune Evasion in Solid Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 7;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington 6242, New Zealand.

Regulatory networks controlling cellular plasticity, important during early development, can re-emerge after tissue injury and premalignant transformation. One such regulatory molecule is the cell surface ectoenzyme ecto-5'-nucleotidase that hydrolyzes the conversion of extracellular adenosine monophosphate to adenosine (eADO). Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) or cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), is an enzyme that is encoded by in humans. In normal tissue, CD73-mediated generation of eADO has important pleiotropic functions ranging from the promotion of cell growth and survival, to potent immunosuppression mediated through purinergic G protein-coupled adenosine receptors. Importantly, tumors also utilize several mechanisms mediated by CD73 to resist therapeutics and in particular, evade the host immune system, leading to undesired resistance to targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Tumor cell CD73 upregulation is associated with worse clinical outcomes in a variety of cancers. Emerging evidence indicates a link between tumor cell stemness with a limited host anti-tumor immune response. In this review, we provide an overview of a growing body of evidence supporting the pro-tumorigenic role of CD73 and adenosine signaling. We also discuss data that support a link between CD73 expression and tumor plasticity, contributing to dissemination as well as treatment resistance. Collectively, targeting CD73 may represent a novel treatment approach for solid cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825701PMC
January 2021