Publications by authors named "Feng Shao"

366 Publications

In-situ nanospectroscopic imaging of plasmon-induced two-dimensional [4+4]-cycloaddition polymerization on Au(111).

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 27;12(1):4557. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Plasmon-induced chemical reactions (PICRs) have recently become promising approaches for highly efficient light-chemical energy conversion. However, an in-depth understanding of their mechanisms at the nanoscale still remains challenging. Here, we present an in-situ investigation by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) imaging of the plasmon-induced [4+4]-cycloaddition polymerization within anthracene-based monomer monolayers physisorbed on Au(111), and complement the experimental results with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This two-dimensional (2D) polymerization can be flexibly triggered and manipulated by the hot carriers, and be monitored simultaneously by TERS in real time and space. TERS imaging provides direct evidence for covalent bond formation with ca. 3.7 nm spatial resolution under ambient conditions. Combined with DFT calculations, the TERS results demonstrate that the lateral polymerization on Au(111) occurs by a hot electron tunneling mechanism, and crosslinks form via a self-stimulating growth mechanism. We show that TERS is promising to be plasmon-induced nanolithography for organic 2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24856-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316434PMC
July 2021

Molecular Evolution of clock Genes in Vertebrates.

J Mol Evol 2021 Aug 23;89(7):494-512. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Southwest University School of Life Sciences, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Circadian rhythms not only influence the overall daily routine of organisms but also directly affect life activities to varying degrees. Circadian locomotor output cycle kaput (Clock), the most critical gene in the circadian rhythm feedback system, plays an important role in the regulation of biological rhythms. Here, we aimed to elucidate the evolutionary history of the clock gene family in a taxonomically diverse set of vertebrates, providing novel insights into the evolution of the clock gene family based on 102 vertebrate genomes. Using genome-wide analysis, we extracted 264 clock sequences. In lobe-finned fishes and some basal non-teleost ray-finned fishes, only two clock isotypes were found (clock1 and clock2). However, the majority of teleosts possess three clock genes (two clock1 genes and one clock2 gene) owing to extra whole-genome duplication. The following syntenic analysis confirmed that clock1a, clock1b, and clock2 are conserved in teleost species. Interestingly, we discovered that osteoglossomorph fishes possess two clock2 genes. Moreover, protein sequence comparisons indicate that CLOCK protein changes among vertebrates were concentrated at the N-terminal and poly Q regions. We also performed a dN/dS analysis, and the results suggest that clock1 and clock2 may show distinct fates for duplicated genes between the lobe-finned and ray-finned fish clades. Collectively, these results provide a genome-wide insight into clock gene evolution in vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-021-10020-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization, Sources and Excessive Cancer Risk of PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Different Green Spaces in Lin'an, Hangzhou, China.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

College of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, 311300, Zhejiang, China.

PM samples were collected from residential, commercial, plaza and public green spaces in Lin'an, Hangzhou, in spring (March and April) and winter (February and December) in 2017. PAHs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their sources were identified using the diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR). The average PAH concentration in winter was 1.3 times that in spring (p < 0.01). The PAH concentrations in the green spaces decreased as commercial > residential > plaza > public green space (p < 0.05). The sources of PAHs were vehicle emissions and coal combustion pollution transported by northern Chinese air masses. Slightly higher excessive cancer risks were determined in the commercial and residential green spaces than in the plaza and public green spaces. Green coverage, pedestrian volume, traffic flow and building density greatly influenced the decrease in the PAH concentration in the green spaces. Among the 4 types of green spaces, public green space had the most ecological benefits and should be fully utilized in urban green space planning to improve public health in urban spaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03304-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Juvenile social isolation leads to schizophrenia-like behaviors via excess lactate production by astrocytes.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Sep 25;174:240-249. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Repeated early environmental deprivation is regarded as a typical paradigm to mimic the behavioral abnormalities and brain dysfunction that occur in psychiatric disorders. Previously, we reported that social isolation could disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, producing the typical characteristics of a schizophrenia animal model. Based on further analysis of previous proteomic and transcriptomic data, a disrupted balance of glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of isolated rats. Subsequently, in the first experiment of this study, we investigated the effects of juvenile social isolation (postnatal days (PND) 21-34) on PPI and lactate levels in PND56 rats. Compared with the social rearing group, rats in the isolated rearing group showed disrupted PPI and increased lactate levels in the PFC. In the second experiment, at PND55, the model rats were acutely injected with a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor (4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-darabinitol, DAB) or control saline in the bilateral PFC. Our data showed that acute DAB administration (50 pmol, 0.5 μl) significantly improved the disrupted PPI and decreased the levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-related mRNAs as well as lactate. In summary, our results suggested that excess astrocytic lactate production was involved in the impairment of auditory sensory gating of isolated rats, which may contribute to the metabolic pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.06.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Melanoxylonin A-G, neoflavonoids from the heartwood of Dalbergia melanoxylon and their cardioprotective effects.

Phytochemistry 2021 Sep 23;189:112845. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

National Pharmaceutical Engineering Center for Solid Preparation of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330006, China. Electronic address:

Seven undescribed neoflavonoids, named melanoxylonins A-G, were isolated from the heartwood of Dalbergia melanoxylon, and all the non-toxic isolates were evaluated for their cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reoxygenation (I/R) injury in H9c2 cells. Of these, melanoxylonin A-D containing the 8-OH group showed better potent cardioprotective effects than the other four congeners. Molecular docking studies confirmed the capacity of melanoxylonin D to interact with the myeloperoxidase (MPO) protein. These results indicated that the potential cardioprotective effects of melanoxylonin D in H9c2 cells with I/R injury may be imparted through suppression of MPO. These results may provide a new medicinal usage of D. melanoxylon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112845DOI Listing
September 2021

Chemical tuning of spin clock transitions in molecular monomers based on nuclear spin-free Ni(ii).

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 25;12(14):5123-5133. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza Spain

We report the existence of a sizeable quantum tunnelling splitting between the two lowest electronic spin levels of mononuclear Ni complexes. The level anti-crossing, or magnetic "clock transition", associated with this gap has been directly monitored by heat capacity experiments. The comparison of these results with those obtained for a Co derivative, for which tunnelling is forbidden by symmetry, shows that the clock transition leads to an effective suppression of intermolecular spin-spin interactions. In addition, we show that the quantum tunnelling splitting admits a chemical tuning the modification of the ligand shell that determines the crystal field and the magnetic anisotropy. These properties are crucial to realize model spin qubits that combine the necessary resilience against decoherence, a proper interfacing with other qubits and with the control circuitry and the ability to initialize them by cooling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc05856dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179637PMC
February 2021

Absorption, metabolism, excretion, and safety of [C]almonertinib in healthy Chinese subjects.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):867

Phase I Clinical Trial Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Almonertinib Mesilate Tablets (HS-10296, Hansoh Pharma, Shanghai, China) is a novel and selective third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). A phase I study of almonertinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrated a linear metabolic trend, a good tolerability/safety profile, and preliminary antitumor activity. However, the metabolism, excretion, and substance balance of almonertinib has not been clearly determined. Here, we investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile of almonertinib following a single oral dose (110 mg/50 µCi) in healthy Chinese male participants.

Methods: Total radioactivity (TRA) in whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces was measured by utilizing a liquid scintillation counter to obtain almonertinib substance balance data. The pharmacokinetic parameters of [C]almonertinib and the parent drug almonertinib in whole blood and plasma were analyzed with noncompartmental analysis in the WinNonlin software (Pharsight Corp). The major metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an online or offline isotope detector. The safety of the drug was evaluated after administration.

Results: The safety and tolerability of a single oral dose of 110 mg/50 µCi [C] almonertinib suspension were good in healthy Chinese male participants. There was no significant abnormality or special adverse reaction. TRA peaked quickly in plasma, with a T of 4.0 h; however, TRA was cleared slowly , with a mean terminal elimination phase (half-life, T) of up to 863 h. In addition to the parent drug, a total of 26 metabolites in blood, urine, and feces were analyzed. In plasma, parent drug was the major drug-related component, accounting for 69.97% of TRA, and M440 (almonertinib-M2 demethyl product) was the major metabolite, accounting for 5.08% of TRA; in urine, parent drug accounted for 0.48% of the dose administered and HAS-719 was the major metabolite, accounting for 1.20% of the administered dose; in feces, parent drug was about 8.61% of the dose administered and HAS-719 was the major metabolite, accounting for 12.33% of the administered dose, which was followed by M541a/M470a and M617/M575, accounting for 11.8% and 6.76% of the administered dose, respectively.

Conclusions: Almonertinib has a good safety profile, with parent drug as its main circulating component. almonertinib is extensively metabolized before excretion and is excreted as a parent drug and metabolites mainly via feces.

Trial Registration: The trial registration number: CTR20192291.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184462PMC
May 2021

Alteration of the PKA-CREB cascade in the mPFC accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits: evidence from adolescent social isolation and chronic SKF38393 injection during early adolescence.

Behav Pharmacol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Science, Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University Tianjin Social Science Laboratory of Students' Mental Development and Learning, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences The University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the inhibition of the startle reflex that occurs when the startling stimulus is preceded by a weak prestimulus. Altered adolescent mPFC circuitry induced by early-life adversity might be a key source of PPI deficits. The current study focused on variations in the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found a negative relationship between PPI and the PKA-CREB cascade during adolescence by employing both developmental and pharmacologic manipulations. Experiment 1, with the early adolescent social isolation model [postnatal days (PNDs), 21-34), displayed a disrupted PPI at PND 35 and significantly altered PKA, phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and the ratio of p-CREB to CREB. In particular, the level of p-CREB was negatively related to PPI performance. In Experiment 2, SKF38393, a well-characterized activator of adenylate cyclase and cAMP/PKA, was chronically injected during early adolescence (PNDs 28-34). We sought to mimic potential biochemical changes, particularly PKA activation, which is possibly altered by adolescent social isolation, and to determine if PPI was disrupted, similar to the disruption associated with adolescent social isolation. On PND 35, PPI deficits were detected, as well as increased PKA, marginally increased CREB and no change occurred in p-CREB or the ratio of p-CREB to CREB. In particular, PKA activity was negatively related to PPI performance. Although these results are limited in suggesting a causal link between PPI deficits and PKA-CREB signaling, they may help to elucidate the role played by PKA-CREB in the mPFC in regulating PPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000643DOI Listing
June 2021

Multifunctional nanorods based on self-assembly of biomimetic apolipoprotein E peptide for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 1;335:637-649. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Targeting a single molecule or a single pathway and poor drug delivery to the brain hamper the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on abnormal metabolism of amyloid-β (Aβ). To solve these problems, we designed and synthesized a multi - strategy peptide (MOP), an ingenious apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, which could reduce Aβ deposition via inhibiting Aβ aggregation and at the same time accelerate Aβ clearance. Meanwhile, MOP could be self-assembled into different nanostructure, thus we constructed a multifunctional delivery system (APND-3) based on MOP self-assembled nanorods (aspect ratios of 3) that was a favorable morphology to enhance the permeation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) to address the poor delivery to brain issues. Besides, the drug delivery system introduces polydopamine (PDA) and COG1410 ligand as a shell to keep the favorable morphology of core and enhance the BBB targeting efficiency. As a result, the delivery system significantly enhances the delivery of MOP to the brain, thus reducing Aβ deposition, mitigating the memory deficits, and ameliorating neurologic damage in AD model mice. Our findings suggest that our drug and carrier integrated multifunctional delivery system has the potential for AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.044DOI Listing
July 2021

Binder-Free, Flexible, and Self-Standing Non-Woven Fabric Anodes Based on Graphene/Si Hybrid Fibers for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 3;13(23):27270-27277. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No.800, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

High-capacity silicon (Si) is recognized as a potential anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Unfortunately, large volume expansion during discharge/charge processes hinders its areal capacity. In this work, we design a flexible graphene-fiber-fabric (GFF)-based three-dimensional conductive network to form a binder-free and self-standing Si anode for high-performance LIBs. The Si particles are strongly wrapped in graphene fibers. The substantial void spaces caused by the wrinkled graphene in fibers enable effective accommodation of the volume change of Si during lithiation/delithiation processes. The GFF/Si-37.5% electrode exhibits an excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of 920 mA h g at a current density of 0.4 mA cm after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the GFF/Si-29.1% electrode exhibits an excellent reversible capacity of 580 mA h g at a current density of 0.4 mA cm after 400 cycles. The capacity retention of the GFF/Si-29.1% electrode is up to 96.5%. More importantly, the GFF/Si-37.5% electrode with a mass loading of 13.75 mg cm achieves a high areal capacity of 14.3 mA h cm, which outperforms the reported self-standing Si anode. This work provides opportunities for realizing a binder-free, flexible, and self-standing Si anode for high-energy LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04277DOI Listing
June 2021

Tessellation strategy for the interfacial synthesis of an anthracene-based 2D polymer [4+4]-photocycloaddition.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(47):5794-5797

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China.

Inspired by the tessellation or tiling process in daily life, a rigid triangular macrocyclic molecule containing anthracene as a photo-active moiety was synthesized to realize pre-organization through π-π interactions. The successful preparation of a 2D polymer monolayer at the air/water interface was achieved through [4+4]-photocycloaddition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02179fDOI Listing
June 2021

Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden;

The gut epithelium serves to maximize the surface for nutrient and fluid uptake, but at the same time must provide a tight barrier to pathogens and remove damaged intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) without jeopardizing barrier integrity. How the epithelium coordinates these tasks remains a question of significant interest. We used imaging and an optical flow analysis pipeline to study the dynamicity of untransformed murine and human intestinal epithelia, cultured atop flexible hydrogel supports. Infection with the pathogen Typhimurium (Tm) within minutes elicited focal contractions with inward movements of up to ∼1,000 IECs. Genetics approaches and chimeric epithelial monolayers revealed contractions to be triggered by the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome, which sensed type-III secretion system and flagellar ligands upon bacterial invasion, converting the local tissue into a contraction epicenter. Execution of the response required swift sublytic Gasdermin D pore formation, ion fluxes, and the propagation of a myosin contraction pulse across the tissue. Importantly, focal contractions preceded, and could be uncoupled from, the death and expulsion of infected IECs. In both two-dimensional monolayers and three-dimensional enteroids, multiple infection-elicited contractions coalesced to produce shrinkage of the epithelium as a whole. Monolayers deficient for Caspase-1(-11) or Gasdermin D failed to elicit focal contractions but were still capable of infected IEC death and expulsion. Strikingly, these monolayers lost their integrity to a markedly higher extent than wild-type counterparts. We propose that prompt NAIP/NLRC4/Caspase-1/Gasdermin D/myosin-dependent contractions allow the epithelium to densify its cell packing in infected regions, thereby preventing tissue disintegration due to the subsequent IEC death and expulsion process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013963118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072224PMC
April 2021

NINJ1, rupturing swollen membranes for cataclysmic cell lysis.

Mol Cell 2021 04;81(7):1370-1371

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Using a forward-genetic screening of macrophages from randomly mutagenized mice, Kayagaki et al. (2021) identify NINJ1 that mediates plasma membrane rupture following various types of programmed cell death, an event previously thought to be passive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.03.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical significance of intrapulmonary lymph node dissection in pathological stage IA non-small cell lung cancer: A propensity score matching analysis.

Thorac Cancer 2021 05 1;12(10):1589-1597. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of intrapulmonary lymph node (ILN, stations 13-14) dissection on disease-free survival (DFS) in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in order to facilitate a more suitable determination of surgical strategies for early-stage cases.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 416 patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC from February 2016 to November 2019. The patients were divided into a group with ILN dissection (ILN group) and a group without ILN dissection (ILN group). DFS was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared statistically using the log-rank test before and after propensity score matching (PSM). Subgroup analysis of DFS stratified based on tumor size was also calculated.

Results: Both before and after PSM, the four-year DFS of the ILN group was greatly increased compared to that of ILN group (90.1% vs. 79.7%, p = 0.003; 95.5% vs. 80.6%, p = 0.003, respectively) and multivariable cox regression analysis revealed ILN dissection was an independent factor favoring DFS in stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.016 and p = 0.015, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed the four-year DFS was comparable between the ILN and ILN groups with regard to tumor size ≤1.5 cm (90.6% vs. 92.7%, p = 0.715). However, the ILN group was found to have a better oncological outcome compared with the ILN group with regard to tumor size >1.5 cm (90.0% vs. 73.8%, p = 0.003).

Conclusions: The prognostic impact of ILN dissection on patients with stage IA NSCLC appears to be significantly influenced by tumor size, and this should be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate therapeutic modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107027PMC
May 2021

miR-425 regulates ovarian cancer proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis by repressing PAK4 expression.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of thoracic surgery, Cancer Hospital of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Aim: To explore the biological function of miR-425/PAK4 axis in proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis of ovarian cancer (OC) cells.

Methods: qRT-PCR and Western blot were adopted to examine miR-425 and PAK4 expressions in OC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and BrdU assays were applied to detect the proliferation ability of OC cells, and Transwell assay was adopted to assess the migration and invasion of OC cells. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate the apoptosis of OC cells. The interaction between miR-425 and PAK4 was predicted and verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay, respectively.

Results: miR-425 was reduced in OC tissues and cell lines, and its underexpression was in evident correlation with the shorter overall survival time of OC patients. miR-425 impeded OC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and accelerated apoptosis. Additionally, PAK4 was validated as the target of miR-425, and the cotransfection of PAK4 reversed the antitumor effect of miR-425.

Conclusion: miR-425 suppresses the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells and enhances apoptosis via inhibiting PAK4, and it is expected to be a prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for the patients with OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13519DOI Listing
March 2021

The relationship between particulate matter retention capacity and leaf surface micromorphology of ten tree species in Hangzhou, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;771:144812. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

College of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is one of the main environmental air pollutants, but it can be retained and adsorbed by plants. To systematically and comprehensively conduct qualitative and quantitative research on the relationship between the leaf PM retention ability and the microstructure of leaf surfaces, this study evaluated the PM retention abilities of ten common tree species (1860 leaf pieces in total) in the greenbelts around the Lin'an toll station of the Hang-Rui Expressway in Hangzhou, China, in October 2019. The leaf surface roughness and contact angle were measured with confocal laser scanning microscopy and a contact angle measuring instrument. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to collect data on the stomata and groove morphology. The PM retention ability of the leaves was assessed by quantifying the PM mass and number density on the leaves. The results revealed that Platanus acerifolia and Sapindus mukorossi had a strong ability to retain particulates of different sizes. The mass of the retained PM on their leaves accounted for the lowest proportion (mean: 8.12%) among the total retained particulate mass, but the number density of the retained PM accounted for the highest proportion (mean: 97.49%) among the total number density. A significant negative correlation between the PM mass and the groove width on the adaxial surface (R = 0.746, P < 0.05) and a significant positive correlation between the roughness and the PM number density on the adaxial surface (R = 0.702, P < 0.01) were observed. No obvious correlations were found among the groove width, roughness and number density of the retained PM on the abaxial surface. Leaf surfaces with dense and narrow grooves, strip-like projections, high roughness and high wettability had strong retention abilities. This study can provide a theoretical reference for selecting plants with strong PM retention ability for green urban garden design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144812DOI Listing
June 2021

In Situ Ultrafast and Patterned Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Inkjet-Printed Aqueous Precursors.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 18;33(16):e2100260. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Electronic Engineering and Materials Science and Technology Research Center, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR, 999077, P. R. China.

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely used to synthesize high-quality 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from different precursors. At present, quantitative control of the precursor with high precision and good repeatability is still challenging. Moreover, the process to synthesize TMDCs with designed patterns is complicated. Here, by using an industrial inkjet-printer, an in situ aqueous precursor with robust usage control at the picogram (10 g) level is achieved, and by precisely tuning the inkjet-printing parameters, followed by a rapid heating process, large-area patterned TMDC films with centimeter size and good thickness controllability, as well as heterostructures of the TMDCs, are achieved facilely, and high-quality single-domain monolayer TMDCs with millimeter-size can be easily synthesized within 30 s (corresponding to a growth rate up to 36.4 µm s ). The resulting monolayer MoS and MoSe exhibits excellent electronic properties with carrier mobility up to 21 and 54 cm V s , respectively. The study paves a simple and robust way for the in situ ultrafast and patterned growth of high-quality TMDCs and heterostructures with promising industrialization prospects. Moreover, this ultrafast and green method can be easily used for synthesis of other 2D materials with slight modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100260DOI Listing
April 2021

Feasibility investigation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging with intravenous indocyanine green method in uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy for identifying the intersegmental boundary line.

Thorac Cancer 2021 05 16;12(9):1407-1414. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Objectives: To investigate the perioperative outcomes of patients who underwent uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) segmentectomy for identifying the intersegmental boundary line (IBL) by the near-infrared fluorescence imaging with the intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) method or the modified inflation-deflation (MID) method and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the ICG fluorescence (ICGF)-based method.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the perioperative data in total 198 consecutive patients who underwent uniport VATS segmentectomy between February 2018 and August 2020. With the guidance of a preoperative imaging interpretation and analysis system (IQQA-3D), the targeted segment structures could be precisely identified and dissected, and then the IBL was confirmed by the ICGF-based method or the MID method. The clinical effectiveness and postoperative complications of the two methods were evaluated.

Results: An IBL was visible in 98% of patients in the ICGF-based group, even with low doses of ICG. The ICGF-based group was significantly associated with a shorter IBL clear presentation time (23.6 ± 4.4 vs. 23.6 ± 4.4 s) (p < 0.01) and operative time (89.3 ± 31.6 vs. 112.9 ± 33.3 min) (p < 0.01) compared to the MID group. The incidence of postoperative prolonged air leaks was higher in the MID group than in the ICGF-based group (8/100, 8% vs. 26/98, 26.5%, p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in bleeding volume, chest tube duration, postoperative hospital stays, surgical margin width, and other postoperative complications.

Conclusion: The ICGF-based method could highly accurately identify the IBL and make anatomical segmentectomy easier and faster, and therefore has the potential to be a feasible and effective technique to facilitate the quality of uniport VATS segmentectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088968PMC
May 2021

New compounds from the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii var. longistipitatum and their cytotoxic activities.

Fitoterapia 2021 Jun 17;151:104883. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, PR China. Electronic address:

Two new aporphine alkaloids, (R)-1,2-methylenedioxy-3,9-dimethoxy-11-hydroxy-N- carbamoyl-noraporphine (1) and 3,10,11-trimethoxy-1,2-methylenedioxy-7-oxoaporphine(2), and one new dihydrochalcone, 4',5'-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-3',6'-quinodihydrochalcone (3), along with five known alkaloids were isolated from the ethanol extracts of the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii var. longistipitatum. The compounds were obtained by various classical column chromatographic methods, and the structure elucidation was completed primarily on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, such as UV, NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were subjected to evaluate cytotoxic activities in vitro, compound 1 had activity against HL-60 and HELA (IC value of 8.4 μM and 5.2 μM, respectively), compound 2 against MCF-7 (IC value of 3.7 μM), compound 3 against HEPG2 (IC value of 10.8 μM), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104883DOI Listing
June 2021

NLRP3 inflammasome induces CD4+ T cell loss in chronically HIV-1-infected patients.

J Clin Invest 2021 Mar;131(6)

Department of Infectious Diseases, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

Chronic HIV-1 infection is generally characterized by progressive CD4+ T cell depletion due to direct and bystander death that is closely associated with persistent HIV-1 replication and an inflammatory environment in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the loss of CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection are incompletely understood. In this study, we simultaneously monitored caspase-1 and caspase-3 activation in circulating CD4+ T cells, which revealed that pyroptotic and apoptotic CD4+ T cells are distinct cell populations with different phenotypic characteristics. Levels of pyroptosis and apoptosis in CD4+ T cells were significantly elevated during chronic HIV-1 infection, and decreased following effective antiretroviral therapy. Notably, the occurrence of pyroptosis was further confirmed by elevated gasdermin D activation in lymph nodes of HIV-1-infected individuals. Mechanistically, caspase-1 activation closely correlated with the inflammatory marker expression and was shown to occur through NLRP3 inflammasome activation driven by virus-dependent and/or -independent ROS production, while caspase-3 activation in CD4+ T cells was more closely related to T cell activation status. Hence, our findings show that NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis plays an essential role in CD4+ T cell loss in HIV-1-infected patients and implicate pyroptosis signaling as a target for anti-HIV-1 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954596PMC
March 2021

Carboxylic acid-tuned nickel(ii) clusters: syntheses, structures, solution behaviours and magnetic properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Mar 10;50(12):4355-4362. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100, China.

Three novel cicada-like nickel(ii) clusters, formulated as [Ni(bdped)(mba)(Hdmpz)(NO)(HO)]·4MeCN (SD/Ni6b), [Ni(bdped)(tca)(Hdmpz)(MeOH)(HO)]·MeOH (SD/Ni5a) and [Ni(Hbdped)(ba)(Hdmpz)]·2NO·2MeCN (SD/Ni4a), were obtained by tuning the auxiliary carboxylic acids, where Hbdped = 1,2-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-ethane-1,2-diol; Hmba = 2-methylbenzoic acid; Hdmpz = 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole; Htca = 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid; and Hba = benzoic acid. The structures of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a are built from a central NiO opened cube, appending two to zero NiNO octahedra. The solution behaviours of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a were studied in detail via an ESI-MS technique and their solution stabilities were confirmed. Magnetic analysis indicated the presence of Ising-type anisotropy: D = -13, -10, and -11 cm for SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a, and SD/Ni4a, respectively; moreover, dominantly ferromagnetic interactions were found between magnetic centers: J = 6.5 cm, J = -0.44 cm and J = 5.9 cm, J = 2.6 cm for SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a, respectively. Besides, the photocurrent signals were observed and they reached the maximum very quickly for these three nickel(ii) clusters and then their current intensities remained almost constant, which provide a possibility to be used for light-harvesting and photo-related catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00165eDOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation and evaluation of oral self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of Chlorophyll.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Jul 21:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China.

Objective: This study was aimed at improving the water solubility and oral bioavailability of Chl by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (Chl-SMEDDS).

Methods: Compatibility experiments, pseudo-ternary phase diagram and central composite design were used to optimize the formulation. The selected systems were further evaluated for physical characteristics, including particle size, zeta potential, and appearance. The stability, dispersion test, and intestinal perfusion experiments were used to evaluate the SMEDDS.

Results: The optimal composition of Chl-SMEDDS included: Labrafil M 1944 CS (35%), kolliphor RH 40 (46%), Transcutol HP (19%) and 60 mg/g Chl. The appearance of water emulsified Chl-SMEDDS was green and transparent. The particle size, ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that spherical globules of Chl-SMEDDS with a size of about 22.82 ± 1.29 nm and a negative surface charge of -24.21 ± 3.45 mV were obtained. Chl-SMEDDS could remain stable at 25 °C and 4 °C for at least 6 months. The dispersion test showed that Chl-SMEDDS dispersed spontaneously to form microemulsion after disintegration of capsule shell and 90% drug dispersed in just 30 min in pH 1.2 HCl without any drug precipitation during the test period. intestinal perfusion experiment revealed that the main absorption site for Chl-SMEDDS was duodenum.

Conclusions: This study indicates that SMEDDS formulation could be an effective strategy for the oral administration of Chl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2021.1892746DOI Listing
July 2021

[Online moisture detection technology and its application prospect in drying of traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jan;46(1):41-45

Key Laboratory of Modern Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparations, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nanchang 330004, China.

Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200723.601DOI Listing
January 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Clinical manifestations of blood cell parameters and inflammatory factors in 92 patients with COVID-19.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(1):62

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

Background: Although there are many COVID-19 case series studies, few studies report the relationship between variations in blood cell parameters and inflammatory factors and disease severity. This study aims to describe the dynamic trends in COVID-19 blood cell parameters and inflammatory factors.

Methods: Ninety-two patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Jingzhou Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China, between January 23, 2020, and April 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological data, clinical information, and laboratory test results were collected and analyzed.

Results: As patient age increased, disease severity increased (P<0.0001). The inflammatory factor C-reactive protein (CRP) showed a gradual increasing trend with disease aggravation. Based on dynamic change graphs, CRP in all patients with severe and critical COVID-19 initially increased and then decreased; however, CRP in patients with a good prognosis did not increase again after the initial decline (<20 mg/L). CRP in patients with a poor prognosis returned to a high level (>50 mg/L) 1 week after the initial decrease and continued to fluctuate at a high level. Lymphocyte count (LYM#) in patients with severe and critical disease was significantly lower (<1×10/L) than that in patients with moderate disease; LYM# was significantly increased 3 weeks after disease onset in patients with a good prognosis (>1×10/L), but patients with a poor prognosis continued to have a low LYM#.

Conclusions: CRP and LYM# showed strong correlation with disease progression, suggesting that these parameters could be used to monitor changes in patient condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859825PMC
January 2021

African lungfish genome sheds light on the vertebrate water-to-land transition.

Cell 2021 Mar 4;184(5):1362-1376.e18. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Grandomics Biosciences, Beijing 102200, China.

Lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of tetrapods and preserve ancestral traits linked with the water-to-land transition. However, their huge genome sizes have hindered understanding of this key transition in evolution. Here, we report a 40-Gb chromosome-level assembly of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) genome, which is the largest genome assembly ever reported and has a contig and chromosome N50 of 1.60 Mb and 2.81 Gb, respectively. The large size of the lungfish genome is due mainly to retrotransposons. Genes with ultra-long length show similar expression levels to other genes, indicating that lungfishes have evolved high transcription efficacy to keep gene expression balanced. Together with transcriptome and experimental data, we identified potential genes and regulatory elements related to such terrestrial adaptation traits as pulmonary surfactant, anxiolytic ability, pentadactyl limbs, and pharyngeal remodeling. Our results provide insights and key resources for understanding the evolutionary pathway leading from fishes to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.047DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic venous thromboembolism in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A multicenter retrospective study.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 04 24;19(4):1038-1048. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

Background: High incidence of asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but the characteristics of symptomatic VTE in general COVID-19 patients have not been described.

Objectives: To comprehensively explore the prevalence and reliable risk prediction for VTE in COVID-19 patients.

Methods/results: This retrospective study enrolled all COVID-19 patients with a subsequent VTE in 16 centers in China from January 1 to March 31, 2020. A total of 2779 patients were confirmed with COVID-19. In comparison to 23,434 non-COVID-19 medical inpatients, the odds ratios (ORs) for developing symptomatic VTE in severe and non-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients were 5.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.91-10.09) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.60), respectively. When 104 VTE cases and 208 non-VTE cases were compared, pulmonary embolism cases had a higher rate for in-hospital death (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.18-20.81). VTE developed at a median of 21 days (interquartile range 13.25-31) since onset. Independent factors for VTE were advancing age, cancer, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, lower fibrinogen and higher D-dimer on admission, and D-dimer increment (DI) ≥1.5-fold; of these, DI ≥1.5-fold had the most significant association (OR 14.18, 95% CI 6.25-32.18, p = 2.23 × 10 ). A novel model consisting of three simple coagulation variables (fibrinogen and D-dimer levels on admission, and DI ≥1.5-fold) showed good prediction for symptomatic VTE (area under the curve 0.865, 95% CI 0.822-0.907, sensitivity 0.930, specificity 0.710).

Conclusions: There is an excess risk of VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This novel model can aid early identification of patients who are at high risk for VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014692PMC
April 2021

Chromosome-level assembly of southern catfish (silurus meridionalis) provides insights into visual adaptation to nocturnal and benthic lifestyles.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jul 12;21(5):1575-1592. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), School of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, Southwest University, Chongqing, P. R. China.

The Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) is a nocturnal and benthic freshwater fish endemic to the Yangtze River and its tributaries. In this study, we constructed a chromosome-level draft genome of S. meridionalis using 69.7-Gb Nanopore long reads and 49.5-Gb Illumina short reads. The genome assembly was 741.2 Mb in size with a contig N50 of 13.19 Mb. An additional 116.4 Gb of Bionano and 77.4 Gb of Hi-C data were applied to assemble contigs into scaffolds and further into 29 chromosomes, resulting in a 738.9-Mb genome with a scaffold N50 of 28.04 Mb. A total of 22,965 protein-coding genes were predicted from the genome with 22,519 (98.06%) genes functionally annotated. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed a rod-dominated visual system which was responsible for scotopic vision. The absence of cone opsins SWS1 and SWS2 resulted in the lack of ultraviolet and blue violet sensitivity. Mutations at key amino acid sites of RH1.1, RH1.2 and RH2 resulted in spectral tuning good for dim light vision and narrow colour vision. A higher expression level of rod phototransduction genes than that of cone genes and higher rod-to-cone ratio led to higher optical sensitivity under dim light conditions. In addition, analysis of the genes involved in eye morphogenesis and development revealed the loss of some conserved noncoding elements, which might be associated with the small eyes in catfish. Together, our study provides important clues for the adaptation of the catfish visual system to the nocturnal and benthic lifestyles. The draft genome of S. meridionalis represents a valuable resource for studies of the molecular mechanisms of ecological adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13338DOI Listing
July 2021

Tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SHR0534, a potent G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, at single- and multiple-ascending oral doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

Xenobiotica 2021 Mar 28;51(3):297-306. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Phase I Clinical Trial Unit, Jiangsu Province Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

SHR0534 is being developed for type-2 diabetes mellitus. Herein the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SHR0534 in healthy Chinese subjects were assessed in a phase-I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-ascending dose study. Forty subjects were randomized 4:1 to receive SHR0534 at the dose of 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg, or placebo, and another eleven subjects were allocated to either the 5 mg group or the placebo group at an 8:3 ratio. All subjects received a single dose on day 1, followed by a 9-day washout and once-daily administrations for 14 consecutive days. Serial samples were collected, and vital signs, electrocardiograms, laboratory tests, urinalysis and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. All doses of SHR0534 were safe and well tolerated with infrequent, generally mild-to-moderate AEs and no serious AEs in the study. SHR0534 was absorbed with a of approximately 4 hours, and systemic exposure increased with dose. Accumulation was minimal (2- to 3-fold) and steady state was reached after seven days of dosing. For pharmacodynamics, no significant hypoglycaemic effects were seen in healthy adults. Good pharmacokinetics and safety were demonstrated but no obvious effect was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2020.1864510DOI Listing
March 2021

Lactoferrin/phenylboronic acid-functionalized hyaluronic acid nanogels loading doxorubicin hydrochloride for targeting glioma.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Feb 10;253:117194. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Herein, lactoferrin (Lf)/phenylboronic acid (PBA)-functionalized hyaluronic acid nanogels crosslinked with disulfide-bond crosslinker was developed as a reduction-sensitive dual-targeting glioma therapeutic platform for doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) delivery (Lf-DOX/PBNG). Spherical Lf-DOX/PBNG with optimized physicochemical properties was obtained, and it could rapidly release the encapsulated DOX under high glutathione concentration. Moreover, enhanced cytotoxicity, superior cellular uptake efficiency, and significantly improved brain permeability of Lf-DOX/PBNG were observed in cytological studies compared with those of DOX solution, DOX-loaded PBA functionalized nanogels (DOX/PBNG), and Lf modified DOX-loaded nanogels (Lf-DOX/NG). The pharmacokinetic study exhibited that the area under the curve of DOX/PBNG, Lf-DOX/NG, and Lf-DOX/PBNG increased by 8.12, 4.20 and 4.32 times compared with that of DOX solution, respectively. The brain accumulation of Lf-DOX/PBNG was verified in biodistribution study to be 12.37 and 4.67 times of DOX solution and DOX/PBNG, respectively. These findings suggest that Lf-DOX/PBNG is an excellent candidate for achieving effective glioma targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117194DOI Listing
February 2021
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