Publications by authors named "Feng Gao"

3,273 Publications

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Efficacy and Safety of Intrathecal Pemetrexed Combined with Dexamethasone for Treating TKI-failed Leptomeningeal Metastases from EGFR-mutant NSCLC-A Prospective Open-label Single-arm Phase I/II Clinical Trial (unique identifier: ChiCTR1800016615).

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of intrathecal pemetrexed (IP) for treating EGFR-mutant leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with LM who had failed tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were recruited. The dose of IP was escalated from 15 mg to 80 mg using an accelerated titration design in a Phase I study. The recommended dose (RD) determined in Phase I was used in the Phase II study. The primary endpoint was treatment efficacy measured as the clinical response rate. Overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated as secondary endpoints.

Results: The RD observed in the Phase I study was 50 mg pemetrexed. A total of 30 cases of LM-NSCLC were enrolled in the Phase II study, including 14 males and 16 females. Four patients did not survive for 4 weeks and could not be evaluated for efficacy. The clinical response rate was 84.6% (22/26). The median OS of all patients was 9.0 months (n=30, 95%CI, 6.6-11.4 months). The majority of AEs were mild, and the most frequent AE of any grade was myelosuppression (n=9, 30%), which returned to normal after symptomatic treatment.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that 50 mg pemetrexed is the recommended dose which results in few adverse effects and a good response rate. Intrathecal pemetrexed is an effective treatment for TKI-failed EGFR-mutant NSCLC-LM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.04.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Survival after autologous versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 May 14:1-8. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

For relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, salvage chemotherapy followed by auto-HCT is the standard of care. It is important to identify subpopulations who could benefit from allo-HCT. This retrospective analysis included 277 patients with rrHL who underwent first transplant with auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2007-2017. Patients in the auto-HCT cohort ( = 218) were older, more likely to be in CR at the time of transplant and receive maintenance therapy post-transplant. Patients who underwent allo-HCT ( = 59) had a higher MSKCC relapse score. Factors associated with an inferior PFS and OS included early relapse, advanced stage, extranodal involvement and not achieving CR following salvage chemotherapy. After controlling for these 4 risk factors and MSKCC score, PFS ( = 0.112) or OS ( = 0.256) was not affected by the choice of transplant. In patients with ≥ 3 high risk features, the 4-year PFS was 51% in the allo-HCT vs. 39% ( = 0.107) in the auto-HCT cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1927016DOI Listing
May 2021

Profile-based intensity and frequency corrections for single-snapshot spatial frequency domain imaging.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):12833-12848

We have proposed the profile-based intensity and frequency corrections for single-snapshot spatial frequency domain (SFD) imaging to mitigate surface profile effects on the measured intensity and spatial frequency in extracting the optical properties. In the scheme, the spatially modulated frequency of the projected sinusoidal pattern is adaptively adjusted according to the sample surface profile, reducing distortions of the modulation amplitude in the single-snapshot demodulation and errors in the optical property extraction. The profile effects on both the measured intensities of light incident onto and reflected from the sample are then compensated using Minnaert's correction to obtain the true diffuse reflectance of the sample. We have validated the method by phantom experiments using a highly sensitive SFD imaging system based on the single-pixel photon-counting detection and assessed error reductions in extracting the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients by an average of 40% and 10%, respectively. Further, an in vivo topography experiment of the opisthenar vessels has demonstrated its clinical feasibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421053DOI Listing
April 2021

Host factor cyclophilin B affects Orf virus replication by interacting with viral ORF058 protein.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 4;258:109099. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to modulate host-derived factors to create an optimal environment for viral efficient replication. Our previous study indicated that cyclophilin B (CypB) is a critical factor for ORFV replication in MDBK cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which CypB facilitates ORFV replication remains less understood. In the present study, the function of CypB in ORFV replication is further evaluated. The overexpression of CypB was observed to facilitate ORFV replication in OFTu cells and HeLa cells, however, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CypB decreased the levels of ORFV replication. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the CypB interacted with ORFV ORF058 protein, a late protein involved in virus entry. The interaction of host factor CypB and ORF058 protein was further confirmed by confocal microscopy analysis and GST-pull down. In addition, the 52-55 aa was identified as the critical binding sites for CypB on ORF058 protein by GST-pull down with OFTu cells overexpressing CypB and purified GST-tagged truncated ORF058. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CypB is a critical host factor for ORFV replication in vitro by interacting with ORF058 protein, providing new insights into ORFV pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109099DOI Listing
May 2021

MXene@Ag-based ratiometric electrochemical sensing strategy for effective detection of carbendazim in vegetable samples.

Food Chem 2021 May 4;360:130006. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Utilization of Plant Resources of Nanchang, College of Science, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, a novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor for carbendazim (CBZ) detection was constructed by a composite of MXene@Ag nanoclusters and amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MXene@AgNCs/NH-MWCNTs). The Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) embedded in the MXene not only could inhibit the aggregation of MXene flakes and enhance the electrocatalytic ability, but also serve as an internal reference probe for the ratiometric electrochemical detection. Moreover, the introduction of NH-MWCNTs can further improve the electrochemical signals of CBZ and Ag, resulting in the enhanced signal amplification and higher sensitivity. Based on these characteristics of the MXene@AgNCs/NH-MWCNTs composite, the proposed sensor exhibits a favorable linear relationship between I/I and the concentration of CBZ ranging from 0.3 nM to 10 μM and a low limit of detection of 0.1 nM. Moreover, the proposed ratiometric electrochemical sensing platform also demonstrates high selectivity, good reproducibility, secular stability, and satisfactory applicability in vegetable samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130006DOI Listing
May 2021

Assessing consumer buy and pay preferences for labeled food products with statistical and machine learning methods.

J Food Prot 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Michigan State University 1066 Bogue ST RM RM A516 UNITED STATES East Lansing MI 48824 5173530471.

Food labeling is one approach to encourage safe, healthy, and sustainable dietary practices. Consumer buy and pay preferences to specially labeled food products (e.g., USDA Organic, Raised Without Antibiotics, and Locally Raised) may promote the adoption of associated production practices by food producers. Thus, it is important to understand how consumer buy and pay preferences for specially labeled products vary with their demographics, food-relevant habits, and foodborne disease perceptions. Using both conventional statistical and novel machine learning models, this study analyzed Michigan State University Environmental Science and Policy Program annual survey data (2019) to characterize consumer buy and pay preferences regarding eight labels related to food production practices. Older consumer age was significantly associated with lower consumer willingness to pay more for labeled products. Participants who prefer to shop in non-conventional grocery stores were more willing to buy and pay more for labeled products. Our machine learning models provide a new approach for analyzing food safety and labeling survey data and produced adequate average prediction accuracy scores for all eight labels. The label, Raised Without Antibiotics, had the highest average prediction accuracy for consumer willingness to buy. Thus, the machine learning models may be used to analyze food survey data and help develop strategies for promoting healthy food production practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-20-486DOI Listing
May 2021

Robust incident angle calibration of angle-resolved ellipsometry for thin film measurement.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3971-3976

Angle-resolved ellipsometry with back focal plane imaging has been found to be of increasing importance in recent industrial sensing by virtue of its rich information provided at various incident and azimuthal angles. To achieve high sensing accuracy, the incident angles of a back focal plane must be accurately calibrated. For this purpose, a simple and robust incident angle calibration method based on full-field Brewster angle fitting is proposed, without expensive tools or complex operations. With this method, a back focal plane image is first captured from boundary reflectance through a high-numerical-aperture objective. By extracting annular data from the image, radius-dependent ellipsometric parameters $ (\psi,{\Delta)}$ are calculated. At the end, the radii of the back focal plane are mapped to the angle of incidence by using a fitted Brewster angle as the reference. The method is validated by simulation and experiments using a homemade angle-resolved ellipsometer and a commercial spectroscopic ellipsometer. The results show that the proposed method provides a 75% error reduction approximately from generally used methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.419357DOI Listing
May 2021

Towards rapid intraoperative axial localization of spinal cord ischemia with epidural diffuse correlation monitoring.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251271. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America.

Spinal cord ischemia leads to iatrogenic injury in multiple surgical fields, and the ability to immediately identify onset and anatomic origin of ischemia is critical to its management. Current clinical monitoring, however, does not directly measure spinal cord blood flow, resulting in poor sensitivity/specificity, delayed alerts, and delayed intervention. We have developed an epidural device employing diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to monitor spinal cord ischemia continuously at multiple positions. We investigate the ability of this device to localize spinal cord ischemia in a porcine model and validate DCS versus Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). Specifically, we demonstrate continuous (>0.1Hz) spatially resolved (3 locations) monitoring of spinal cord blood flow in a purely ischemic model with an epidural DCS probe. Changes in blood flow measured by DCS and LDF were highly correlated (r = 0.83). Spinal cord blood flow measured by DCS caudal to aortic occlusion decreased 62%. This monitor demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.87 and specificity of 0.91 for detection of a 25% decrease in flow. This technology may enable early identification and critically important localization of spinal cord ischemia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251271PLOS
May 2021

π-Extended Nonfullerene Acceptors for Efficient Organic Solar Cells with a High Open-Circuit Voltage of 0.94 V and a Low Energy Loss of 0.49 eV.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Key Laboratory of Nano System and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China.

A combination of high open-circuit voltage () and short-circuit current density () typically creates effective organic solar cells (OSCs). Y5, a member of the Y-series acceptors, can achieve high of 0.94 V with PM6 but low of 12.8 mA cm. To maintain the high while increasing the of devices, we developed a new nonfullerene acceptor, namely, BTP-C2C4-N, by extending the conjugation of a Y5 molecule with a naphthalene-based end acceptor. In comparison with Y5-based devices, PM6:BTP-C2C4-N-based devices exhibited significantly higher of 18.2 mA cm followed by a high . To further increase the photovoltaic properties of BTP-C2C4-N analogues, BTP-C4C6-N and BTP-C6C8-N molecules with better processability and film morphology are obtained by adjusting the alkyl branched chain length. The optimized OSCs based on BTP-C4C6-N with a moderate alkyl branched chain length exhibited the best PCE of 12.4% with a high of 0.94 V and of 20.7 mA cm. Notably, the devices achieved a low energy loss of 0.49 eV (0.51 eV for Y5 system) accompanied by a small nonradiative energy loss. The results indicate that nonfullerene acceptors with extended terminal motifs and optimized branched chain lengths can effectively enhance the performance of OSCs and reduce energy loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04273DOI Listing
May 2021

Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) regulates cell phenotype and invadopodia formation in luminal-like breast cancer cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Biology Laboratory, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Although luminal breast cancer cells are typically highly cohesive epithelial cells and have low invasive ability, many eventually develop metastasis. Until now, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this work, we showed that the level of hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS2) was positively correlated with the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells. Notably, the increased expression of HAS2 promoted the invasive and migratory abilities of luminal breast cancer cells in vitro, followed by a reduced expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and ZO-1, and an elevated expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. Furthermore, overexpression of HAS2 promoted while knockdown of HAS2 impeded invadopodia formation, which subsequently increased or decreased the activation of cortactin, Tks5, and metalloproteinases (MMPs). Activation of these invadopodia-related proteins was prevented by inhibition of HAS2 or disruption of HA, which in turn attenuated the increased motility and invasiveness. Further, in vivo study showed that, HAS2 increased tumor growth and the rate of lung metastasis via driving transition to an invasive cell phenotype in SCID mice that were orthotopically transplanted with luminal breast cancer cells. Collectively, our results showed that HAS2 promoted cell invasion by inducing transition to an invasive phenotype and by enhancing invadopodia formation in luminal breast cancer cells, which may provide new mechanistic insights into its role in tumor metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04165-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Activation of spinal PDGFRβ in microglia promotes neuronal autophagy via p38 MAPK pathway in morphine-tolerant rats.

J Neurochem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The adverse side effects of opioids, especially antinociceptive tolerance, limit their clinical application. A recent study reported that platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) blockage selectively inhibited morphine tolerance. Autophagy has been reported to contribute to the cellular and behavioral responses to morphine. However, little is known about the relationship between PDGFRβ and autophagy in the mechanisms of morphine tolerance. In this study, rats were intrathecally administered with morphine twice daily for 7 days to induce antinociceptive tolerance, which was evaluated using a tail-flick latency test. By administration autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine, PDGFRβ inhibitor imatinib, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 hydrochloride and minocycline hydrochloride, western blot, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to elucidate the roles of PDGFRβ, autophagy, and related signaling pathways in morphine tolerance. This study demonstrated for the first time that spinal PDGFRβ in microglia promotes autophagy in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons through activating p38 MAPK pathway during the development of morphine tolerance, which suggest a potential strategy for preventing the development of morphine tolerance clinically, thereby improving the use of opioids in pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15383DOI Listing
May 2021

Dichoptic Perceptual Training in Children With Amblyopia With or Without Patching History.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 May;62(6)

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Dichoptic training is becoming a popular tool in amblyopia treatment. Here we investigated the effects of dichoptic demasking training in children with amblyopia who never received patching treatment (NPT group) or were no longer responsive to patching (PT group).

Methods: Fourteen NPT and thirteen PT amblyopes (6-16.5 years; 24 anisometropic, two strabismus, and one mixed) received dichoptic demasking training for 17 to 22 sessions. They used the amblyopic eye (AE) to practice contrast discrimination between a pair of Gabors that were dichoptically masked by a band-filtered noise pattern simultaneously presented in the fellow eye (FE). Dichoptic learning was quantified by the increase of maximal tolerable noise contrast (TNC) for AE contrast discrimination. Computerized visual acuities and contrast sensitivity functions for both eyes and the Randot stereoacuity were measured before and after training.

Results: Training improved maximal TNC by six to eight times in both groups, along with a boost of AE acuities by 0.15 logMAR (P < 0.001) in the NPT group and 0.06 logMAR (P < 0.001) in the PT group. This visual acuity improvement was significantly dependent on the pretraining acuity. Stereoacuity was significantly improved by 41.6% (P = 0.002) in the NPT group and 64.2% (P < 0.001) in the PT group. The stereoacuity gain was correlated to the pretraining interocular acuity difference (r = -0.49, P = 0.010), but not to the interocular acuity difference change (r = -0.28, P = 0.15). Training improved AE contrast sensitivity in the NPT group (P = 0.009) but not the PT group (P = 0.76). Moreover, the learning effects in 12 retested observers were retained for 10 to 24 months.

Conclusions: Dichoptic training can improve, and sometimes even restore, the stereoacuity of amblyopic children, especially those with mild amblyopia (amblyopic VA ≦0.28 logMAR). The dissociation of stereoacuity gain and the interocular acuity difference change suggests that the stereoacuity gain may not result from a reduced interocular suppression in most amblyopes. Rather, the amblyopes may have learned to attend to, or readout, the stimulus information to improve stereopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.6.4DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy for Hip Labrum Calcification in Young and Middle-Aged Patients.

Orthop Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the methods and outcomes of hip arthroscopy for hip labrum calcification, and to discuss the clinical, imaging, and intraoperative findings of hip labrum calcification.

Methods: This is a therapeutic case series study. From January 2015 to June 2018, 15 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed up for at least 2 years for an analysis on the outcomes of arthroscopy in the treatment of hip labrum calcification and the clinical, imaging, and intraoperative findings of the patients. There were eight males and seven females, with an average age of 38.9 ± 8.8 years (range, 23-50 years). The visual analog scale (VAS), the modified Harris hip score (mHSS), and the international hip outcome tool (iHOT-12) were used to evaluate the outcomes of surgery.

Results: A total of 15 patients were followed up for at least 2 years (28.1 ± 2.9 months). The average calcified volume was 118.0 mm (range, 19.4-609.2 mm ) and calcified volume was related to the preoperative hip function score. Thirteen patients had pain in the groin area (86.7%). Labrum calcifications were located (according to the clock distribution) as follows: 14 patients were anterior and superior (11:00-3:00); 12 cases of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) were observed during operation, including five cases of pincer type, two cases of cam type, and five cases of mixed type. VAS pain score means were 7.73 ± 1.28 before surgery, decreasing to 2.0 ± 0.89 and 1.73 ± 0.79 at 1 and 2 years post-surgery, respectively. mHSS scores were 57.40 ± 6.23 before surgery and 82.10 ± 4.76 and 83.18 ± 4.07, 1 and 2 years post-surgery, respectively; iHOT-12 mean score pre-surgery was 37.67 ± 4.85, increasing to 67.64 ± 5.30 and 72.18 ± 4.49, 1 and 2 years post-surgery, respectively. Compared with preoperative values, postoperative VAS, mHSS, and iHOT-12 scores were significantly improved (P < 0.01); iHOT-12 scores also significantly decreased from 1 to 2 years postoperatively (P = 0.034). No patient had complications.

Conclusion: Hip arthroscopy is an effective method for the treatment of hip labrum calcification. The size of calcification influenced preoperative symptoms and function. Long-term irritation from FAI may be one important cause of labrum calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12998DOI Listing
May 2021

Time-dependent diffusion MRI probes cerebellar microstructural alterations in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

Brain Commun 2021 5;3(2):fcab062. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The cerebellum is a complex system with distinct cortical laminar organization. Alterations in cerebellar microstructure are common and associated with many factors such as genetics, cancer and ageing. Diffusion MRI (dMRI) provides a non-invasive tool to map the brain structural organization, and the recently proposed diffusion-time ( )-dependent dMRI further improves its capability to probe the cellular and axonal/dendritic microstructures by measuring water diffusion at multiple spatial scales. The -dependent diffusion profile in the cerebellum and its utility in detecting cerebellar disorders, however, are not yet elucidated. Here, we first deciphered the spatial correspondence between dMRI contrast and cerebellar layers, based on which the cerebellar layer-specific -dependent dMRI patterns were characterized in both euploid and Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model of Down syndrome. Using oscillating gradient dMRI, which accesses diffusion at short 's by modulating the oscillating frequency, we detected subtle changes in the apparent diffusivity coefficient of the cerebellar internal granular layer and Purkinje cell layer of Ts65Dn mice that were not detectable by conventional pulsed gradient dMRI. The detection sensitivity of oscillating gradient dMRI increased with the oscillating frequency at both the neonatal and adult stages. The -dependence, quantified by ΔADC map, was reduced in Ts65Dn mice, likely associated with the reduced granule cell density and abnormal dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells as revealed from histological evidence. Our study demonstrates superior sensitivity of short- diffusion using oscillating gradient dMRI to detect cerebellar microstructural changes in Down syndrome, suggesting the potential application of this technique in cerebellar disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063586PMC
April 2021

Combating COVID-19 as a designated hospital: Experience from Shanghai, China.

Glob Health Med 2021 Apr;3(2):112-114

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Many large international cities, such as Shanghai, are facing the threat of more imported cases of COVID-19 because of the frequent flow of people and objects at home and abroad. In the face of the complex and changing disease status of the international community, dealing with this disease effectively is a great challenge to the city's existing public health emergency response capacity and also a major test of designated COVID-19 hospitals. Here, we share our experience as a designated COVID-19 hospital in Shanghai, China in terms of ) A Professional Multi-disciplinary Team, ) Personalized Treatment Plans for Patients in Severe or Critically Ill Condition, ) Well-organized Classification of Patients, ) Establishment of Transitional Wards, ) Nosocomial Infection Prevention and Control, and ) Identification and Reporting of the Asymptomatic in the hopes that these approaches can serve as a reference for healthcare providers and medical staff who are fighting the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.35772/ghm.2020.01079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071678PMC
April 2021

Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Inflammation in Broiler Chickens With Wooden Breast Myopathy.

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:659777. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Animal Origin Food Production and Safety Guarantee of Jiangsu Province, Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing, Quality and Safety Control, National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Wooden breast (WB) syndrome has emerged as a global myopathy in modern commercial broiler chickens, mainly affecting the pectoralis major muscle. Recent evidence suggests that WB myopathy is a systemic disease, which might be accompanied by other physiological disparities and metabolic changes. This study was conducted to systemically investigate the potential physiological changes in liver tissues as well as the possible mechanisms involved to enhance the understanding of the etiology. A total of 93 market-age Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were sampled and categorized into control (CON) and WB groups based on the evaluation of myopathic lesions. Liver samples were collected ( = 10 in each group) for histopathological evaluation and biochemical analyses. Results indicated that WB birds exhibited significantly higher plasma aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities. Histopathological changes in hydropic/fatty degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, intrahepatic hemorrhages, elevated myeloperoxidase activity, and overproduction of nitric oxide were observed in WB liver compared with CON, suggesting the occurrence of liver injury in birds affected by WB myopathy. The WB group showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species, oxidative products, as well as enhanced antioxidant capacities in the liver. These changes were associated with impaired mitochondria morphology and mitochondrial dysfunction. WB myopathy also induced mitochondria-mediated hepatic apoptosis by upregulating levels of caspases 3 and 9, altering the expressions of apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 family regulators, as well as increasing the release of cytochrome c. The activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling enhanced the mRNA expression of downstream inflammatory mediators, contributing to the production of inflammatory cytokines in WB liver. Combined, these findings suggest that hepatic disorders may be conjoined with WB myopathy in broiler chickens and indicating systemic physiological disparities, and other metabolic changes accompanying this myopathy need further assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.659777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081064PMC
April 2021

Impact of serum calcium levels on total body bone mineral density: A mendelian randomization study in five age strata.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 25;40(5):2726-2733. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China; Key Laboratory of Cerebral Microcirculation in Universities of Shandong, Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, 271000, Shandong, China; National Engineering Laboratory of Internet Medical Diagnosis and Treatment Technology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Hypoxia Translational Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have reported the causal association between serum calcium levels and bone mineral density (BMD). The results showed that genetically increased serum calcium levels in individuals with normal calcium levels did not increase BMD and could even reduce BMD. However, whether there are differences in the association between serum calcium and BMD in different age strata remains unclear.

Methods: We selected eight serum calcium genetic variants with genome-wide significance (P < 5.00E-08) as the potential instrumental variables. We conducted an MR analysis to evaluate the impact of serum calcium levels on total body BMD in five age strata, 0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, and ≥60 years, using large-scale serum calcium (61,079 individuals) and total body BMD genome-wide association study (66,628 individuals) datasets. For pleiotropy analysis, we used a manual method and four common statistical methods, namely the MR-Egger intercept, MR-PRESSO, heterogeneity, and Steiger filtering tests. For MR analysis, we selected four MR methods, namely inverse-variance weighted, weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO. In addition to the univariable MR analysis, we conducted a multivariate MR analysis taking into account the effect of serum parathyroid hormone levels.

Results: Univariable MR analysis using the inverse-variance weighted method indicated that per 0.5-mg/dL increase (about 1 standard deviation) in serum calcium levels was statistically significantly associated with reduced total body BMD only in the ≥60 years stratum (effect estimate (beta) = -0.545, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.892 to -0.198, P = 0.002). The weighted median regression (beta = -0.446, 95% CI: -0.821 to -0.094, P = 1.40E-02) and MR-PRESSO (beta = -0.545, 95% CI: -0.892 to -0.198, P = 0.022) MR methods further supported this suggestive association. The multivariable MR analysis also found a significant association between increased serum calcium levels and reduced total body BMD in the ≥60 years stratum (beta = -0.547, 95% CI: -0.934 to -0.16, P = 0.006).

Conclusions: Our results provide genetic evidence that increased serum calcium levels did not improve BMD in the general population and that the elevated serum calcium levels in generally healthy populations, especially in adults older than 60 years, may even reduce the BMD. Our results are comparable with those of recent MR findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical use of machine learning-based pathomics signature for diagnosis and survival prediction of bladder cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Traditional histopathology performed by pathologists by the naked eye is insufficient for accurate and efficient diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). We collected 643 H&E-stained BCa images from Shanghai General Hospital and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We constructed and cross-verified automatic diagnosis and prognosis models by performing a machine learning algorithm based on pathomics data. Our study indicated that high diagnostic efficiency of the machine learning-based diagnosis model was observed in patients with BCa, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 96.3%, 89.2%, and 94.1% in the training cohort, test cohort, and external validation cohort, respectively. Our diagnosis model also performed well in distinguishing patients with BCa from patients with glandular cystitis, with an AUC value of 93.4% in the General cohort. Significant differences were found in overall survival in TCGA cohort (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56-2.81, P < .0001) and the General cohort (HR = 5.32, 95% CI: 2.95-9.59, P < .0001) comparing patients with BCa of high risk vs low risk stratified by risk score, which was proved to be an independent prognostic factor for BCa. The integration nomogram based on our risk score and clinicopathologic characters displayed higher prediction accuracy than current tumor stage/grade systems, with AUC values of 77.7%, 83.8%, and 81.3% for 1-, 3-, and 5-y overall survival prediction of patients with BCa. However, prospective studies are still needed for further verifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14927DOI Listing
May 2021

CATMoS: Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Apr 30;129(4):47013. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemical substances that need to be assessed for their potential toxicity. Acute systemic toxicity testing serves as the basis for regulatory hazard classification, labeling, and risk management. However, it is cost- and time-prohibitive to evaluate all new and existing chemicals using traditional rodent acute toxicity tests. models built using existing data facilitate rapid acute toxicity predictions without using animals.

Objectives: The U.S. Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) Acute Toxicity Workgroup organized an international collaboration to develop models for predicting acute oral toxicity based on five different end points: Lethal Dose 50 ( value, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency hazard (four) categories, Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling hazard (five) categories, very toxic chemicals [ ()], and nontoxic chemicals ().

Methods: An acute oral toxicity data inventory for 11,992 chemicals was compiled, split into training and evaluation sets, and made available to 35 participating international research groups that submitted a total of 139 predictive models. Predictions that fell within the applicability domains of the submitted models were evaluated using external validation sets. These were then combined into consensus models to leverage strengths of individual approaches.

Results: The resulting consensus predictions, which leverage the collective strengths of each individual model, form the Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite (CATMoS). CATMoS demonstrated high performance in terms of accuracy and robustness when compared with results.

Discussion: CATMoS is being evaluated by regulatory agencies for its utility and applicability as a potential replacement for rat acute oral toxicity studies. CATMoS predictions for more than 800,000 chemicals have been made available via the National Toxicology Program's Integrated Chemical Environment tools and data sets (ice.ntp.niehs.nih.gov). The models are also implemented in a free, standalone, open-source tool, OPERA, which allows predictions of new and untested chemicals to be made. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8495.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP8495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086800PMC
April 2021

Microwave-Assisted Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as Controlled Intracellular Drug Delivery Nanosystem for Synergistic Antitumour Activity.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 30;16(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Ophthalmogy, Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai First People's Hospital), School of Global Health, Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center/Shanghai Eye Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Eye Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Ocular Fundus Diseases, Shanghai Engineering Center for Visual Science and Photomedicine, Shanghai, 200080, People's Republic of China.

To achieve better antitumour efficacy, it is urgent to improve anticancer drug delivery efficiency in targeting cancer cells. In this work, chitosan-functionalized graphene oxide (ChrGO) nanosheets were fabricated via microwave-assisted reduction, which were employed to the intracellular delivery nanosystem for anticancer drug agent in breast cancer cells. Drug loading and release research indicated that adriamycin can be efficiently loaded on and released from the ChrGO nanosheets. Less drug release during delivery and better biocompatibility of ChrGO/adriamycin significantly improve its safety and therapeutic efficacy in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells. Furthermore, ChrGO/adriamycin in combination with trastuzumab exhibited synergistic antitumour activity in BT-474 cells, which demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy compared with each drug alone. Cells treated with trastuzumab (5 μg/mL) or equivalent ChrGO/adriamycin (5 μg/mL) each elicited 54.5% and 59.5% cell death, respectively, while the combination treatment with trastuzumab and ChrGO/adriamycin resulted in a dramatic 88.5% cell death. The dual-targeted therapy displayed higher apoptosis, indicating superior therapeutic efficacy due to the presence of different mechanisms of action. The combined treatment of ChrGO/adriamycin and trastuzumab in BT-474 cells induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which ultimately led to the death of augmented cancer cells. This work has provided a facile microwave-assisted fabrication of ChrGO as a controlled and targeted intracellular drug delivery nanosystem, which is expected to be a novel promising therapy for treating HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03525-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087749PMC
April 2021

Comparison of natural orifice specimen extraction surgery and conventional laparoscopic-assisted resection in the treatment effects of low rectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9338. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, China.

Natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) is an intra-abdominal procedure that does not require an auxiliary incision to take a surgical sample from the abdominal wall through the natural orifice, but there are few systematic clinical studies on it. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of NOSES. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and follow-up of 165 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent NOSES or conventional laparoscopic surgery at our center from January 2013 to June 2015. From the perioperative data and postoperative follow-up results of both groups, patients in the NOSES group had less intraoperative bleeding (49.3 ± 55.8 ml vs. 75.1 ± 57.3 ml, p = 0.02), shorter postoperative gastrointestinal recovery (42.3 ± 15.5 h vs. 50.1 ± 17.0 h, p = 0.01), less postoperative analgesic use (35.6% vs. 57.6%, p = 0.02), lower postoperative pain scores, lower rate of postoperative complications (6.8% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.01), better satisfaction of the image and cosmesis of the abdominal wall postoperatively, and higher quality of life. Moreover, there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between two groups. Overall, NOSES is a safe and reliable minimally invasive surgical technique for patients with low rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88790-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085046PMC
April 2021

Structural Analysis and Whole Genome Mapping of a New Type of Plant Virus Subviral RNA: Umbravirus-Like Associated RNAs.

Viruses 2021 04 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

We report the biological and structural characterization of umbravirus-like associated RNAs (ulaRNAs), a new category of coat-protein dependent subviral RNA replicons that infect plants. These RNAs encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) following a -1 ribosomal frameshift event, are 2.7-4.6 kb in length, and are related to umbraviruses, unlike similar RNA replicons that are related to tombusviruses. Three classes of ulaRNAs are proposed, with citrus yellow vein associated virus (CYVaV) placed in Class 2. With the exception of CYVaV, Class 2 and Class 3 ulaRNAs encode an additional open reading frame (ORF) with movement protein-like motifs made possible by additional sequences just past the RdRp termination codon. The full-length secondary structure of CYVaV was determined using Selective 2' Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) structure probing and phylogenic comparisons, which was used as a template for determining the putative structures of the other Class 2 ulaRNAs, revealing a number of distinctive structural features. The ribosome recoding sites of nearly all ulaRNAs, which differ significantly from those of umbraviruses, may exist in two conformations and are highly efficient. The 3' regions of Class 2 and Class 3 ulaRNAs have structural elements similar to those of nearly all umbraviruses, and all Class 2 ulaRNAs have a unique, conserved 3' cap-independent translation enhancer. CYVaV replicates independently in protoplasts, demonstrating that the reported sequence is full-length. Additionally, CYVaV contains a sequence in its 3' UTR that confers protection to nonsense mediated decay (NMD), thus likely obviating the need for umbravirus ORF3, a known suppressor of NMD. This initial characterization lays down a road map for future investigations into these novel virus-like RNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13040646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068935PMC
April 2021

Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation impairs insulin response against reperfusion-induced myocardial injury and arrhythmias in obesity.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 26;558:126-133. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliate Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing treatment for cardiac disease. A variety of treatments are reported to have benefits against reperfusion injury, yet their cardioprotective effects seem to be diminished in obesity, and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we found that db/db mice exhibit cardiac hyper-O-GlcNAcylation. In parallel, palmitate treatment (200 mM; 12 h) in H9c2 cells showed an increase in global protein O-GlcNAcylation, along with an impaired insulin response against reperfusion injury. To investigate whether O-GlcNAcylation underlies this phenomenon, glucosamine was used to increase global protein O-GlcNAc levels. Interestingly, histological staining, electrophysiological studies, serum cardiac markers and oxidative stress biomarker assays showed that preischemic treatment with glucosamine attenuated insulin cardioprotection against myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, glucosamine treatment decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a key modulator of cell survival. Furthermore, inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation via 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) apparently increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and restored its cardioprotective response against reperfusion injury in palmitate-induced insulin-resistant H9c2 cells. Our findings demonstrated that obesity-induced hyper-O-GlcNAcylation might contribute to the attenuation of insulin cardioprotection against I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.066DOI Listing
June 2021

Current status of aspiration thrombectomy for acute stroke patients in China: data from ANGEL-ACT Registry.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 12;14:17562864211007715. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Background And Aims: Although noninferior to stent retriever (SR) as first-line approach for endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke, little is known about the current status of direct aspiration (DA) as first-line thrombectomy in China. This analysis of a prospective, nationwide registry (ANGEL-ACT) aimed to investigate the prevalence and comparative effectiveness of DA-first thrombectomy in a real-world practice in China.

Methods: All patients receiving thrombectomy were screened from a prospective cohort of LVO patients undergoing EVT at 111 hospitals in China between November 2017 and March 2019, and divided into two groups based upon which type of thrombectomy was attempted first ("DA-first" and "SR-first"). The following outcome measures were compared using logistic regression models with adjustment: successful recanalization after first-device alone and all procedures, use of rescue treatment, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) within 24 h, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days.

Results: A total of 1225 patients, 102 (8.3%) in DA-first group and 1123 (91.7%) in SR-first group, were included. Patients receiving DA-first had less often successful recanalization after first-device alone [30.4 66.4%; odds ratio (OR) = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.37], more frequent rescue treatment (62.8 27.0%; OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 2.92-7.08) and ICH (35.4 22.1%; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.12-2.83) than those receiving SR-first; however, no significant difference was found in successful recanalization after all procedures (84.3 90.3%;  = 0.18) and 90-day mRS (median: 3 3 points;  = 0.90) between both groups.

Conclusion: This real-world registry suggested that DA-first thrombectomy for acute stroke patients lagged behind in China during the study period. Far fewer DA-first than SR-first thrombectomies were performed, and DA-first was associated with lower first-device recanalization, more frequently requiring rescue treatment, and increased ICH risk.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03370939.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17562864211007715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047968PMC
April 2021

A photostable reaction-based A-A-A type two-photon fluorescent probe for rapid detection and imaging of sulfur dioxide.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr;9(16):3554-3562

Laboratory of Functionalized Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing, Laboratory of Biosensing and Bioimaging (LOBAB), College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, P. R. China.

In this study, a novel reaction-based A-A-A (acceptor-acceptor-acceptor) type two-photon fluorescent probe, BTC, is prepared using the benzothiadiazole (BTD) scaffold as the two-photon fluorophore and electron-accepting centre. Two β-chlorovinyl aldehyde moieties are symmetrically connected to both ends of the BTD scaffold and act as reaction groups to recognize SO2 and quenching groups to make the dis-activated probe stay at off-state due to their weak electron-withdrawing effect. In the presence of SO2 derivatives, the aldehyde groups are consumed through aldehyde addition, resulting in the activation of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes and therefore recovering the fluorescence of the probe. The designed probe shows excellent two-photon properties including large two-photon absorption cross-sections (TPA) of 91 GM and photostability. Beyond these, the BTC probe exhibits a fast response to SO2 within 30 s, high specificity without foreign interference and a broad detection range from 500 nM to 120 μM with a detection limit of 190 nM. The designed fluorescent probe is further applied to the two-photon imaging of exogenous and endogenous SO2 derivatives under different physiological processes in HeLa cells and zebrafish with satisfactory results. We believe that the proposed design strategy can be extended to fabricate versatile BTD-based two-photon fluorescent probes through molecular engineering for further applications in bioassays and two-photon imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00433fDOI Listing
April 2021

Investigation and verification of the clinical significance and perspective of natural killer group 2 member D ligands in colon adenocarcinoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 27;13. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

This study investigated and verified the diagnostic and prognostic values of natural killer group 2 member D ligand (NKG2DL) genes in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). We downloaded s expression data and corresponding clinical parameters from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and used bioinformatics techniques to investigate the values of s in COAD. Then, we used the GSE40967 cohort to verify the prognostic value of s. Finally, we verified the ULBP2 expression level in tissues, and also investigated the diagnostic and prognostic values of ULBP2 in COAD. The diagnostic receiver operating characteristic curves showed that , , and had high diagnostic values in COAD [Area Under Curve (AUC) > 0.9]. In TCGA cohort, the univariate and multivariate survival analyses suggested that was correlated with the prognosis of COAD recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In GSE40967 cohort, was associated with CC RFS and OS. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry results showed that ULBP2 was highly expressed in COAD tumor tissues ( < 0.05) and both had diagnostic values (AUC > 0.7). Validated survival analysis showed that the high expression of ULBP2 had a worse prognosis in COAD OS and RFS. Thus, might be an independent diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of COAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202935DOI Listing
April 2021

Exposure to oxidized soybean oil induces mammary mitochondrial injury in lactating rats and alters the intestinal barrier function of progeny.

Food Funct 2021 Apr;12(8):3705-3719

Department of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P. R. China.

Similar to other food contaminants, dietary oxidized soybean oil (OSO) is also a toxic xenobiotic for animal and human nutrition. This research evaluated the effects of maternal OSO exposure during lactation on mammary mitochondrial injury and intestinal barrier of sucking progeny. Twenty-four female adult SD rats were fed a fresh soybean oil (FSO) homozygous diet (7%) or an OSO homozygous diet (7%) during lactation. On day 21 of lactation, upregulated mRNA expression of Sirt3 and PRDX3 and downregulated mRNA expression of Mfn2 were observed in mammary tissues in the OSO group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Maternal OSO consumption increased the FasL transcriptional level in the mammary glands of rat dams (P < 0.05), while the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase3, and Fas was not different from that in the control group (P > 0.05). OSO enhanced the Nrf2 transcriptional level and decreased the expression of Keap1 and PPARα in mammary tissues (P < 0.05). In addition, the contents of CAT, MDA, SOD were not affected by dietary OSO (P > 0.05), while the concentration of H2O2 was significantly decreased in the OSO-treated mammary glands of rat dams (P < 0.05). Maternal OSO exposure during lactation did not affect the organ coefficients of pups (P > 0.05). However, maternal OSO consumption influenced the intestinal tight junction protein expression of progeny (P < 0.05). In summary, the present study demonstrated that dietary OSO may aggravate mammary injury and mitochondria dysfunction, but the OSO-induced damage was self-alleviating via the promotion of Sirt3 and PRDX3 expression and further scavenging of oxidative products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00423aDOI Listing
April 2021

Status of Immunotherapy Acceptance in Chinese Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of .

Front Neurol 2021 8;12:651511. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in China is low, although it has been increasing recently. Owing to the paucity of data on immunotherapy acceptance in the Chinese population, we conducted this study to analyze factors affecting the acceptance of immunotherapy and selection of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) based on personal and clinical data of patients with MS. In this study, data were obtained from the , which was the first national survey of patients with MS in China. There were 1,212 patients with MS from 31 provinces who were treated at 49 Chinese hospitals over a 4-month period from May 2018 to August 2018, and the patients were asked to complete online questionnaires to assess their understanding of the disease. In general, highly educated patients with frequent relapses were more willing to receive treatment regardless of DMTs or other immunotherapy, and patients with more understanding of the disease opted to be treated. Younger patient population, patients with severe disease course, and those with more symptoms were likely to choose the treatment. Moreover, a higher proportion of women chose to be treated with DMTs than with other immunotherapies. Education status and patient awareness of the disease impact the treatment acceptance in Chinese patients with MS. Therefore, we call for improving the awareness of MS disease and social security to help patients to improve their quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.651511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060470PMC
April 2021

Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) intercropping can improve the phytoremediation of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes but not heavy metals.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 16;784:147093. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang 453002, China. Electronic address:

Lolium multiflorum and Brassica juncea display phytoremediation potential for heavy metals and antibiotics pollution. However, there is limited understanding of their function in removing combined pollutants (heavy metals, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)) under different cropping patterns. Sole cropping had little effect on heavy metals, but reduced antibiotics by 2.46%-84.88% and increased ARGs by 15.96%-33.82%. Intercropping was more beneficial to soil remediation and plant accumulation of L. multiflorum, and further increased the remediation of antibiotics by 2.38%-54.40%. Members of phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria) were mainly responsible for most antibiotics removal. Compared with sole cropping, intercropping reduced more ARGs abundance in rhizosphere soil for L. multiflorum (20.43%) and in bulk soil for B. juncea (23.22%). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) played a significant role in the variation of ARGs. Further, sample type showed a higher indirect negative impact on ARGs by mainly affecting soil properties and bacterial community, and the co-occurrence between the bacterial community and ARGs in bulk soil was more complex than that in rhizosphere soil. Together these results suggest that phytoremediation of combined soil pollution was positive but limited, and intercropping resulted in enhanced removal efficiency when compared with sole cropping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147093DOI Listing
April 2021

Biodiversity-based development and evolution: the emerging research systems in model and non-model organisms.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity (IEMB), Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Evolutionary developmental biology, or Evo-Devo for short, has become an established field that, broadly speaking, seeks to understand how changes in development drive major transitions and innovation in organismal evolution. It does so via integrating the principles and methods of many subdisciplines of biology. Although we have gained unprecedented knowledge from the studies on model organisms in the past decades, many fundamental and crucially essential processes remain a mystery. Considering the tremendous biodiversity of our planet, the current model organisms seem insufficient for us to understand the evolutionary and physiological processes of life and its adaptation to exterior environments. The currently increasing genomic data and the recently available gene-editing tools make it possible to extend our studies to non-model organisms. In this review, we review the recent work on the regulatory signaling of developmental and regeneration processes, environmental adaptation, and evolutionary mechanisms using both the existing model animals such as zebrafish and Drosophila, and the emerging nonstandard model organisms including amphioxus, ascidian, ciliates, single-celled phytoplankton, and marine nematode. In addition, the challenging questions and new directions in these systems are outlined as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1915-yDOI Listing
April 2021