Publications by authors named "Feng Fu"

285 Publications

Synergistic mechanism of Ni(OH)/NiMoS heterostructure electrocatalyst with crystalline/amorphous interfaces for efficient hydrogen evolution over all pH ranges.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 18;606(Pt 2):1004-1013. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Research Institute of Comprehensive Energy Industry Technology, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Yan'an University, Yan'an 716000, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Designing and fabricating efficient electrocatalysts is a practical step toward the commercial application of the efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over all pH ranges. Herein, novel [email protected](OH)-NiMoS heterostructure with interface between crystalline Ni(OH) and amorphous NiMoS was rationally designed and fabricated on Ti mesh (denoted as [email protected](OH)-NiMoS). Acid etching and calcination experiments helped in accurate elucidation of the synergistic mechanism as well as the vital role on crystalline Ni(OH) and amorphous NiMoS. In acidic solutions, the HER performance of [email protected](OH)-NiMoS was mainly attributed to the amorphous NiMoS. In neutral, alkaline, and natural seawater solutions, the HER performance was mainly determined by the synergistic interface behaviors between the Ni(OH) and NiMoS. The crystalline Ni(OH) accelerated water dissociation kinetics, while the amorphous NiMoS provided abundant active sites and allowed for fast electron transfer rates. To deliver current densities of 10 mA·cm in acidic, neutral, alkaline, and natural seawater solutions, the [email protected](OH)-NiMoS required overpotentials of 138, 198, 180 and 371 mV, respectively. This paper provides general guidelines for designing efficient electrocatalyst with crystalline/amorphous interfaces for efficient hydrogen evolution over all-pH ranges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.090DOI Listing
August 2021

Three broad classifications of acute respiratory failure etiologies based on regional ventilation and perfusion by electrical impedance tomography: a hypothesis-generating study.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Aug 28;11(1):134. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to validate whether regional ventilation and perfusion data measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with saline bolus could discriminate three broad acute respiratory failure (ARF) etiologies.

Methods: Perfusion image was generated from EIT-based impedance-time curves caused by 10 ml 10% NaCl injection during a respiratory hold. Ventilation image was captured before the breath holding period under regular mechanical ventilation. DeadSpace, Shunt and VQMatch were calculated based on lung perfusion and ventilation images. Ventilation and perfusion maps were divided into four cross-quadrants (lower left and right, upper left and right). Regional distribution defects of each quadrant were scored as 0 (distribution% ≥ 15%), 1 (15% > distribution% ≥ 10%) and 2 (distribution% < 10%). Data percentile distributions in the control group and clinical simplicity were taken into consideration when defining the scores. Overall defect scores (Defect, Defect and Defect) were the sum of four cross-quadrants of the corresponding images.

Results: A total of 108 ICU patients were prospectively included: 93 with ARF and 15 without as a control. PaO/FiO was significantly correlated with VQMatch (r = 0.324, P = 0.001). Three broad etiologies of ARF were identified based on clinical judgment: pulmonary embolism-related disease (PED, n = 14); diffuse lung involvement disease (DLD, n = 21) and focal lung involvement disease (FLD, n = 58). The PED group had a significantly higher DeadSpace [40(24)% vs. 14(15)%, PED group vs. the rest of the subjects; median(interquartile range); P < 0.0001] and Defect score than the other groups [1(1) vs. 0(1), PED vs. the rest; P < 0.0001]. The DLD group had a significantly lower Defect score than the PED and FLD groups [0(1) vs. 2.5(2) vs. 3(3), DLD vs. PED vs. FLD; P < 0.0001]. The FLD group had a significantly higher Defect score than the other groups [2(2) vs. 0(1), FLD vs. the rest; P < 0.0001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) for using DeadSpace to identify PED was 0.894 in all ARF patients. The AUC for using the Defect score to identify DLD was 0.893. The AUC for using the Defect score to identify FLD was 0.832.

Conclusions: Our study showed that it was feasible to characterize three broad etiologies of ARF with EIT-based regional ventilation and perfusion. Further study is required to validate clinical applicability of this method. Trial registration clinicaltrials, NCT04081142. Registered 9 September 2019-retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04081142 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-021-00921-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401348PMC
August 2021

Paeonol promotes Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion via activating the CK2α-Stat3 pathway in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Redox Biol 2021 Oct 10;46:102098. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Geriatrics Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710004, China. Electronic address:

Diabetes disrupts mitochondrial function and often results in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Paeonol is a bioactive compound that has been reported to have pharmacological potential for cardiac and mitochondrial protection. This study aims to explore the effects of paeonol on mitochondrial disorderes in DCM and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that paeonol promoted Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion, inhibited mitochondrial oxidative stress, and preserved mitochondrial respiratory capacity and cardiac performance in DCM in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of Opa1 blunted the above protective effects of paeonol in both diabetic hearts and high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, inhibitor screening, siRNA knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that paeonol-promoted Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion required the activation of Stat3, which directly bound to the promoter of Opa1 to upregulate its transcriptional expression. Moreover, pharmmapper screening and molecular docking studies revealed that CK2α served as a direct target of paeonol that interacted with Jak2 and induced the phosphorylation and activation of Jak2-Stat3. Knockdown of CK2α blunted the promoting effect of paeonol on Jak2-Stat3 phosphorylation and Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion. Collectively, we have demonstrated for the first time that paeonol is a novel mitochondrial fusion promoter in protecting against hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial oxidative injury and DCM at least partially via an Opa1-mediated mechanism, a process in which paeonol interacts with CK2α and restores its kinase activity that subsequently increasing Jak2-Stat3 phosphorylation and enhancing the transcriptional level of Opa1. These findings suggest that paeonol or the promotion of mitochondrial fusion might be a promising strategy for the treatment of DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385203PMC
October 2021

Activation of κ-opioid receptor inhibits inflammatory response induced by sodium palmitate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Cytokine 2021 Oct 28;146:155659. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Air Force Medical University, No. 169 West Changle Road, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China; School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, No.1 North Taibai Road, Xi'an 710069, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The current study aims to investigate the effect of κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR) activation on sodium palmitate (SP)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inflammatory response and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: A hyperlipidemic cell model was established and treated with κ-OR agonist (U50,488H), and antagonist (norbinaltorphimine, nor-BNI), or inhibitors targeting PI3K, Akt or eNOS (LY294002, MK2206-2HCl or L-NAME, respectively). Furthermore, the expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, p-Akt, Akt, p-eNOS, and total eNOS were evaluated. Additionally, the production of reactive oxygen species, and levels of inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1 and adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin were determined. The adherence rates of the neutrophils and monocytes were assessed as well.

Results: The SP-induced hyperlipidemic cell model demonstrated increased expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 proteins (P < 0.05) and elevated ROS levels (P < 0.01), and decreased phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated-eNOS expression (P < 0.05). In addition, SP significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin levels (P < 0.01), decreased IL-10 levels (P < 0.01), and increased the adhesion rates of monocytes and neutrophils (P < 0.01). The SP-induced inflammatory response in HUVECs was ameliorated by κ-OR agonist, U50,488H. However, the protective effect of U50,488H was abolished by κ-OR antagonist, nor-BNI, and inhibitors of PI3K, Akt and eNOS.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that κ-OR activation inhibits SP-induced inflammation by activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155659DOI Listing
October 2021

Regional ventilation distribution in healthy lungs: can reference values be established for electrical impedance tomography parameters?

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):789

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Although electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is widely used for monitoring regional ventilation distribution, reference values have yet to be established for clinical use. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of creating reference values for standard EIT parameters for potential clinical application.

Methods: A total of 75 participants with healthy lungs were included in this prospective study (male:female, 48:27; age, 34±14 years; height, 172±7 cm; weight, 73±12 kg). The subjects were examined during spontaneous breathing in the supine position. EIT measurements were performed at the level of the 4 intercostal space. Commonly used EIT-based parameters, including the center of ventilation (CoV), dorsal and most dorsal fractions of ventilation distribution (TV and TV respectively), global inhomogeneity (GI) index, and standard deviation of regional ventilation delay index (RVD) were calculated.

Results: Following outlier detection, EIT data from 71 subjects were finally evaluated. The values of the evaluated parameters were: CoV, 48.7%±1.7%; TVD, 48.1%±5.4%; TV, 7.1%±1.8%; GI, 0.49±0.04; and RVD, 7.0±2.0. The coefficients of variation for CoV and GI were low (0.03 and 0.07, respectively), but those for TV and RVD were comparatively high (0.26 and 0.28, respectively). None of the evaluated parameters showed a significant correlation with age. The GI index showed a weak but significant correlation with body mass index (R=0.29, P=0.01). The RVD was slightly higher in males than in females.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that CoV and GI were stable parameters with small coefficients of variation in participants with healthy lungs. The creation of EIT parameter reference values for setting treatment targets may be feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246208PMC
May 2021

Arrangement of boundary electrodes for detection of frontal lobe disease with electrical impedance tomography.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Jul 6;8(4):044501. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Henan Normal University, College of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Xinxiang, China.

Caused by brain trauma or blood vessel abnormality, intracerebral hemorrhage and secondary ischemia have become prevalent and severe neurological diseases. The timely and accurate detection of disease is essential for the recovery of patients. As an emerging visualization technique, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) offers an alternative. It is able to reconstruct the conductivity distribution that reflects the pathological variation of human tissue. In the EIT-based detection, electrodes are usually in uniform arrangement, which may be not suitable in some conditions. To enhance sensitivity in the region of interest, EIT with a novel offset arrangement of boundary electrodes is proposed to image a simulated frontal lobe hemorrhage and secondary ischemia. To cope with the ill-posed inverse problem, the L1 regularization method is developed during the reconstruction. In addition, the impact of noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 56 dB is studied. Compared with the traditional uniform electrode arrangement, the results demonstrate that EIT with the proposed offset arrangement of electrodes is more advantageous for imaging frontal lobe disease. The proposed offset arrangement of electrodes is superior to the traditional uniform arrangement in imaging frontal lobe disease, especially under the impact of noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.8.4.044501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259303PMC
July 2021

Early individualized positive end-expiratory pressure guided by electrical impedance tomography in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Crit Care 2021 06 30;25(1):230. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle Xi Rd, Xi'an, China.

Background: Individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has potential interest in the optimization of ventilation distribution in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of the study was to determine whether early individualized titration of PEEP with EIT improved outcomes in patients with ARDS.

Methods: A total of 117 ARDS patients receiving mechanical ventilation were randomly assigned to EIT group (n = 61, PEEP adjusted based on ventilation distribution) or control group (n = 56, low PEEP/FiO table). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary and exploratory outcomes were ventilator-free days, length of ICU stay, incidence of pneumothorax and barotrauma, and difference in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at day 1 (ΔD1-SOFA) and day 2 (ΔD2-SOFA) compared with baseline.

Measurements And Main Results: There was no statistical difference in the value of PEEP between the EIT group and control group, but the combination of PEEP and FiO was different between groups. In the control group, a significantly positive correlation was found between the PEEP value and the corresponding FiO (r = 0.47, p < 0.00001) since a given matched table was used for PEEP settings. Diverse combinations of PEEP and FiO were found in the EIT group (r = 0.05, p = 0.68). There was no significant difference in mortality rate (21% vs. 27%, EIT vs. control, p = 0.63), ICU length of stay (13.0 (7.0, 25.0) vs 10.0 (7.0, 14.8), median (25th-75th percentile); p = 0.17), and ventilator-free days at day 28 (14.0 (2.0, 23.0) vs 19.0 (0.0, 24.0), p = 0.55) between the two groups. The incidence of new barotrauma was zero. Compared with control group, significantly lower ΔD1-SOFA and ΔD2-SOFA were found in the EIT group (p < 0.001) in a post hoc comparison. Moreover, the EIT group exhibited a significant decrease of SOFA at day 2 compared with baseline (paired t-test, difference by - 1 (- 3.5, 0), p = 0.001). However, the control group did show a similar decrease (difference by 1 (- 2, 2), p = 0.131).

Conclusion: Our study showed a 6% absolute decrease in mortality in the EIT group: a statistically non-significant, but clinically non-negligible result. This result along with the showed improvement in organ function might justify further reserach to validate the beneficial effect of individualized EIT-guided PEEP setting on clinical outcomes of patients with ARDS.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials, NCT02361398. Registered 11 February 2015-prospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02361398 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03645-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243615PMC
June 2021

Reconstruction of conductivity distribution with electrical impedance tomography based on hybrid regularization method.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 May 17;8(3):033503. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Henan Normal University, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Xinxiang, China.

Physiological or pathological variation would cause a change of conductivity. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is favorable in reconstructing conductivity distribution inside the detected area. However, the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem and the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is relatively poor. To deal with the problem, a regularization method is commonly applied. Traditional regularization methods have their own disadvantages. In this work, we develop an innovative hybrid regularization method to determine the conductivity distribution from the boundary measurement. To address the unwanted artifact observed in the total variation (TV) method, the proposed approach incorporates the TV method with the non-convex sparse penalty term-based wavelet transform. In the reconstruction, the sensitivity matrix is also normalized to increase the sensitivity of the measurement to the variation of the conductivity. The objective function is minimized with the split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated by numerical simulation and phantom experiment. The results verify that the reconstruction with the proposed method is more advantageous, as obvious improvement is observed in the reconstructed image. With the proposed method, the artifact can be effectively suppressed and the reconstructed image of conductivity distribution is improved. It has great potential in medical imaging, which would be helpful for the accurate diagnosis of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.8.3.033503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211083PMC
May 2021

The pregnancy-related anxiety characteristics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: why should we care?

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 10;21(1):424. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Nursing, Xinjiang Medical University, No. 567, Shangde North Road, Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang, China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is very commonly-seen in clinical settings, and GDM patients may have higher levels of anxiety. It's necessary to evaluate the anxiety level and potentially influencing factors in patients with GDM, to provide insights for the management of anxiety of GDM patients.

Methods: Patients with GDM treated in our hospital from May, 2018 to May, 2020 were included. We evaluated the characteristics of patients and the scores of pregnancy-related anxiety scale for anxiety level, vulnerable personality style questionnaire (VPSQ) for personality, general self-efficacy scale (GSES) for self-efficacy, social support rating scale (SSRS) for social support level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the potential influencing factors of anxiety in GDM patients.

Results: A total of 386 GDM patients were included, the incidence of anxiety in patients with GDM was 59.07%. Anxiety was positively correlated with the susceptible personality (r = 0.604, p = 0.023), and it was negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support (r = -0.586 and -0.598 respectively, all p < 0.05). The education level, monthly income, abnormal pregnancy (miscarriage, premature rupture of membranes) and cesarean section history and first pregnancy were the independent influencing factors for the anxiety in the patients with GDM (all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The anxiety of GDM patients is very common, early care and interventions are warranted for those patients with abnormal pregnancy and cesarean section history, first pregnancy, lower education level, and less monthly income.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03887-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194142PMC
June 2021

κ-opioid receptor stimulation alleviates rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via PFKFB3-lactate signaling.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 20;13(10):14355-14371. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

In the present study, the effects and mechanism of action of U50,488H (a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist) on calcification of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were investigated. VSMCs were isolated and cultured in traditional FBS-based media. A calcification model was established in VSMCs under hyperphosphatemia and intracellular calcium contents. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lactate were detected in cell culture supernatants before and after treatment. Alizarin red staining was used to detect the degree of calcification of VSMCs. Expression levels of key molecules of osteogenic markers, fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), and proline hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), were determined using western blotting. Further, vascular calcification was induced by vitamin plus nicotine in rats and isolated thoracic aortas, calcium concentration was assessed in rat aortic rings . We demonstrated that U50,488H inhibited VSMC calcification in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, U50,488H significantly inhibited osteogenic differentiation and ALP activity in VSMCs pretreated with β-GP. Further studies confirmed that PFKFB3 expression, LDH level, and lactate content significantly increased during calcification of VSMCs; U50,488H reversed these changes. PHD2 expression showed the opposite trend compared to PFKFB3 expression. nor-BNI or 3-PO abolished U50,488H protective effects. Besides, U50,488H inhibited VSMC calcification in rat aortic rings . Collectively, our experiments show that κ-opioid receptor activation inhibits VSMC calcification by reducing PFKFB3 expression and lactate content, providing a potential drug target and strategy for the clinical treatment of vascular calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202865PMC
May 2021

Glibenclamide Advantage in Treating Edema After Intracerebral Hemorrhage (GATE-ICH): Study Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized, Controlled, Assessor-Blinded Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 27;12:656520. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University (Air Force Medical University), Xi'an, China.

Brain edema after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) plays a critical role in the secondary injury of ICH and may heighten the potential for a poor outcome. This trial aims to explore the efficacy of small doses of oral glibenclamide in perihematomal edema (PHE) and the prognosis of patients with ICH. The GATE-ICH trial is a multicenter randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial. A total of 220 adult patients with acute primary ICH in 28 study centers in China will be randomized to the glibenclamide group (glibenclamide plus guideline-recommended ICH management) or the control group (guideline-recommended ICH management). Multivariate logistic regression will be used to analyze the relationship between the treatments and primary outcome. The primary efficacy outcome is the proportion of poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≥3) at 90 days after enrollment. The secondary efficacy outcomes include changes in the volume of ICH and PHE between the baseline and follow-up computed tomography scans as well as the clinical scores between the baseline and follow-up assessments. The GATE-ICH trial will assess the effects of small doses of oral glibenclamide in reducing the PHE after ICH and improving the 90-day prognosis of patients. www.clinicaltrials.gov., NCT03741530. Registered on November 8, 2018. Protocol version: May 6, 2019, Version 5. Recruitment and follow-up of patients is currently ongoing. This trial will be end in the second quarter of 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.656520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110908PMC
April 2021

In situ fabrication of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst for simultaneous photocatalytic phenol degradation and Cr(VI) reduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 28;599:741-751. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan'an University, Yan'an 716000, PR China; Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Xingfa Mining Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we designed a novel BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst and successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal-calcination approach. Experimental characterizations indicated that the formation of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction was caused by controlling oxygen vacancies formation. Such BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction exhibits about 240 times higher photocatalytic activity towards phenol degradation as compared with pure BiMoO under visible light irradiation. Similarly, for a co-existed phenol and Cr(VI) model system, BiMoO/BiMoO-catalyzed the photodegradation of phenol and the reduction of Cr(VI) simultaneously occur, and BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction also displays a superior photocatalytic activity, that is 4 and 8 times higher than pure BiMoO, respectively. The remarkably boosted photocatalytic activity could be attributed primarily to the highly efficient separation of photogenerated electrons/holes due to the homojunction and the synergistic effect between phenol oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, the present insight provides an effective strategy for designing and preparing highly active photocatalysts with the incorporation of oxygen vacancies modulation and applying for environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.122DOI Listing
October 2021

Punicalagin Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Promoting Opa1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fusion Regulating PTP1B-Stat3 Pathway.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Sep 10;35(8):618-641. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Geriatrics Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

This study aims to explore the efficacy of punicalagin (PG) on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), with a specific focus on the mechanisms underlying the effects of PG on mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics. Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities were ameliorated in diabetic rats receiving PG administration as evidenced by increased ejection fraction, and attenuated myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy. PG enhanced mitochondrial function and inhibited mitochondria-derived oxidative stress by promoting Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion. The benefits of PG could be abrogated by knockdown of Opa1 and . Inhibitor screening and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that Stat3 directly regulated the transcriptional expression of Opa1 by binding to its promoter and was responsible for PG-induced Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion. Moreover, pharmmapper screening and molecular docking studies revealed that PG embedded into the activity pocket of PTP1B and inhibited the activity of PTP1B. Overexpression of PTP1B blocked the promoting effect of PG on Stat3 phosphorylation and Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion, whereas knockdown of PTP1B mimicked the benefits of PG in high-glucose-treated cardiomyocytes. Our study is the first to identify PG as a novel mitochondrial fusion promoter against hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial oxidative injury and cardiomyopathy by upregulating Opa1 regulating PTP1B-Stat3 pathway. PG protects against DCM by promoting Opa1-mediated mitochondrial fusion, a process in which PG interacts with PTP1B and inhibits its activity, which in turn increases Stat3 phosphorylation and then enhances the transcriptional expression of Opa1. These results suggest that PG might be a promising new therapeutic approach against diabetic cardiac complication. 35, 618-641.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2020.8248DOI Listing
September 2021

Random choices facilitate solutions to collective network coloring problems by artificial agents.

iScience 2021 Apr 24;24(4):102340. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, 27 N. Main Street, 6188 Kemeny Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

Global coordination is required to solve a wide variety of challenging collective action problems from network colorings to the tragedy of the commons. Recent empirical study shows that the presence of a few noisy autonomous agents can greatly improve collective performance of humans in solving networked color coordination games. To provide analytical insights into the role of behavioral randomness, here we study myopic artificial agents attempting to solve similar network coloring problems using decision update rules that are only based on local information but allow random choices at various stages of their heuristic reasonings. We show that the resulting efficacy of resolving color conflicts is dependent on the implementation of random behavior of agents and specific population characteristics. Our work demonstrates that distributed greedy optimization algorithms exploiting local information should be deployed in combination with occasional exploration via random choices in order to overcome local minima and achieve global coordination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047171PMC
April 2021

Highly In-Plane Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Ternary TaNiSe for Polarization-Sensitive Photodetectors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 9;13(15):17948-17956. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nanophotonics Research Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro-Scale Optical Information Technology & Institute of Microscale Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Intriguing anisotropic electrical and optoelectrical properties in two-dimensional (2D) materials are currently gaining increasing interest both for fundamental research and emerging optoelectronic devices. Identifying promising new 2D materials with low-symmetry structures will be rewarding in the development of polarization-integrated nanodevices. In this work, the anisotropic electron transport and optoelectrical properties of multilayer 2D ternary TaNiSe were systematically researched. The polarization-sensitive TaNiSe photodetector shows a linearly anisotropy ratio of ≈3.24 with 1064 nm illumination. The multilayer TaNiSe-based field-effective transistors exhibit an excellent field-effective mobility of 161.25 cm·V·s along the axis (armchair direction) as well as a great current saturation characteristic at room temperature. These results will promote a better understanding of the optoelectrical properties and applications in new categories of the in-plane anisotropic 2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00268DOI Listing
April 2021

Lung regions identified with CT improve the value of global inhomogeneity index measured with electrical impedance tomography.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1209-1219

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: The global inhomogeneity () index is a functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) parameter which is used clinically to assess ventilation distribution. However, may underestimate the actual heterogeneity when the size of lung regions is underestimated. We propose a novel method to use anatomical information to correct the index calculation.

Methods: EIT measurements were performed at the level of the fifth intercostal space in six patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The thorax and lungs were segmented automatically from serial individual CT scans. The anatomically derived lung regions were calculated in EIT images from simulating a homogeneous ventilation distribution in a finite element model. The conventional approach ( ), analyzes images in functionally-defined lung regions, while our proposed measure ( ) is based on analysis in anatomically-defined regions. We additionally define a simulated comparison ( ) to determine the lower limit of the measure for a homogenous distribution of ventilation.

Results: As expected, the conventional [0.382 (0.088), median (interquartile range)] were significantly lower than the proposed [0.823 (0.152), P<0.05], and were much closer to the lower limit [0.343 (0.039)]. Both and were strongly correlated with arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (R=-0.88, P<0.05), whereas (R=0.23) was not. had a linear-regression slope 3.2 times that of suggesting a higher sensitivity to the changes in lung condition.

Conclusions: The proposed (or shortened as ) is an improved measure of ventilation inhomogeneity over GI, and better reflects portion of non-ventilated regions due to alveolar collapse or overdistension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930666PMC
April 2021

A novel visceral pain model of uterine cervix inflammation in rat.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 31;900:174080. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Anesthesia, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Treatment of visceral pain originating from the uterine cervix is a substantial clinical problem. The underlying mechanisms of such visceral pain remain unclear mainly due to a lack of reliable model. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the performance of a rat model of pain induced by uterine cervix inflammation. Rats were randomized to six groups according to the solution injected into the uterine cervix: normal saline, vehicle, capsaicin (0.3 mg, 0.6 mg, 0.9 mg), capsaicin 0.9 mg + morphine (n = 15 in each group). Spontaneous behaviors after cervical injection were recorded by a computerized video system and analyzed offline. An equation for calculating a novel pain score was derived from particular behaviors, based on Pearson's correlation analysis and regression analysis. c-Fos expression in the spinal cord was detected. The pain score and c-fos expression in the spinal cord were highest in the 0.9 mg capsaicin group and lowest in the normal saline and vehicle groups (P < 0.05). Intrathecal morphine significantly decreased the pain score (P < 0.05) and c-fos expression in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). Injection of capsaicin into the uterine cervix in rats could be a practical model of inflammatory cervical pain, which can be evaluated using our novel pain score. This model will provide further insight into the mechanism underlying visceral pain originating from the uterine cervix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174080DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of lung overdistension caused by tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure increases based on electrical impedance tomography.

Br J Anaesth 2021 05 25;126(5):e167-e170. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.01.026DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic ablation of fas-activated serine/threonine kinase ameliorates alcoholic liver disease through modulating HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex stability.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 04 18;166:201-211. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Basic Medicine School, China. Electronic address:

Chronic alcoholism often causes liver injuries characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation as well as oxidative stress and finally leads to advanced cirrhosis and liver cancer. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK) and its homologs are gradually known as multifunctional proteins involved in various biological processes; however, the role of FASTK and its family members in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unexplored. Here we found that, among FASTK family members, the expression of FASTK was specifically induced both in livers of mice received chronic ethanol ingestion and in ethanol-stimulated hepatocytes. Animal studies showed that genetic deletion of FASTK attenuated chronic ethanol ingestion-induced liver damage, steatosis, and inflammation. Moreover, FASTK deficiency was associated with improved oxidative/anti-oxidative system homeostasis and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in livers upon chronic ethanol stimulation. Importantly, FASTK ablation preserved hepatic sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression/activity upon chronic ethanol ingestion and SIRT1 silencing via adenovirus-mediated small interfering RNA transfer diminished FASTK deletion-elicited beneficial effects on alcohol-associated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, ethanol increased the phosphorylation of human antigen R (HuR, a RNA binding protein that stabilizes SIRT1 mRNA) and triggered the dissociation of HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex, in turn promoting SIRT1 mRNA decay. Genetic deletion of FASTK diminished ethanol-induced HuR phosphorylation and HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex dissociation, thereby enhancing SIRT1 mRNA stability. Collectively, these findings for the first time highlight a critical role of FASTK in the pathogenesis of ALD and implicate HuR-SIRT1 mRNA complex involves in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.02.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Controllable hybridization between localized and delocalized anisotropic borophene plasmons in the near-infrared region.

Opt Lett 2021 Feb;46(4):725-728

In this Letter, we theoretically propose a coupled borophene plasmonic system, where an anisotropic localized plasmonic (LP) mode and a delocalized guided plasmonic (DGP) mode can be simultaneously excited. This allows us to manipulate the optical response of the strong LP-DGP coupling with exceptional flexibility in the near-infrared region, which is not possible with the conventional metallic plasmonic structures, and overcomes some shortcomings of coupled structures based on the other 2D materials. Specifically, the spatially LP-DGP coupling can arise when the system is driven into the strong coupling regime; this gives rise to a transparency window which can be well described by a coupled oscillation model. The bandwidth of the window is governed by the coupling strength which can be passively adjusted by the spacer thickness, while the center wavelength and the number of windows can be actively modulated by tuning the borophene electron density and the incident angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.416493DOI Listing
February 2021

Short-Term Flexural Stiffness Prediction of CFRP Bars Reinforced Coral Concrete Beams.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 19;14(2). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) Bar reinforced coral concrete beam is a new type of structural member that has been used more and more widely in marine engineering in recent years. In order to study and predict the flexural performance of CFRP reinforced coral concrete beams, the flexural rigidity, crack morphology and failure mode of concrete were studied in detail. The results show that under the condition of similar reinforcement ratio, the flexural rigidity of CFRP reinforced coral concrete beam is significantly lower than that of ordinary reinforced concrete beam. Increasing the cross-section reinforcement ratio within a certain range can increase the bending stiffness of the test beam or reduce the deflection, but the strength utilization rate of CFRP reinforcement is greatly reduced. The short-term bending stiffness of the CFRP reinforced coral concrete beam calculated by the existing standard formula is obviously higher. This paper proposes a modified formula for introducing the strain inhomogeneity coefficient () of CFRP bars and considers the relative slip between CFRP bars and coral concrete to predict the short-term flexural stiffness of coral concrete beams reinforced by CFRP bars. The formula was verified with the test results, and it was proved that the formula has a good consistency with the test results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14020467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836010PMC
January 2021

Giant improvement of performances of perovskite solar cells via component engineering.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 17;588:393-400. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

The absorption layer is a crucial factor for high-performance perovskite solar cells. In this work, the influence of the two components, methylammonium iodide (MAI) and formamidinium iodide (FAI) on the morphology, optical absorption and photovoltaic performances was systematically investigated. The results revealed that the surface morphologies of MAI/FAI based perovskite films were rougher, and the grain sizes became larger with increasing the FAI concentration. UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra showed that there was a red shift with enhancing the FAI concentration. By the effective doping of FAI into the pristine MAI based perovskite film, the formation of a δ-FAPbI was successfully inhibited. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells based on mixed absorption layers was improved by about 27% compared to the pristine MAI based perovskite device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.12.046DOI Listing
April 2021

Oscillatory dynamics in the dilemma of social distancing.

Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 2020 Nov 25;476(2243):20200686. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

Social distancing as one of the main non-pharmaceutical interventions can help slow down the spread of diseases, like in the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective social distancing, unless enforced as drastic lockdowns and mandatory cordon sanitaire, requires consistent strict collective adherence. However, it remains unknown what the determinants for the resultant compliance of social distancing and their impact on disease mitigation are. Here, we incorporate into the epidemiological process with an evolutionary game theory model that governs the evolution of social distancing behaviour. In our model, we assume an individual acts in their best interest and their decisions are driven by adaptive social learning of the real-time risk of infection in comparison with the cost of social distancing. We find interesting oscillatory dynamics of social distancing accompanied with waves of infection. Moreover, the oscillatory dynamics are dampened with a non-trivial dependence on model parameters governing decision-makings and gradually cease when the cumulative infections exceed the herd immunity. Compared to the scenario without social distancing, we quantify the degree to which social distancing mitigates the epidemic and its dependence on individuals' responsiveness and rationality in their behaviour changes. Our work offers new insights into leveraging human behaviour in support of pandemic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2020.0686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735308PMC
November 2020

Positive end-expiratory pressure titration with electrical impedance tomography and pressure-volume curve: a randomized trial in moderate to severe ARDS.

Physiol Meas 2021 02 6;42(1):014002. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare titration of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and with ventilator-embedded pressure-volume (PV) loop in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Approach: Eighty-seven moderate to severe ARDS patients (arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio, PaO/FiO ≤ 200 mmHg) were randomized to either EIT group (n = 42) or PV group (n = 45). All patients received identical medical care using the same general support guidelines and protective mechanical ventilation. In the EIT group, the selected PEEP equaled the airway pressure at the intercept between cumulated collapse and overdistension percentages curves and in the PV group, at the pressure where maximal hysteresis was reached.

Main Results: Baseline characteristics and settings were comparable between the groups. After optimization, PEEP was significantly higher in the PV group (17.4 ± 1.7 versus 16.2 ± 2.6 cmHO, PV versus EIT groups, p = 0.02). After 48 h, driving pressure was significantly higher in the PV group (12.4 ± 3.6 versus 10.9 ± 2.5 cmHO, p = 0.04). Lung mechanics and oxygenation were better in the EIT group but did not statistically differ between the groups. The survival rate was lower in the PV group (44.4% versus 69.0%, p = 0.02; hazard ratio 2.1, confidence interval 1·1-3.9). None of the other pre-specified exploratory clinical endpoints were significantly different.

Significance: In moderate to severe ARDS, PEEP titration guided with EIT, compared with PV curve, might be associated with improved driving pressure and survival rate.

Trial Registration: NCT03112512, 13 April, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/abd679DOI Listing
February 2021

Lung ventilation distribution in patients after traditional full sternotomy and minimally invasive thoracotomy: An observational study.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 08 21;65(7):877-885. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The aim of the study was to examine the post-operative ventilation distribution changes in cardiac surgical patients after traditional full sternotomy (FS) or minimally invasive thoracotomy (MIT).

Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for FS with two-lung ventilation or MIT with one-lung ventilation were included. Ventilation distribution was measured with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at T1, before surgery; T2, after surgery in ICU before weaning; T3, 24 hours after extubation. EIT-based parameters were calculated to assess the ventilation distribution, including the left-to-right lung ratio, ventral-to-dorsal ratio, and the global inhomogeneity index.

Results: The global inhomogeneity index increased at T2 and T3 compared to T1 in all patients but only statistically significant in patients with MIT (FS, P = .06; MIT, P < .01). Notable decrease in the dorsal regions (FS) or in the non-ventilated side (MIT) was observed at T2. Ventilation distribution was partially improved at T3 but huge variations of recovery progresses were found in all patients regardless of the surgery types. Subgroup analysis indicated that operation duration was significantly lower in the MIT group (240 ± 40 in FS vs 205 ± 90 minutes in MIT, median ± interquartile range, P < .05) but the incidence of atrial fibrillation/flutter was significantly higher (5% in FS vs 50% in MIT, P < .01). Other exploratory outcomes showed no statistical differences.

Conclusions: Ventilation distribution was impaired after cardiac surgery. The recovery process of ventilation homogeneity was strongly depending on individuals so that MIT was not always superior in this aspect. EIT may help to identify the patients requiring further care after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13759DOI Listing
August 2021

Real-time monitoring hypoxia at high altitudes using electrical bioimpedance technique: an animal experiment.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 04 3;130(4):952-963. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Hypoxia poses a serious threat to pilots. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) in detecting the onset of hypoxia in real time in a rabbit hypoxia model. Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were divided equally into four groups (control group and three hypoxia groups, i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). Hypoxia was induced by simulating various altitudes in the hypobaric oxygen chamber (3,000 m, 5,000 m, and 8,000 m). Both cerebral impedance and blood oxygen (Sp) were monitored continuously. Results showed that the cerebral impedance increased immediately during the period of increasing altitude and decreased quickly to the initial baseline at the phase of descending altitude. Moreover, the change of cerebral impedance in the mild hypoxia group (3,000 m) was significantly smaller than those in the other two groups (5,000 m and 8,000 m, < 0.05). The changes in cerebral impedance and Sp were significantly correlated based on the total of measurement data ( = 0.628, < 0.001). Furthermore, the agreement analysis performed with Bland-Altman and standardized residual plots exhibited high concordance between cerebral impedance and Sp. Receiver operator characteristic analysis manifested that the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve using cerebral impedance for changes in Sp >10% were 0.735, 0.826, and 0.845, respectively. These findings demonstrated that EBI could sensitively and accurately monitor changes of cerebral impedance induced by hypoxia, which might provide a potential tool for the real-time and noninvasive monitoring of hypoxic condition of pilots in flight for early identification of hypoxia. This study is the first to examine the efficacy of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) in detecting the onset of high-altitude hypoxia in real time. The novelty of this research includes three aspects. First, the cerebral impedance of rabbits increased immediately during the rising of altitude and decreased quickly to the initial baseline at the phase of descending altitude. Second, there was a significant correlation and high concordance between cerebral impedance and Sp. Third, cerebral impedance could determine the change of Sp resulting from hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00712.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Oscillatory dynamics in the dilemma of social distancing.

ArXiv 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Social distancing as one of the main non-pharmaceutical interventions can help slow down the spread of diseases, like in the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective social distancing, unless enforced as drastic lockdowns and mandatory cordon sanitaire, requires consistent strict collective adherence. However, it remains unknown what the determinants for the resultant compliance of social distancing and their impact on disease mitigation are. Here, we incorporate into the epidemiological process with an evolutionary game theory model that governs the evolution of social distancing behavior. In our model, we assume an individual acts in their best interest and their decisions are driven by adaptive social learning of the real-time risk of infection in comparison with the cost of social distancing. We find interesting oscillatory dynamics of social distancing accompanied with waves of infection. Moreover, the oscillatory dynamics are dampened with a nontrivial dependence on model parameters governing decision-makings and gradually cease when the cumulative infections exceed the herd immunity. Compared to the scenario without social distancing, we quantify the degree to which social distancing mitigates the epidemic and its dependence on individuals' responsiveness and rationality in their behavior changes. Our work offers new insights into leveraging human behavior in support of pandemic response.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709166PMC
November 2020

Blood pressure variability and outcome in acute severe stroke: A post hoc analysis of CHASE-A randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 01 23;23(1):96-102. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The influence of blood pressure variability (BPV) on outcomes in patients with severe stroke is still largely unsettled. Using the data of CHASE trial, the authors calculated the BPV during the acute phase and subacute phase of severe stroke, respectively. The primary outcome was to investigate the relationship between BPV and 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≥ 3. The BPV was assessed by eight measurements including standard deviation (SD), mean, maximum, minimum, coefficient of variation (CV), successive variation (SV), functional successive variation (FSV), and average real variability (ARV). Then, the SD of SBP was divided into quintiles and compared the quintile using logistic regression in three models. The acute phase included 442 patients, and the subacute phase included 390 patients. After adjustment, six measurements of BPV during the subacute phase rather than acute phase were strongly correlated with outcomes including minimum (odds ratio [OR]: 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.99, p = .037), SD (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, p = .007), CV (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.23, p = .012), ARV (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.20, p < .001), SV (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = .001), and FSV (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05-1.19, p = .001). In the logistic regression, the highest fifth of SD of SBP predicted poor outcome in all three models. In conclusion, the increased BPV was strongly correlated with poor outcomes in the subacute phase of severe stroke, and the magnitude of association was progressively increased when the SD of BP was above 12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14090DOI Listing
January 2021

Understanding gambling behaviour and risk attitudes using cryptocurrency-based casino blockchain data.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Oct 21;7(10):201446. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

The statistical concept of gambler's ruin suggests that gambling has a large amount of risk. Nevertheless, gambling at casinos and gambling on the Internet are both hugely popular activities. In recent years, both prospect theory and laboratory-controlled experiments have been used to improve our understanding of risk attitudes associated with gambling. Despite theoretical progress, collecting real-life gambling data, which is essential to validate predictions and experimental findings, remains a challenge. To address this issue, we collect publicly available betting data from a (decentralized application) on the Ethereum blockchain, which instantly publishes the outcome of every single bet (consisting of each bet's timestamp, wager, probability of winning, userID and profit). This online casino is a simple dice game that allows gamblers to tune their own winning probabilities. Thus the dataset is well suited for studying gambling strategies and the complex dynamic of risk attitudes involved in betting decisions. We analyse the dataset through the lens of current probability-theoretic models and discover empirical examples of gambling systems. Our results shed light on understanding the role of risk preferences in human financial behaviour and decision-makings beyond gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657926PMC
October 2020

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pendelluft: a simple method based on electrical impedance tomography.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Oct;8(19):1216

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Lab of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Pendelluft, defined as asynchronous alveolar ventilation, is caused by different regional time constants or dynamic pleural pressure variations. The aim of the present study was to propose a simple method to evaluate pendelluft based on electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The efficacy of this method was demonstrated in well-known pendelluft scenarios in 6 patients.

Methods: Two patients with flail chest after accidents, two patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and two patients with acutely exacerbated obstructive lung disease were prospectively included. EIT measurements were performed before and after surgery (in patients with flail chest, who had video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with ribs fixation), or at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; ARDS patients), or two different time points (obstructive lung disease). Pendelluft was assessed by regional phase shift (defined as time difference between global and regional impedance-time curves) and amplitude differences (defined as the impedance difference between sum of all regional tidal variation and the global tidal variation).

Results: In patients with flail chest, pendelluft diminished several days after surgery (pendelluft amplitude normalized to tidal impedance variation reduced from 88% to 2% in one patient, 12% to 2% in the other). Increased PEEP reduced the amplitude of pendelluft (from 3% to 0% in one patient, 20% to 2% in the other) but not necessarily the phase shifts (average time differences were <0.1 second for both patients for both ins- and expiration) in ARDS patients. Pendelluft assessment in obstructive lung diseases reflected the change in airway resistance (from 5% to 1% in one patient after broncholytic medication administration, as airway resistance fell from 15 to 11 cmHO/L/s; from 9% to 35% in the other patient with acute exacerbation, the corresponding airway resistance increased from 15 to 22 cmHO/L/s).

Conclusions: The proposed EIT-based method can be used to evaluate the degree of pendelluft in dimension of phase shift and amplitude difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607126PMC
October 2020
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