Publications by authors named "Felix Sahm"

217 Publications

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a heterogeneous entity with pTERT mutations prognosticating shorter survival.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 01 10;10(1). Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) in its classic manifestation exhibits distinct morphological features and is assigned to CNS WHO grade 2 or grade 3. Distinction from glioblastoma variants and lower grade glial and glioneuronal tumors is a common diagnostic challenge. We compared a morphologically defined set of PXA (histPXA) with an independent set, defined by DNA methylation analysis (mcPXA). HistPXA encompassed 144 tumors all subjected to DNA methylation array analysis. Sixty-two histPXA matched to the methylation class mcPXA. These were combined with the cases that showed the mcPXA signature but had received a histopathological diagnosis other than PXA. This cohort constituted a set of 220 mcPXA. Molecular and clinical parameters were analyzed in these groups. Morphological parameters were analyzed in a subset of tumors with FFPE tissue available. HistPXA revealed considerable heterogeneity in regard to methylation classes, with methylation classes glioblastoma and ganglioglioma being the most frequent mismatches. Similarly, the mcPXA cohort contained tumors of diverse histological diagnoses, with glioblastoma constituting the most frequent mismatch. Subsequent analyses demonstrated the presence of canonical pTERT mutations to be associated with unfavorable prognosis among mcPXA. Based on these data, we consider the tumor type PXA to be histologically more varied than previously assumed. Histological approach to diagnosis will predominantly identify cases with the established archetypical morphology. DNA methylation analysis includes additional tumors in the tumor class PXA that share similar DNA methylation profile but lack the typical morphology of a PXA. DNA methylation analysis also assist in separating other tumor types with morphologic overlap to PXA. Our data suggest the presence of canonical pTERT mutations as a robust indicator for poor prognosis in methylation class PXA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-021-01308-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8751269PMC
January 2022

Oligosarcomas, IDH-mutant are distinct and aggressive.

Acta Neuropathol 2022 Feb 30;143(2):263-281. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Oligodendrogliomas are defined at the molecular level by the presence of an IDH mutation and codeletion of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. In the past, case reports and small studies described gliomas with sarcomatous features arising from oligodendrogliomas, so called oligosarcomas. Here, we report a series of 24 IDH-mutant oligosarcomas from 23 patients forming a distinct methylation class. The tumors were recurrences from prior oligodendrogliomas or developed de novo. Precursor tumors of 12 oligosarcomas were histologically and molecularly indistinguishable from conventional oligodendrogliomas. Oligosarcoma tumor cells were embedded in a dense network of reticulin fibers, frequently showing p53 accumulation, positivity for SMA and CALD1, loss of OLIG2 and gain of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) as compared to primary lesions. In 5 oligosarcomas no 1p/19q codeletion was detectable, although it was present in the primary lesions. Copy number neutral LOH was determined as underlying mechanism. Oligosarcomas harbored an increased chromosomal copy number variation load with frequent CDKN2A/B deletions. Proteomic profiling demonstrated oligosarcomas to be highly distinct from conventional CNS WHO grade 3 oligodendrogliomas with consistent evidence for a smooth muscle differentiation. Expression of several tumor suppressors was reduced with NF1 being lost frequently. In contrast, oncogenic YAP1 was aberrantly overexpressed in oligosarcomas. Panel sequencing revealed mutations in NF1 and TP53 along with IDH1/2 and TERT promoter mutations. Survival of patients was significantly poorer for oligosarcomas as first recurrence than for grade 3 oligodendrogliomas as first recurrence. These results establish oligosarcomas as a distinct group of IDH-mutant gliomas differing from conventional oligodendrogliomas on the histologic, epigenetic, proteomic, molecular and clinical level. The diagnosis can be based on the combined presence of (a) sarcomatous histology, (b) IDH-mutation and (c) TERT promoter mutation and/or 1p/19q codeletion, or, in unresolved cases, on its characteristic DNA methylation profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02395-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8742817PMC
February 2022

AKT1 -mutated meningioma cell lines respond to treatment with the AKT inhibitor AZD5363.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 Nov 26:e12780. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Aims: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours. Recently, knowledge about the molecular drivers underlying aggressive meningiomas has been expanded. A hotspot mutation in the AKT1 gene (AKT1 ), which is found in meningiomas at the convexity and especially at the skull base, has been associated with earlier tumour recurrence.

Methods: Here, we analysed the effects of the AKT1 mutation and treatment response to the Akt inhibitor AZD5363 in transgenic meningioma cell clones and mouse xenografts modelling convexity or skull base meningiomas.

Results: We show that the AKT mutation significantly enhances meningioma cell proliferation and colony size in vitro, resulting in significantly shortened survival times of mice carrying convexity or skull base AKT1 xenografts. Treatment of mutant cells or xenografts (150 mg/kg/d) with AZD5363 revealed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and colony size and a prolongation of mouse survival. Western blots revealed activation of AKT1 kinase (phosphorylation at Ser273 and Thr308) by the E17K mutation in human meningioma samples and in our in vitro and in vivo models.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that AKT1 mutated meningiomas are a promising selective target for AZD5363.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12780DOI Listing
November 2021

Implementation of TERT promoter mutations improve prognostication of the WHO classification in meningioma.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

TERT promoter mutations have been associated with increased risk of recurrence in meningioma cohorts, thus a potential biomarker for aggressive phenotypes. A main purpose of refining tumour classification is better predictions on the patient level. We compiled data from previous published cohorts to investigate patient-level predictions of recurrence based on TERTp-mut status. Implementation of TERTp-mut into the WHO grading led to better patient prognostication by improved prediction of recurrence. Our results support implementation of TERTp-mut into diagnostics and classification of meningiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12773DOI Listing
November 2021

T-cell Receptor Therapy Targeting Mutant Capicua Transcriptional Repressor in Experimental Gliomas.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jan 15;28(2):378-389. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

DKTK Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Gliomas are intrinsic brain tumors with a high degree of constitutive and acquired resistance to standard therapeutic modalities such as radiotherapy and alkylating chemotherapy. Glioma subtypes are recognized by characteristic mutations. Some of these characteristic mutations have shown to generate immunogenic neoepitopes suitable for targeted immunotherapy.

Experimental Design: Using peptide-based ELISpot assays, we screened for potential recurrent glioma neoepitopes in MHC-humanized mice. Following vaccination, droplet-based single-cell T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing from established T-cell lines was applied for neoepitope-specific TCR discovery. Efficacy of intraventricular TCR-transgenic T-cell therapy was assessed in a newly developed glioma model in MHC-humanized mice induced by CRISPR-based delivery of tumor suppressor-targeting guide RNAs.

Results: We identify recurrent capicua transcriptional repressor (CIC) inactivating hotspot mutations at position 215 CICR215W/Q as immunogenic MHC class II (MHCII)-restricted neoepitopes. Vaccination of MHC-humanized mice resulted in the generation of robust MHCII-restricted mutation-specific T-cell responses against CICR215W/Q. Adoptive intraventricular transfer of CICR215W-specific TCR-transgenic T cells exert antitumor responses against CICR215W-expressing syngeneic gliomas.

Conclusions: The integration of immunocompetent MHC-humanized orthotopic glioma models in the discovery of shared immunogenic glioma neoepitopes facilitates the identification and preclinical testing of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted neoepitope-specific TCRs for locoregional TCR-transgenic T-cell adoptive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1881DOI Listing
January 2022

Comparative evaluation of T-cell receptors in experimental glioma-draining lymph nodes.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab147. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

DKTK Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Glioblastomas, the most common primary malignant brain tumors, are considered immunologically cold malignancies due to growth in an immune sanctuary site. While peptide vaccines have shown to generate intra-tumoral antigen-specific T cells, the identification of these tumor-specific T cells is challenging and requires detailed analyses of tumor tissue. Several studies have shown that CNS antigens may be transported via lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes, where antigen-specific T-cell responses can be generated. Therefore, we investigated whether glioma-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) may constitute a reservoir of tumor-reactive T cells.

Methods: We addressed our hypothesis by flow cytometric analyses of chicken ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8 T cells as well as T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) next-generation-sequencing (TCRβ-NGS) of T cells from tumor tissue, TDLN, spleen, and inguinal lymph nodes harvested from experimental mouse GL261 glioma models.

Results: Longitudinal dextramer-based assessment of specific CD8 T cells from TDLN did not show tumor model antigen reactivity. Unbiased immunogenomic analysis revealed a low overlap of TCRβ sequences from glioma-infiltrating CD8 T cells between mice. Enrichment scores, calculated by the ratio of productive frequencies of the different TCRβ-CDR3 amino-acid (aa) rearrangements of CD8 T cells derived from tumor, TDLN, inguinal lymph nodes, and spleen demonstrated a higher proportion of tumor-associated TCR in the spleen compared to TDLN.

Conclusions: In experimental glioblastoma, our data did not provide evidence that glioma-draining cervical lymph nodes are a robust reservoir for spontaneous glioma-specific T cells highlighting the requirement for detailed analyses of glioma-infiltrating T cells for the discovery of tumor-specific TCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdab147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562732PMC
September 2021

DNA methylation profiling as a model for discovery and precision diagnostics in neuro-oncology.

Neuro Oncol 2021 11;23(23 Suppl 5):S16-S29

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Recent years have witnessed a shift to more objective and biologically-driven methods for central nervous system (CNS) tumor classification. The 2016 world health organization (WHO) classification update ("blue book") introduced molecular diagnostic criteria into the definitions of specific entities as a response to the plethora of evidence that key molecular alterations define distinct tumor types and are clinically meaningful. While in the past such diagnostic alterations included specific mutations, copy number changes, or gene fusions, the emergence of DNA methylation arrays in recent years has similarly resulted in improved diagnostic precision, increased reliability, and has provided an effective framework for the discovery of new tumor types. In many instances, there is an intimate relationship between these mutations/fusions and DNA methylation signatures. The adoption of methylation data into neuro-oncology nosology has been greatly aided by the availability of technology compatible with clinical diagnostics, along with the development of a freely accessible machine learning-based classifier. In this review, we highlight the utility of DNA methylation profiling in CNS tumor classification with a focus on recently described novel and rare tumor types, as well as its contribution to refining existing types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8561128PMC
November 2021

Spontaneous regression of a congenital high-grade glioma-a case report.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab120. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdab120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541705PMC
August 2021

Primary central nervous system sarcoma with DICER1 mutation-treatment results of a novel molecular entity in pediatric Peruvian patients.

Cancer 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Pediatric Oncology Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Lima, Peru.

Background: A high frequency of primary central nervous system (CNS) sarcomas was observed in Peru. This article describes the clinical characteristics, biological characteristics, and outcome of 70 pediatric patients.

Methods: Data from 70 pediatric patients with primary CNS sarcomas diagnosed between January 2005 and June 2018 were analyzed. DNA methylation profiling from 28 tumors and gene panel sequencing from 27 tumors were available.

Results: The median age of the patients was 6 years (range, 2-17.5 years), and 66 of 70 patients had supratentorial tumors. DNA methylation profiling classified 28 of 28 tumors as primary CNS sarcoma, DICER1 mutant. DICER1 mutations were found in 26 of 27 cases, TP53 mutations were found in 22 of 27 cases, and RAS-pathway gene mutations (NF1, KRAS, and NRAS) were found in 19 of 27 tumors, all of which were somatic (germline control available in 19 cases). The estimated incidence in Peru was 0.19 cases per 100,000 children (<18 years old) per year, which is significantly higher than the estimated incidence in Germany (0.007 cases per 100,000 children [<18 years] per year; P < .001). Patients with nonmetastatic disease (n = 46) that were treated with a combination therapy had a 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 58% (95% CI, 44%-76%) and a 2-year overall survival rate of 71% (95% CI, 57%-87%). PFS was the highest in patients treated with chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) after upfront surgery followed by radiotherapy and ICE (2-year PFS, 79% [59%-100%], n = 18).

Conclusions: Primary CNS sarcoma with DICER1 mutation has an aggressive clinical course. A combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy seems beneficial. An underlying cancer predisposition syndrome explaining the increased incidence in Peruvian patients has not been identified so far.

Lay Summary: A high incidence of primary pediatric central nervous system sarcomas in the Peruvian population is described. Using sequencing technologies and DNA methylation profiling, it is confirmed that these tumors molecularly belong to the recently proposed entity "primary central nervous system sarcomas, DICER1 mutant." Unexpectedly, DICER1 mutations as well as all other defining tumor mutations (TP53 mutations and RAS-pathway mutations) were not inherited in all 19 patients where analyzation was possible. These tumors have an aggressive clinical course. Multimodal combination therapy based on surgery, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide chemotherapy, and local radiotherapy leads to superior outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33977DOI Listing
October 2021

Trabectedin for recurrent WHO grade 2 or 3 meningioma: a randomized phase 2 study of the EORTC Brain Tumor Group (EORTC-1320-BTG).

Neuro Oncol 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Leipziger Straße 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

Background: No systemic treatment has been established for meningioma progressing after local therapies.

Methods: This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study included adult patients with recurrent WHO grade 2 or 3 meningioma. Patients were 2:1 randomly assigned to intravenous trabectedin (1.5 mg/m 2 every three weeks) or local standard of care (LOC). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints comprised overall survival (OS), objective radiological response, safety, quality of life (QoL) assessment using the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 questionnaires, and we performed tissue-based exploratory molecular analyses.

Results: Ninety patients were randomized (n=29 in LOC, n=61 in trabectedin arm). With 71 events, median PFS was 4.17 months in the LOC and 2.43 months in the trabectedin arm (hazard ratio [HR]=1.42; 80% CI, 1.00-2.03; p=0.294) with a PFS-6 rate of 29.1% (95% CI, 11.9%-48.8%) and 21.1% (95% CI, 11.3%-32.9%), respectively. Median OS was 10.61 months in the LOC and 11.37 months in the trabectedin arm (HR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.54-1.76; p=0.94). Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 44.4% patients in the LOC and 59% of patients in the trabectedin arm. Enrolled patients had impeded global QoL and overall functionality and high fatigue before initiation of systemic therapy. DNA methylation class, performance status, presence of a relevant co-morbidity, steroid use, and right hemisphere involvement at baseline were independently associated with OS.

Conclusions: Trabectedin did not improve PFS and OS and was associated with higher toxicity than LOC treatment in patients with non-benign meningioma. Tumour DNA methylation class is an independent prognostic factor for OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab243DOI Listing
October 2021

Tryptophan metabolism is inversely regulated in the tumor and blood of patients with glioblastoma.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(19):9217-9233. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

DKTK Brain Cancer Metabolism Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Tryptophan (Trp)-catabolic enzymes (TCEs) produce metabolites that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and promote tumor progression and immunosuppression in glioblastoma. As therapies targeting TCEs or AHR become available, a better understanding of Trp metabolism is required. The combination of LC-MS/MS with chemical isobaric labeling enabled the simultaneous quantitative comparison of Trp and its amino group-bearing metabolites in multiple samples. We applied this method to the sera of a cohort of 43 recurrent glioblastoma patients and 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Tumor volumes were measured in MRI data using an artificial neural network-based approach. MALDI MSI visualized Trp and its direct metabolite -formylkynurenine (FK) in glioblastoma tissue. Analysis of scRNA-seq data was used to detect the presence of Trp metabolism and AHR activity in different cell types in glioblastoma. Compared to healthy controls, glioblastoma patients showed decreased serum Trp levels. Surprisingly, the levels of Trp metabolites were also reduced. The decrease became smaller with more enzymatic steps between Trp and its metabolites, suggesting that Trp availability controls the levels of its systemic metabolites. High tumor volume associated with low systemic metabolite levels and low systemic kynurenine levels associated with worse overall survival. MALDI MSI demonstrated heterogeneity of Trp catabolism across glioblastoma tissues. Analysis of scRNA-seq data revealed that genes involved in Trp metabolism were expressed in almost all the cell types in glioblastoma and that most cell types, in particular macrophages and T cells, exhibited AHR activation. Moreover, high AHR activity associated with reduced overall survival in the glioblastoma TCGA dataset. The novel techniques we developed could support the identification of patients that may benefit from therapies targeting TCEs or AHR activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.60679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490504PMC
September 2021

Integrated Molecular-Morphologic Meningioma Classification: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis, Retrospectively and Prospectively Validated.

J Clin Oncol 2021 12 7;39(34):3839-3852. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Hospital, New York, NY.

Purpose: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary intracranial tumors. Patient outcome varies widely from benign to highly aggressive, ultimately fatal courses. Reliable identification of risk of progression for individual patients is of pivotal importance. However, only biomarkers for highly aggressive tumors are established ( and ), whereas no molecularly based stratification exists for the broad spectrum of patients with low- and intermediate-risk meningioma.

Methods: DNA methylation data and copy-number information were generated for 3,031 meningiomas (2,868 patients), and mutation data for 858 samples. DNA methylation subgroups, copy-number variations (CNVs), mutations, and WHO grading were analyzed. Prediction power for outcome was assessed in a retrospective cohort of 514 patients, validated on a retrospective cohort of 184, and on a prospective cohort of 287 multicenter cases.

Results: Both CNV- and methylation family-based subgrouping independently resulted in increased prediction accuracy of risk of recurrence compared with the WHO classification (c-indexes WHO 2016, CNV, and methylation family 0.699, 0.706, and 0.721, respectively). Merging all risk stratification approaches into an integrated molecular-morphologic score resulted in further substantial increase in accuracy (c-index 0.744). This integrated score consistently provided superior accuracy in all three cohorts, significantly outperforming WHO grading (c-index difference = .005). Besides the overall stratification advantage, the integrated score separates more precisely for risk of progression at the diagnostically challenging interface of WHO grade 1 and grade 2 tumors (hazard ratio 4.34 [2.48-7.57] and 3.34 [1.28-8.72] retrospective and prospective validation cohorts, respectively).

Conclusion: Merging these layers of histologic and molecular data into an integrated, three-tiered score significantly improves the precision in meningioma stratification. Implementation into diagnostic routine informs clinical decision making for patients with meningioma on the basis of robust outcome prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713596PMC
December 2021

Impact of the methylation classifier and ancillary methods on CNS tumor diagnostics.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Accurate CNS tumor diagnosis can be challenging, and methylation profiling can serve as an adjunct to classify diagnostically difficult cases.

Methods: An integrated diagnostic approach was employed for a consecutive series of 1,258 surgical neuropathology samples obtained primarily in a consultation practice over 2-year period. DNA methylation profiling and classification using the DKFZ/Heidelberg CNS tumor classifier was performed, as well as unsupervised analyses of methylation data. Ancillary testing, where relevant, was performed.

Results: Among the received cases in consultation, a high confidence methylation classifier score (>0.84) was reached in 66.4% of cases. The classifier impacted the diagnosis in 46.5% of these high-confidence classifier score cases, including a substantially new diagnosis in 26.9% cases. Among the 289 cases received with only a descriptive diagnosis, methylation was able to resolve approximately half (144, 49.8%) with high-confidence scores. Additional methods were able to resolve diagnostic uncertainty in 41.6% of the low-score cases. Tumor purity was significantly associated with classifier score (p = 1.15e-11). Deconvolution demonstrated that suspected GBMs matching as control/inflammatory brain tissue could be resolved into GBM methylation profiles, which provided a proof-of-concept approach to resolve tumor classification in the setting of low tumor purity.

Conclusions: This work assesses the impact of a methylation classifier and additional methods in a consultative practice by defining the proportions with concordant vs. change in diagnosis in a set of diagnostically challenging CNS tumors. We address approaches to low-confidence scores and confounding issues of low tumor purity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab227DOI Listing
September 2021

Radiation-induced gliomas represent H3-/IDH-wild type pediatric gliomas with recurrent PDGFRA amplification and loss of CDKN2A/B.

Nat Commun 2021 09 20;12(1):5530. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg (KiTZ), Heidelberg University Hospital and German Cancer Resarch Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Long-term complications such as radiation-induced second malignancies occur in a subset of patients following radiation-therapy, particularly relevant in pediatric patients due to the long follow-up period in case of survival. Radiation-induced gliomas (RIGs) have been reported in patients after treatment with cranial irradiation for various primary malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and medulloblastoma (MB). We perform comprehensive (epi-) genetic and expression profiling of RIGs arising after cranial irradiation for MB (n = 23) and ALL (n = 9). Our study reveals a unifying molecular signature for the majority of RIGs, with recurrent PDGFRA amplification and loss of CDKN2A/B and an absence of somatic hotspot mutations in genes encoding histone 3 variants or IDH1/2, uncovering diagnostic markers and potentially actionable targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25708-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452680PMC
September 2021

Molecular profiling of pediatric meningiomas shows tumor characteristics distinct from adult meningiomas.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 11 8;142(5):873-886. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

In contrast to adults, meningiomas are uncommon tumors in childhood and adolescence. Whether adult and pediatric meningiomas differ on a molecular level is unclear. Here we report detailed genomic analyses of 37 pediatric meningiomas by sequencing and DNA methylation profiling. Histologically, the series was dominated by meningioma subtypes with aggressive behavior, with 70% of patients suffering from WHO grade II or III meningiomas. The most frequent cytogenetic aberrations were loss of chromosomes 22 (23/37 [62%]), 1 (9/37 [24%]), 18 (7/37 [19%]), and 14 (5/37 [14%]). Tumors with NF2 alterations exhibited overall increased chromosomal instability. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation profiles revealed separation into three groups: designated group 1 composed of clear cell and papillary meningiomas, whereas group 2A comprised predominantly atypical meningiomas and group 2B enriched for rare high-grade subtypes (rhabdoid, chordoid). Meningiomas from NF2 patients clustered exclusively within groups 1 and 2A. When compared with a dataset of 105 adult meningiomas, the pediatric meningiomas largely grouped separately. Targeted panel DNA sequencing of 34 tumors revealed frequent NF2 alterations, while other typical alterations found in adult non-NF2 tumors were absent. These data demonstrate that pediatric meningiomas are characterized by molecular features distinct from adult tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02351-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500891PMC
November 2021

PATZ1 fusions define a novel molecularly distinct neuroepithelial tumor entity with a broad histological spectrum.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 11 21;142(5):841-857. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Large-scale molecular profiling studies in recent years have shown that central nervous system (CNS) tumors display a much greater heterogeneity in terms of molecularly distinct entities, cellular origins and genetic drivers than anticipated from histological assessment. DNA methylation profiling has emerged as a useful tool for robust tumor classification, providing new insights into these heterogeneous molecular classes. This is particularly true for rare CNS tumors with a broad morphological spectrum, which are not possible to assign as separate entities based on histological similarity alone. Here, we describe a molecularly distinct subset of predominantly pediatric CNS neoplasms (n = 60) that harbor PATZ1 fusions. The original histological diagnoses of these tumors covered a wide spectrum of tumor types and malignancy grades. While the single most common diagnosis was glioblastoma (GBM), clinical data of the PATZ1-fused tumors showed a better prognosis than typical GBM, despite frequent relapses. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent MN1:PATZ1 or EWSR1:PATZ1 fusions related to (often extensive) copy number variations on chromosome 22, where PATZ1 and the two fusion partners are located. These fusions have individually been reported in a number of glial/glioneuronal tumors, as well as extracranial sarcomas. We show here that they are more common than previously acknowledged, and together define a biologically distinct CNS tumor type with high expression of neural development markers such as PAX2, GATA2 and IGF2. Drug screening performed on the MN1:PATZ1 fusion-bearing KS-1 brain tumor cell line revealed preliminary candidates for further study. In summary, PATZ1 fusions define a molecular class of histologically polyphenotypic neuroepithelial tumors, which show an intermediate prognosis under current treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02354-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500868PMC
November 2021

The Pediatric Precision Oncology INFORM Registry: Clinical Outcome and Benefit for Patients with Very High-Evidence Targets.

Cancer Discov 2021 Nov 9;11(11):2764-2779. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

INFORM is a prospective, multinational registry gathering clinical and molecular data of relapsed, progressive, or high-risk pediatric patients with cancer. This report describes long-term follow-up of 519 patients in whom molecular alterations were evaluated according to a predefined seven-scale target prioritization algorithm. Mean turnaround time from sample receipt to report was 25.4 days. The highest target priority level was observed in 42 patients (8.1%). Of these, 20 patients received matched targeted treatment with a median progression-free survival of 204 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 99-not applicable], compared with 117 days (95% CI, 106-143; = 0.011) in all other patients. The respective molecular targets were shown to be predictive for matched treatment response and not prognostic surrogates for improved outcome. Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes were identified in 7.5% of patients, half of which were newly identified through the study. Integrated molecular analyses resulted in a change or refinement of diagnoses in 8.2% of cases. SIGNIFICANCE: The pediatric precision oncology INFORM registry prospectively tested a target prioritization algorithm in a real-world, multinational setting and identified subgroups of patients benefiting from matched targeted treatment with improved progression-free survival, refinement of diagnosis, and identification of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-21-0094DOI Listing
November 2021

Recurrent fusions in PLAGL1 define a distinct subset of pediatric-type supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 11 5;142(5):827-839. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Neuropathology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Ependymomas encompass a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that occur along the entire neuroaxis. In recent years, extensive (epi-)genomic profiling efforts have identified several molecular groups of ependymoma that are characterized by distinct molecular alterations and/or patterns. Based on unsupervised visualization of a large cohort of genome-wide DNA methylation data, we identified a highly distinct group of pediatric-type tumors (n = 40) forming a cluster separate from all established CNS tumor types, of which a high proportion were histopathologically diagnosed as ependymoma. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent fusions involving the pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (PLAGL1) gene in 19 of 20 of the samples analyzed, with the most common fusion being EWSR1:PLAGL1 (n = 13). Five tumors showed a PLAGL1:FOXO1 fusion and one a PLAGL1:EP300 fusion. High transcript levels of PLAGL1 were noted in these tumors, with concurrent overexpression of the imprinted genes H19 and IGF2, which are regulated by PLAGL1. Histopathological review of cases with sufficient material (n = 16) demonstrated a broad morphological spectrum of tumors with predominant ependymoma-like features. Immunohistochemically, tumors were GFAP positive and OLIG2- and SOX10 negative. In 3/16 of the cases, a dot-like positivity for EMA was detected. All tumors in our series were located in the supratentorial compartment. Median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 6.2 years. Median progression-free survival was 35 months (for 11 patients with data available). In summary, our findings suggest the existence of a novel group of supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors that are characterized by recurrent PLAGL1 fusions and enriched for pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02356-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500895PMC
November 2021

An integrative histopathological and epigenetic characterization of primary intracranial mesenchymal tumors, FET:CREB-fused broadening the spectrum of tumor entities in comparison with their soft tissue counterparts.

Brain Pathol 2022 Jan 27;32(1):e13010. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neuropathology, GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

FET:CREB fusions have been described in a variety of tumors from various phenotypes. Recently, these fusion transcripts were reported in intracranial tumors, variably named intracranial mesenchymal myxoid tumors or angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas. Controversy remains concerning the terminology for these tumors. Here, we report 11 cases of central nervous system mesenchymal tumors with proven FET:CREB fusion. Most DNA methylation profiles were not classifiable using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor or Sarcoma Classifier (v11b4/v12.2). However, by using unsupervised t-SNE and hierarchical clustering analyses, six of the cases constituted a distinct cluster. The remaining four tumors showed no obvious relation to any of the other referenced classes but were close to the clusters of extra-CNS angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (n = 1), clear cell sarcomas (n = 1), or solitary fibrous tumors (n = 2). Our findings confirm that intracranial FET:CREB-fused tumors do not represent a single molecular tumor entity, although most samples clustered close to each other, indicating the existence of a distinct epigenetic group that could potentially be partially masked by the low number of cases included. Further analyses are needed to characterize intracranial FET:CREB fused-defined tumors in more detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.13010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713527PMC
January 2022

Development of Randomized Trials in Adults with Medulloblastoma-The Example of EORTC 1634-BTG/NOA-23.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Department of Neuro-Oncology, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Medulloblastoma is a rare brain malignancy. Patients after puberty are rare and bear an intermediate prognosis. Standard treatment consists of maximal resection plus radio-chemotherapy. Treatment toxicity is high and produces disabling long-term side effects. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup is highly overrepresented in the post-pubertal and adult population and can be targeted by smoothened (SMO) inhibitors. No practice-changing prospective randomized data have been generated in adults. The EORTC 1634-BTG/NOA-23 trial will randomize patients between standard-dose vs. reduced-dosed craniospinal radiotherapy and SHH-subgroup patients between the SMO inhibitor sonidegib (Odomzo, Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries, Inc., New York, USA) in addition to standard radio-chemotherapy vs. standard radio-chemotherapy alone to improve outcomes in view of decreased radiotherapy-related toxicity and increased efficacy. We will further investigate tumor tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as magnetic resonance imaging and radiotherapy plans to generate information that helps to further improve treatment outcomes. Given that treatment side effects typically occur late, long-term follow-up will monitor classic side effects of therapy, but also health-related quality of life, cognition, social and professional outcome, and reproduction and fertility. In summary, we will generate unprecedented data that will be translated into treatment changes in post-pubertal patients with medulloblastoma and will help to design future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303185PMC
July 2021

A novel patient stratification strategy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of dasatinib in glioblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2022 01;24(1):39-51

Brain Tumor Translational Targets, DKFZ Junior Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignancy of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis. Genomic signatures classify isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH)-wildtype glioblastoma into three subtypes: proneural, mesenchymal, and classical. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of proto-oncogene kinase Src (SRC), is one of many therapeutics which, despite promising preclinical results, have failed to improve overall survival in glioblastoma patients in clinical trials. We examined whether glioblastoma subtypes differ in their response to dasatinib and could hence be evaluated for patient enrichment strategies in clinical trials.

Methods: We carried out in silico analyses on glioblastoma gene expression (TCGA) and single-cell RNA-Seq data. In addition, in vitro experiments using glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) derived from primary patient tumors were performed, with complementary gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor samples.

Results: Patients with the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma showed higher SRC pathway activation based on gene expression profiling. Accordingly, mesenchymal GSCs were more sensitive to SRC inhibition by dasatinib compared to proneural and classical GSCs. Notably, SRC phosphorylation status did not predict response to dasatinib treatment. Furthermore, serpin peptidase inhibitor clade H member 1 (SERPINH1), a collagen-related heat-shock protein associated with cancer progression, was shown to correlate with dasatinib response and with the mesenchymal subtype.

Conclusion: This work highlights further molecular-based patient selection strategies in clinical trials and suggests the mesenchymal subtype as well as SERPINH1 to be associated with response to dasatinib. Our findings indicate that stratification based on gene expression subtyping should be considered in future dasatinib trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8730774PMC
January 2022

EANO guideline on the diagnosis and management of meningiomas.

Neuro Oncol 2021 11;23(11):1821-1834

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Center, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumors. Yet, only few controlled clinical trials have been conducted to guide clinical decision making, resulting in variations of management approaches across countries and centers. However, recent advances in molecular genetics and clinical trial results help to refine the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to meningioma. Accordingly, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) updated its recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of meningiomas. A provisional diagnosis of meningioma is typically made by neuroimaging, mostly magnetic resonance imaging. Such provisional diagnoses may be made incidentally. Accordingly, a significant proportion of meningiomas, notably in patients that are asymptomatic or elderly or both, may be managed by a watch-and-scan strategy. A surgical intervention with tissue, commonly with the goal of gross total resection, is required for the definitive diagnosis according to the WHO classification. A role for molecular profiling including gene panel sequencing and genomic methylation profiling is emerging. A gross total surgical resection including the involved dura is often curative. Inoperable or recurrent tumors requiring treatment can be treated with radiosurgery, if the size or the vicinity of critical structures allows that, or with fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Treatment concepts combining surgery and radiosurgery or fractionated RT are increasingly used, although there remain controversies regard timing, type, and dosing of the various RT approaches. Radionuclide therapy targeting somatostatin receptors is an experimental approach, as are all approaches of systemic pharmacotherapy. The best albeit modest results with pharmacotherapy have been obtained with bevacizumab or multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, but no standard of care systemic treatment has been yet defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563316PMC
November 2021

Cross-Species Genomics Reveals Oncogenic Dependencies in ZFTA/C11orf95 Fusion-Positive Supratentorial Ependymomas.

Cancer Discov 2021 Sep 20;11(9):2230-2247. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Molecular groups of supratentorial ependymomas comprise tumors with or -involving fusions and fusion-negative subependymoma. However, occasionally supratentorial ependymomas cannot be readily assigned to any of these groups due to lack of detection of a typical fusion and/or ambiguous DNA methylation-based classification. An unbiased approach with a cohort of unprecedented size revealed distinct methylation clusters composed of tumors with ependymal but also various other histologic features containing alternative translocations that shared as a partner gene. Somatic overexpression of -associated fusion genes in the developing cerebral cortex is capable of inducing tumor formation , and cross-species comparative analyses identified as a key downstream regulator of tumorigenesis in all tumors. Targeting GLI2 with arsenic trioxide caused extended survival of tumor-bearing animals, indicating a potential therapeutic vulnerability in ZFTA fusion-positive tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: fusions are a hallmark feature of supratentorial ependymoma. We find that ZFTA acts as a partner for alternative transcriptional activators in oncogenic fusions of supratentorial tumors with various histologic characteristics. Establishing representative mouse models, we identify potential therapeutic targets shared by fusion-positive tumors, such as GLI2..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0963DOI Listing
September 2021

Glioblastomas with primitive neuronal component harbor a distinct methylation and copy-number profile with inactivation of TP53, PTEN, and RB1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 07 19;142(1):179-189. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

Glioblastoma IDH-wildtype presents with a wide histological spectrum. Some features are so distinctive that they are considered as separate histological variants or patterns for the purpose of classification. However, these usually lack defined (epi-)genetic alterations or profiles correlating with this histology. Here, we describe a molecular subtype with overlap to the unique histological pattern of glioblastoma with primitive neuronal component. Our cohort consists of 63 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas that harbor a characteristic DNA methylation profile. Median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years. Copy-number variations and genetic sequencing revealed frequent alterations in TP53, RB1 and PTEN, with fewer gains of chromosome 7 and homozygous CDKN2A/B deletions than usually described for IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. Gains of chromosome 1 were detected in more than half of the cases. A poorly differentiated phenotype with frequent absence of GFAP expression, high proliferation index and strong staining for p53 and TTF1 often caused misleading histological classification as carcinoma metastasis or primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Clinically, many patients presented with leptomeningeal dissemination and spinal metastasis. Outcome was poor with a median overall survival of only 12 months. Overall, we describe a new molecular subtype of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma with a distinct histological appearance and genetic signature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02302-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217054PMC
July 2021

Clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the genitourinary tract: evidence for a distinct DICER1-associated subgroup.

Mod Pathol 2021 08 12;34(8):1558-1569. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Pathology, Department of General Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the uterus has recently been shown to frequently harbor DICER1 mutations. Interestingly, only rare cases of extrauterine DICER1-associated ERMS, mostly located in the genitourinary tract, have been reported to date. Our goal was to study clinicopathologic and molecular profiles of DICER1-mutant (DICER1-mut) and DICER1-wild type (DICER1-wt) ERMS in a cohort of genitourinary tumors. We collected a cohort of 17 ERMS including nine uterine (four uterine corpus and five cervix), one vaginal, and seven urinary tract tumors. DNA sequencing revealed mutations of DICER1 in 9/9 uterine ERMS. All other ERMS of our cohort were DICER1-wt. The median age at diagnosis of patients with DICER1-mut and DICER1-wt ERMS was 36 years and 5 years, respectively. Limited follow-up data (available for 15/17 patients) suggested that DICER1-mut ERMS might show a less aggressive clinical course than DICER1-wt ERMS. Histological features only observed in DICER1-mut ERMS were cartilaginous nodules (6/9 DICER1-mut ERMS), in one case accompanied by foci of ossification. Recurrent mutations identified in both DICER1-mut and DICER1-wt ERMS affected KRAS, NRAS, and TP53. Copy number analysis revealed similar structural variations with frequent gains on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8, independent of DICER1 mutation status. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of array-based whole-genome DNA methylation data of our study cohort together with an extended methylation data set including different RMS subtypes from genitourinary and extra-genitourinary locations (n = 102), revealed a distinct cluster for DICER1-mut ERMS. Such tumors clearly segregated from the clusters of DICER1-wt ERMS, alveolar RMS, and MYOD1-mutant spindle cell and sclerosing RMS. Only one tumor, previously diagnosed as ERMS arising in the maxilla of a 6-year-old boy clustered with DICER1-mut ERMS of the uterus. Subsequent sequencing analysis identified two DICER1 mutations in the latter case. Our results suggest that DICER1-mut ERMS might qualify as a distinct subtype in future classifications of RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00804-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295035PMC
August 2021

The Prognostic Value of Methylation Signatures and Mutations in Atypical Meningiomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

: Due to the solely subjective histopathological assessment, the WHO 2016 classification of human meningiomas is subject to interobserver variation. Consequently, the need for more reliable and objective markers are highly needed. The aim of this pilot study was to apply genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on a series of atypical meningiomas to evaluate the practical utility of this approach, examine whether prognostic subclasses are achieved and investigate whether there is an association between the methylation subclasses with poor prognosis and time to recurrence. mutation analyses were also performed to explore the prognostic value of such mutations in these atypical meningiomas. : Twenty intracranial WHO grade II atypical meningiomas from adult patients were included. They consisted of 10 cases with recurrence (group I), and 10 cases without recurrence (). The formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues underwent standardized genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, and the profiles were matched with the reference library and tumor classifier from Heidelberg. somatic mutation analyses were performed using the CNSv1panel from Düsseldorf. : Eighteen out of 20 cases matched to the meningioma class using the common brain tumor classifier (v11b4). Four of these cases matched to a methylation subclass related to a prognostic subgroup based on a cut-off of 0.9. mutations were detected in 55% of cases across both groups, and the most prominent copy number alterations were chromosomal losses of 22q, 1p and 14q. No significant mutations were identified. : Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling represents a useful tool in the diagnostics of meningiomas, however, methodological adjustments need to be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001619PMC
March 2021

Primary CNS lymphoma after CLIPPERS: a case series.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 12 31;92(12):1348-1349. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-325759DOI Listing
December 2021

A vaccine targeting mutant IDH1 in newly diagnosed glioma.

Nature 2021 04 24;592(7854):463-468. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Neurology Clinic, Heidelberg University Hospital, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) defines a molecularly distinct subtype of diffuse glioma. The most common IDH1 mutation in gliomas affects codon 132 and encodes IDH1(R132H), which harbours a shared clonal neoepitope that is presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. An IDH1(R132H)-specific peptide vaccine (IDH1-vac) induces specific therapeutic T helper cell responses that are effective against IDH1(R132H) tumours in syngeneic MHC-humanized mice. Here we describe a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, first-in-humans phase I trial that we carried out in 33 patients with newly diagnosed World Health Organization grade 3 and 4 IDH1(R132H) astrocytomas (Neurooncology Working Group of the German Cancer Society trial 16 (NOA16), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02454634). The trial met its primary safety endpoint, with vaccine-related adverse events restricted to grade 1. Vaccine-induced immune responses were observed in 93.3% of patients across multiple MHC alleles. Three-year progression-free and death-free rates were 0.63 and 0.84, respectively. Patients with immune responses showed a two-year progression-free rate of 0.82. Two patients without an immune response showed tumour progression within two years of first diagnosis. A mutation-specificity score that incorporates the duration and level of vaccine-induced IDH1(R132H)-specific T cell responses was associated with intratumoral presentation of the IDH1(R132H) neoantigen in pre-treatment tumour tissue. There was a high frequency of pseudoprogression, which indicates intratumoral inflammatory reactions. Pseudoprogression was associated with increased vaccine-induced peripheral T cell responses. Combined single-cell RNA and T cell receptor sequencing showed that tumour-infiltrating CD40LG and CXCL13 T helper cell clusters in a patient with pseudoprogression were dominated by a single IDH1(R132H)-reactive T cell receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03363-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046668PMC
April 2021
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