Publications by authors named "Felix Bolinski"

9 Publications

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Online prevention programmes for university students: stakeholder perspectives from six European countries.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i64-i70

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Background: Students beginning university are at a heightened risk for developing mental health disorders. Online prevention and early intervention programmes targeting mental health have the potential to reduce this risk, however, previous research has shown uptake to be rather poor. Understanding university stakeholders' (e.g. governing level and delivery staff [DS] and students) views and attitudes towards such online prevention programmes could help with their development, implementation and dissemination within university settings.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and online surveys were completed with staff at a governing level, university students and DS (i.e. student health or teaching staff) from six European countries. They were asked about their experiences with, and needs and attitudes towards, online prevention programmes, as well as the factors that influence the translation of these programmes into real-world settings. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: Participating stakeholders knew little about online prevention programmes for university settings; however, they viewed them as acceptable. The main themes to emerge were the basic conditions and content of the programmes, the awareness and engagement, the resources needed, the usability and the responsibility and ongoing efforts to increase reach.

Conclusions: Overall, although these stakeholders had little knowledge about online prevention programmes, they were open to the idea of introducing them. They could see the potential benefits that these programmes might bring to a university setting as a whole and the individual students and staff members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab040DOI Listing
July 2021

Physiological and self-reported arousal in virtual reality versus face-to-face emotional activation and cognitive restructuring in university students: A crossover experimental study using wearable monitoring.

Behav Res Ther 2021 07 11;142:103877. Epub 2021 May 11.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Clinical, Neuro- & Developmental Psychology, Section of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Arousal may be important for learning to restructure ones' negative cognitions, a core technique in depression treatment. In virtual reality (VR), situations may be experienced more vividly than, e.g., in an imaginative approach, potentially aiding the emotional activation of negative cognitions. However, it is unclear whether such activation and subsequent cognitive restructuring in VR elicits more physiological, e.g. changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and self-reported arousal.

Method: In a cross-over experiment, 41 healthy students experienced two sets, one in VR, one face-to-face (F2F), of three situations aimed at activating negative cognitions. Order of the sets and mode of delivery were randomised. A wristband wearable monitored SC and HR; self-reported arousal was registered verbally.

Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed significantly more SC peaks per minute, F (1, 40) = 13.89, p = .001, higher mean SC, F (1,40) = 7.47, p = .001, and higher mean HR, F (1, 40) = 75.84, p < .001 in VR compared to F2F. No differences emerged on the paired-samples t-test for self-reported arousal, t (40) = -1.35, p = .18.

Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that emotional activation and subsequent cognitive restructuring in VR can lead to significantly more physiological arousal compared to an imaginative approach. These findings need to be replicated before they can be extended to patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2021.103877DOI Listing
July 2021

Online therapy: an added value for inpatient routine care? Perspectives from mental health care professionals.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics E.V. (DGPPN), Reinhardtstraße 27b, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in treating mental disorders. However, their rate of use in German psychiatric inpatient routine care is low. The current study aimed to investigate the attitude of mental health care professionals working in inpatient care regarding internet-delivered interventions, including presumed benefits, barriers and facilitators. In total, 176 health professionals from ten inpatient psychiatric hospitals throughout Germany were surveyed on site. The professionals' attitude towards internet-delivered interventions in inpatient care was assessed by an adapted version of the 'Attitude toward Telemedicine in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy' (ATTiP) questionnaire. To identify benefits, barriers and facilitators, we developed open-response questions that were based on the 'Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology' (UTAUT) and analyzed by a qualitative content analysis. Professionals reported little experience or knowledge about internet-delivered interventions. Their attitude towards internet-delivered interventions in psychiatric inpatient care was rather indifferent. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were an optimised treatment structure and patient empowerment; the most frequently anticipated barriers were too severe symptoms of patients, the feared neglect of face-to-face contacts and insufficient technical equipment; and the most frequently mentioned facilitators were high usability of the internet-based intervention, a sufficient functional level of the patient and further education of staff. For successful implementation in the inpatient sector, internet-delivered interventions must be adapted to the special needs of severely mentally ill patients and to the hospital management systems and workflow. In addition, technical preconditions (internet access, devices) must be met. Last, further education of mental health care professionals is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-021-01251-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961170PMC
March 2021

Mediators in psychological and psychoeducational interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety. A systematic review.

Clin Psychol Rev 2020 03 8;76:101813. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), C/ Sevilla 23, 29009 Málaga, Spain; Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network (redIAPP), ISCIII, Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 587, 08007 Barcelona, Spain.

Although efforts have been undertaken to determine how psychological interventions exert their effects, research on mediators and mechanisms of change remains limited, especially in the field of prevention. We aimed to assess available evidence on mediators of psychological and psychoeducational interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety in varied populations. A systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, OpenGrey, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility criteria of all articles, extracted data, determined the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials, and the requirements for mediators. The outcomes were mediators of the incidence of depression or anxiety and/or the reduction of symptoms of depression or anxiety. We identified 28 nested mediator studies within randomized controlled trials involving 7442 participants. Potential cognitive, behavioral, emotional and interpersonal mediators were evaluated in different psychological and psychoeducational interventions to prevent depression and anxiety. The effects were mediated mainly by cognitive variables, which were the most commonly assessed factors. For depression, the mediator with the strongest empirical support was negative thinking in adults. Cognitive change is an important mediator in preventive psychological and psychoeducational interventions for both anxiety and depression. REGISTRATION DETAILS: Registration number (PROSPERO): CRD42018092393.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101813DOI Listing
March 2020

Adherence Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials Examining Manualized Multisession Online Interventions: Systematic Review of Practices and Proposal for Reporting Standards.

J Med Internet Res 2019 08 15;21(8):e14181. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Faculty of Psychology, School of Science, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Adherence reflects the extent to which individuals experience or engage with the content of online interventions and poses a major challenge. Neglecting to examine and report adherence and its relation to outcomes can compromise the interpretation of research findings.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze how adherence is accounted for in publications and to propose standards for measuring and reporting adherence to online interventions.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials on online interventions for the prevention and treatment of common mental disorders (depression, anxiety disorders, substance related disorders, and eating disorders) published between January 2006 and May 2018 and indexed in Medline and Web of Science. We included primary publications on manualized online treatments (more than 1 session and successive access to content) and examined how adherence was reported in these publications.

Results: We identified 216 publications that met our inclusion criteria. Adherence was addressed in 85% of full-text manuscripts, but only in 31% of abstracts. A median of three usage metrics were reported; the most frequently reported usage metric (61%) was intervention completion. Manuscripts published in specialized electronic health journals more frequently included information on the relation of adherence and outcomes.

Conclusions: We found substantial variety in the reporting of adherence and the usage metrics used to operationalize adherence. This limits the comparability of results and impedes the integration of findings from different studies. Based on our findings, we propose reporting standards for future publications on online interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713038PMC
August 2019

Examining the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for symptoms of depression and anxiety in college students: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2019 05 14;9(5):e028739. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Clinical, Neuro, and Developmental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The college years are a peak period for the onset of common mental disorders. Poor mental health is associated with low academic attainment, physical, interpersonal and cognitive impairments. Universities can use online approaches to screen students for mental disorders and treat those in need. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of a guided web-based transdiagnostic individually tailored intervention to treat students with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety.

Methods: : The present study is a randomised controlled trial. Participants are Dutch college students (≥18 years) with mild to moderate depression and/or anxiety symptoms. The intervention is a guided web-based transdiagnostic individually tailored intervention that targets symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. The intervention consists of seven online sessions with a duration ranging from 4 to 7 weeks depending on individual progress. A booster session is administered 4 weeks after the completion of the seventh session. Primary outcome measures are the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale for anxiety. These scales are administered at screening, post-treatment and follow-up assessments (6 and 12 months post-randomisation). : THICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Medical Ethics Committee of the Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre has approved the protocol (registration number 2016.583, A2017.362andA2018.421). Results of the trial will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial Registration Number: NTR6797; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530301PMC
May 2019

Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of guided and unguided internet- and mobile-based indicated transdiagnostic prevention of depression and anxiety (ICare Prevent): A three-armed randomized controlled trial in four European countries.

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 15;16:52-64. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Nägelsbachstraße 25a, Germany.

Background: Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and often co-occur. Several studies indicate the potential of disorder-specific psychological interventions for the prevention of each of these disorders. To treat comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment concepts seem to be a promising approach, however, evidence for transdiagnostic concepts of prevention remains inconclusive. Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) may be an effective means to deliver psychological interventions on a large scale for the prevention of common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression and anxiety. IMIs have been shown to be effective in treating CMDs, e.g. in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, there is a lack of studies examining the efficacy of interventions reducing the incidence of CMDs. Moreover, the comparative cost-effectiveness of guided versus unguided IMIs for the prevention of depression and anxiety has not been studied yet. Hence, this study aims at investigating the (cost-) effectiveness of guided and unguided internet- and mobile-based transdiagnostic individually tailored indicated prevention of depression and anxiety.

Methods: A multi-country three-armed randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare a guided and unguided intervention to treatment as usual (TAU). Both active conditions are based on the same intervention, , and differ only with regard to guidance format. Altogether, 954 individuals with subclinical symptoms of depression (CES-D ≥ 16) and anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 5) who do not have a full-blown disorder will be recruited in Germany, Switzerland, Spain and the Netherlands, and randomized to one of three conditions (guided intervention, unguided intervention, or TAU). The TAU arm will receive access to the training after a 12-month waiting period. The primary outcome will be time to CMD onset (any depression/anxiety disorder) within a follow-up period of 12 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes will include disorder-specific symptom severity (depression/anxiety) assessed by diagnostic raters blinded to intervention condition at post-intervention, self-reports, acceptability, health related quality of life, and psychosocial variables associated with developing a CMD. Assessments will take place at baseline, mid-intervention (5 weeks into the intervention), post-intervention (8 weeks after randomization) and follow-up (6 and 12 months after randomization). Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from a public health and a societal perspective, including both direct and indirect costs.

Discussion: The present study will further enhance the evidence-base for transdiagnostic preventive interventions and provide valuable information about optimal trade-off between treatment outcome and costs.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS - http://www.drks.de/drks_web/): DRKS00011099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364519PMC
April 2019

Assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of ICare internet-based interventions (protocol).

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 27;16:12-19. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

TechnischeUniversität Dresden, School of Science, Faculty of Psychology, Chair ofClinical Psychology and E-Mental-Health, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

Background: Mental health problems are common and place a burden on the individual as well as on societal resources. Despite the existence of evidence-based treatments, access to treatment is often prevented or delayed due to insufficient health care resources. Effective internet-based self-help interventions have the potential to reduce the risk for mental health problems, to successfully bridge waiting time for face-to-face treatment and to address inequities in access. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. This paper describes the study protocol for the economic evaluation of the studies that form the ICare programme of internet-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of a range of mental health problems.

Methods: An overarching work package within the ICare programme was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the internet-based interventions alongside the clinical trials. There are two underlying tasks in the ICare economic evaluation. First, to develop schedules that generate equivalent and comparable information on use of services and supports across seven countries taking part in clinical trials of different interventions and second, to estimate unit costs for each service and support used. From these data the cost per person will be estimated by multiplying each participant's use of each service by the unit cost for that service. Additionally, productivity losses will be estimated. This individual level of cost data matches the level of outcome data used in the clinical trials. Following the analyses of service use and costs data, joint analysis of costs and outcomes will be undertaken to provide findings on the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions, taking both a public sector and a societal perspective. These analyses use a well-established framework, the Production of Welfare approach, and standard methods and techniques underpinned by economic theory.

Discussion/conclusion: Existing research tends to support the effectiveness of internet-based interventions, but there is little information on their cost-effectiveness compared to 'treatment as usual'. The economic evaluation of ICare interventions will add considerably to this evidence base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364355PMC
April 2019

Effectiveness of a transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based and mobile-supported intervention for the indicated prevention of depression and anxiety (ICare Prevent) in Dutch college students: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2018 Feb 20;19(1):118. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Clinical, Neuro-, and Developmental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, BT 1081, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Depression and anxiety are common and co-morbid disorders that affect a significant proportion of students. Innovative prevention strategies targeting both conditions are needed to reduce their health burden and costs. ICare Prevent is such an innovative strategy and contains a transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based and mobile-supported intervention. It addresses common risk factors of depression and anxiety as part of a large EU-funded multi-country project* (ICare). Little is known about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this type of intervention compared to care as usual (CAU) for college students. We hypothesize that ICare Prevent will be more (cost-)effective than CAU in the reduction of symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Methods: A three-arm, parallel, randomized controlled superiority trial will be conducted comparing a guided and an unguided version of ICare Prevent with a control group receiving CAU. The trial will be open-label but outcome assessors will be blinded. A total of 252 college students (age ≥ 16 years) with subclinical symptoms of depression defined as a score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and/or anxiety, defined as a score ≥ 5 on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), will be included. Those meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder will be excluded. The primary outcome is change in disorder specific symptom severity from baseline to post-intervention. Secondary endpoints include self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms as well as time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder until 12-month follow-up. Societal costs and quality of life will be assessed to estimate the intervention's cost-effectiveness compared to CAU.

Discussion: Transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based prevention could be a (cost-)effective approach to tackle the disease burden of depression and anxiety among college students.

Trial Registration: Dutch trial register, NTR 6562 . Registered on 6 July 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2477-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819200PMC
February 2018
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