Publications by authors named "Felipe P Carpes"

78 Publications

Asymmetric velocity profiles in Paralympic powerlifters performing at different exercise intensities are detected by functional data analysis.

J Biomech 2021 May 15;123:110523. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Brazilian Paralympic Reference Center, Sports Training Center, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Asymmetries compromise performance in powerlifting and Paralympic powerlifting, but its quantification can be complex. Previous studies consider average or peak values to quantify asymmetries, however this approach does not consider the pattern of movement like velocity profiles. Here we demonstrate that conducting a functional analysis of variance (FANOVA) permits to quantify asymmetries in bench press performance by Paralympic powerlifting at different submaximal intensities. Kinematic data were collected from 10 Paralympic powerlifting athletes performing in bench press at submaximal intensities (50% and 90% of the one-repetition maximum). Linear velocity was quantified considering mean values and the entire waveform. Mean values were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the waveforms were compared by FANOVA. FANOVA identified asymmetry profiles that ANOVA did not recognize at the highest intensity, which is the closest to a competition. This way, FANOVA can bring advantages to the analysis of competitive performance. FANOVA data analysis identifies asymmetries at higher intensity of effort considering the whole pattern of movement. Therefore, we consider that the FANOVA's approach may benefit the biomechanical assessment of the Paralympic powerlifting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110523DOI Listing
May 2021

Different visual manipulations have similar effects on quasi-static and dynamic balance responses of young and older people.

PeerJ 2021 11;9:e11221. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Human Locomotion, Institute of Human Movement Science & Health, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.

Background: Studies demonstrated that the older adults can be more susceptible to balance instability after acute visual manipulation. There are different manipulation approaches used to investigate the importance of visual inputs on balance, e.g., eyes closed and blackout glasses. However, there is evidence that eyes open versus eyes closed results in a different organization of human brain functional networks. It is, however, unclear how different visual manipulations affect balance, and whether such effects differ between young and elderly persons. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether different visual manipulation approaches affect quasi-static and dynamic balance responses differently, and to investigate whether balance responses of young and older adults are affected differently by these various visual conditions.

Methods: Thirty-six healthy participants (20 young and 16 older adults) performed balance tests (quasi-static and unexpected perturbations) under four visual conditions: Eyes Open, Eyes Closed, Blackout Glasses, and Dark Room. Center of pressure (CoP) and muscle activation (EMG) were quantified.

Results: As expected, visual deprivation resulted in larger CoP excursions and higher muscle activations during balance tests for all participants. Surprisingly, the visual manipulation approach did not influence balance control in either group. Furthermore, quasi-static and dynamic balance control did not differ between young or older adults. The visual system plays an important role in balance control, however, similarly for both young and older adults. Different visual deprivation approaches did not influence balance results, meaning our results are comparable between participants of different ages. Further studies should investigate whether a critical illumination level may elicit different postural responses between young and older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121054PMC
May 2021

Effects of a rebound shoe to reduce impact forces in jump-landing tasks.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2021 Apr 6;26:77-83. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Impact forces are risk factors for injuries during jump-landing tasks. Rebound shoes could reduce impact forces and show potential applications in training and rehabilitation programs. Here, we determine the capacity of a rebound shoe in attenuating impact forces during different motor tasks involving foot landing.

Design: Crossover laboratory research design.

Settings: Women not trained for jump-landing tasks performed different exercises while the vertical ground reaction force impact peak, time to peak, and asymmetries were determined. They were wearing a commercial rebound shoe and a control running shoe. Paired t-tests were used to compare the shoes and asymmetries.

Participants: Fifteen physically active women (average age of 23 years old, height of 1.64 m, and body mass of 63 kg).

Main Outcome Measures: Ground reaction forces.

Results: The rebound shoe reduced the impact peak force and elicited slight asymmetries between the legs. The rebound shoe also showed a longer time to peak.

Conclusions: The rebound shoe tested reduced impact forces during jump-landing tasks, which is a potential application in training sessions and rehabilitation programs, requiring lower impact forces to the lower extremity. The effects of long-term use of these shoes still need to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.12.033DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional data analysis reveals asymmetrical crank torque during cycling performed at different exercise intensities.

J Biomech 2021 Jun 24;122:110478. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pedaling asymmetry is claimed as a factor of influence on injury and performance. However, the evidence is still controversial. Most previous studies determined peak torque asymmetries, which in our understanding does not consider the pattern of movement like torque profiles. Here we demonstrate that asymmetries in pedaling torque at different exercise intensities can be better described when the torque profiles are considered using functional analysis of variance than when only the peak values are analyzed. We compared peak torques and torque curves recorded while cyclists pedaled at submaximal intensities of 60%, 80%, and 95% of the maximal power output and compared data between the preferred and non-preferred legs. ANOVA showed symmetry or rather no difference in the amount of peak torque between legs, regardless of pedaling intensity. FANOVA, on the other hand, revealed significant asymmetries between legs, regardless of cycling intensity, apparently for different sections of the cycle, however, not for peak torque, either. We conclude that pedaling asymmetry cannot be quantified solely by peak torques and considering the analysis of the entire movement cycle can more accurately reflect the biomechanical movement pattern. Therefore, FANOVA data analysis could be an alternative to identify asymmetries. A novel approach as described here might be useful when combining kinetics assessment with other approaches like EMG and kinematics and help to better understand the role of pedaling asymmetries for performance and injury risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110478DOI Listing
June 2021

Do the heel-rise test and isometric strength improve after Achilles tendon repair using Dresden technique?

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Universidade Federal do Pampa #97500-970, Campus Uruguaiana, Uruguaiana, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Achilles' tendon ruptures result in impaired plantar flexion strength and endurance. It is interesting to know the plantar flexion strength, the number of heel-rise repetitions, and the maximal calf circumference following Achilles' tendon ruptures repair.

Methods: Both the injured and non-injured legs of thirty male patients with Achilles' tendon ruptures treated with the percutaneous Dresden technique were compared with the ankle function of 30 healthy participants. Rehabilitation involved partial weight-bearing for three weeks and then increased to full weight-bearing and ankle exercises.

Results: The injured legs had weaker plantar flexion strength (1.64 ± 0.17 Nm/kg) compared with the non-injured legs (1.91 ± 0.24 Nm/kg; p = 0.002) and the healthy participants' legs (1.93 ± 0.32 Nm/kg; p < 0.001). The non-injured leg had greater ability in doing heel-rise repetitions (39.4 ± 6.1 rep.) compared with the injured legs (37.2 ± 5.7 rep.; p < 0.023) and the healthy participants' legs (31.0 ± 13.0 rep.; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The injured leg had not recovered full isometric strength but had improved heel-rise repetition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2021.01.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Video-based biomechanical analysis of an unexpected Achilles tendon rupture in an Olympic sprinter.

J Biomech 2021 03 15;117:110246. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

We used image-processing techniques to determine the moment (i.e., image frame) of the Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in an Olympic sprinter. This report may be unique due to the difficulty in conducting motion capture analyses during injury events. Our report includes one female Olympic sprinter, 29 years old (body mass: 56 kg, height: 1.68 m, and body mass index: 19.8 kg/m) with a high-competitive profile history (2008 and 2012 Olympic Games participation; South American record holder in 100- and 200-m; Pan-American gold medalist in 200-m and 4 × 100-m relay) who suffered a complete AT rupture in the left leg while exercising in the final phase of rehabilitation following an Achilles tendinopathy in the contralateral limb. The greater dorsiflexion found at the moment of the injury and the delayed control of heel position indicated the presence of uncontrolled dorsiflexion, which potentially generated excessive eccentric stress over the tendon and, thus, the AT rupture. Here we discuss the relevance of lower leg alignment, the movements' characteristics, and the history of Achilles tendinopathy in the contralateral leg on the occurrence of the AT rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110246DOI Listing
March 2021

Programming course for health science as a strategy to engage students during the coronavirus pandemic.

Adv Physiol Educ 2021 Mar;45(1):53-58

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil.

Programming is an important skill for different areas of knowledge. While in the past, programming skills were much more related to fields of computer sciences and engineering, today, professionals from different areas benefit from the ability to write codes for different applications. Furthermore, programming stimulates logical thinking, which impacts other personal abilities. Health science students have limited exposure to programming during their studies. Aware of this and considering the prolonged time in social distancing in Brazil due to the SARS-COV2 pandemic in 2020, we organized an outreach course dedicated to teaching introductory concepts of programming for health science students. The activity was developed fully online using the Zoom web conference agent, lasting 12 wk (8 synchronous classes, 15 synchronous hours in total), and attended by 27 undergraduate and graduate students from two different universities. A collaborative problem-based learning and group-learning methodology were developed through asynchronous homework and mainly online synchronous activities. In this article, we describe our approach and provide some suggestions for replicating the course in other universities. We observed that the activities of the outreach course improved programming skills and confidence for most of the students. More importantly, it piqued their interest enough to motivate them to continue to practice writing and testing their programs. We concluded that an outreach course dedicated to programming promoted improvements in programming skills in health science students. Furthermore, the program was an opportunity to keep the students active in science while working from their homes during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00183.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083174PMC
March 2021

Biomechanics without Borders: Teaching Biomechanics in Brazil and South Africa.

Adv Physiol Educ 2021 Mar;45(1):34-36

Applied Neuromechanics Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil.

The "Biomechanics without Borders: Teaching Biomechanics in Brazil and South Africa" involved academics from different countries combining efforts to improve remote education. In addition to the live discussions, the event resulted in the availability of online content to help academic staffs improve teaching strategies in the field of human movement sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00182.2020DOI Listing
March 2021

Strength training or green tea prevent memory deficits in a β-amyloid peptide-mediated Alzheimer's disease model.

Exp Gerontol 2021 01 3;143:111186. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Applied Neuromechanics Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Antioxidant supplementation and physical exercise have been discussed as strategies to minimize neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the neuroprotective effects of strength exercise (StrEx) and green tea (GT) supplementation, combined or not, on memory impairments induced by β-amyloid characterizing an AD-like condition in rats. Wistar rats were submitted to 8 weeks of StrEx, GT supplementation, or StrEx and GT combined. AD-like condition was induced by injection of Aβ (25-35) in the hippocampus. We evaluate object recognition (OR) and social recognition (SR) memory, and removed the rats' hippocampus for biochemical analysis. StrEx improved OR and SR. StrEx combined with GT improved OR and did not improve SR. GT reduced antioxidant capacity and improved acetylcholinesterase activity. Both strength exercise and green tea are neuroprotective against impairments resultant of β-amyloid, but benefits do not add up when the two interventions are associated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111186DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of asymmetrical exercise demands on the symmetry of skin temperature in archers.

Physiol Meas 2020 12 11;41(11):114002. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Research Group in Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: To analyse skin temperature asymmetries in response to asymmetrical exercise demand in archers.

Approach: The skin temperature of the trunk and upper limbs was measured in 30 archers with an infrared camera at three different moments: before (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 10 min after (Post) a simulated competition (18 warm-up shots and 72 qualifying round shots). Relative and absolute asymmetries were determined. Stepwise multiple linear regressions were performed using the variations of relative and absolute skin temperature asymmetries as predicting variables, and sex, age, experience, body mass index, bow mass, bow power, and rate of perceived exertion of competition as inputs.

Main Results: Relative symmetry values were lower, i.e. more negative values indicating more asymmetry (higher skin temperature on the bow side, p < 0.05 and ES > 0.5) in the Post than in the Pre moment in the upper back (95% CI [0.1, 0.4 °C]), posterior shoulder (95% CI [0.0, 0.5 °C]), posterior arm (95% CI [0.0, 0.6 °C]) and posterior elbow (95% CI [0.4, 0.9 °C]). Absolute asymmetries were higher (p < 0.01 and ES > 0.8) in the Post than in the Pre moment in the chest (95% CI [0.1, 0.4 °C]), upper back (95% CI [0.1, 0.3 °C]), posterior shoulder (95% CI [0.1, 0.5 °C]) and posterior elbow (95% CI [0.2, 0.7 °C]). The variation of asymmetries after competition could be explained by factors such as experience, effort perception, sex, and bow mass.

Significance: Archery exercise results in skin temperature asymmetry related to higher temperature in the bow side, which plays a main role in sustaining muscle activation to keep position. The asymmetry characteristics may result from the archery technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/abc020DOI Listing
December 2020

Relationship between Skin Temperature, Electrical Manifestations of Muscle Fatigue, and Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness for Dynamic Contractions: A Preliminary Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 18;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS 97500-970, Brazil.

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) indicates the presence of muscle damage and impairs force production and control. Monitorization of DOMS is useful to improving recovery intervention plans. The magnitude of DOMS may relate to muscle fatigue, which can be monitored by surface electromyography (EMG). Additionally, growing interest has been expressed in determining whether the skin temperature over a muscle group during exercise to fatigue could be a non-invasive marker for DOMS. Here we determine whether skin temperature and manifestations of muscle fatigue during exercise are correlated and can predict DOMS after concentric-eccentric bicep curl exercises. We tested 10 young adults who performed concentric-eccentric bicep curl exercises to induce muscle damage in the biceps brachialis to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and fatigue during exercise and DOMS after exercise. Muscle activation and skin temperature were recorded during exercise. DOMS was evaluated 24 h after exercise. Data analysis was performed using Bayesian regression models with regularizing priors. We found significant muscle fatigue and an increase in skin temperature during exercise. DOMS was observed 24 h after exercise. The regression models showed no correlation of changes in skin temperature and muscle fatigue during exercise with DOMS 24 h after exercise. In conclusion, our preliminary results do not support a relationship between skin temperature measured during exercise and either muscle fatigue during exercise or the ability to predict DOMS 24 h after exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558480PMC
September 2020

Intrasession Real-time Ultrasonography Feedback Improves the Quality of Transverse Abdominis Contraction.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2020 10 3;43(8):816-823. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Uruguaiana, Uruguaiana, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in thickness of the transverse abdominis during performance of the hollowing exercise guided by feedback using ultrasonography images together with verbal guidance and using verbal guidance alone. We also determined the minimal detectable change and agreement between normalized pressures and muscle thickness.

Methods: Twenty participants without lumbar pain performed the hollowing exercises with or without ultrasonography feedback: 7 men and 13 women, mean (SD) age = 25 (5) years, height = 166 (10) cm, body mass = 64 (6) kg, body mass index = 22.2 (5.8) kg/m. The thickness of the transverse abdominis was quantified during the exercise using musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Basal and 3 repetitions guided by an evaluator were performed. Pressure was determined using a lumbar cushion. Data were compared with a mixed-model analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test (P < .05). Minimal detectable changes were identified and Bland-Altman analysis performed considering normalized thickness and pressure.

Results: Ultrasonography feedback resulted in larger thickness changes (P < .05). The lowest minimal detectable changes were achieved using ultrasonography feedback. Nonagreement was found between normalized thickness and pressure.

Conclusion: Contraction of the transverse abdominis is improved using real-time ultrasonography together with verbal feedback. Low changes in muscle contraction estimated by thickness showed nonagreement with a pressure cushion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2019.10.017DOI Listing
October 2020

Correlation between running asymmetry, mechanical efficiency, and performance during a 10 km run.

J Biomech 2020 08 1;109:109913. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Running asymmetry is considered a matter of concern for performance and injury, but the association between asymmetry and performance remain unclear. There are different strategies to address asymmetries and its relationship with performance. Here we investigated the correlation between global symmetry index and mechanical efficiency during 10 km running. Thirteen amateur trained athletes (8 men and 5 women) performed a 10 km running at a fixed pace while a 3D accelerometer attached to the pelvic region recorded position data throughout the course of the run and gas exchanges were monitored breath by breath. Global symmetry index was determined for 3 directions, and mechanical efficiency was calculated as the ratio of external work output to energy expenditure determined from gas analysis. Global Symmetry Index and mechanical efficiency decreased (-55.5% and -44.8%, respectively) during the course of the 10 km run (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was observed between global symmetry index and efficiency (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). Asymmetry in the vertical direction had a relatively higher impact on the global symmetry index. The global symmetry index accounted for 43.1% of the variance in mechanical efficiency (p = 0.015). Symmetry, evaluated by the global symmetry index, directly correlates with mechanical efficiency during a 10 km run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109913DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of cycling specialization on effort and physiological responses to uphill and flat cycling at similar intensity.

Eur J Sport Sci 2020 Jul 16:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Biophysics and Medical Physics Group, Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Power output is considered one of the best tools to control external loads in cycling, but the relationship between a target power output and the physiological responses may suffer from the effects of road gradient, which is also affected by cyclist specialization. The objective was to determine the effects of cyclist specialization on effort perception and physiological response (heart rate and lactate concentration) while sustaining efforts at similar power output but riding on two different road gradients. Nineteen male competitive road cyclists performed two randomized trials of 10 min at 0% (velodrome) and 10 min at 6% road gradient (field uphill), at an intensity of 10% ± 3% below the individual's functional threshold power. Cadence was kept between 75 and 80 rpm in both trials and posture remained unchanged during the tests. Heart rate, speed, cadence, power output, blood lactate, and rate of perceived effort were measured for each trial. -means cluster analyses differentiate uphill (n = 10) and flat specialists (n = 9) according to lactate responses. Flat specialists presented lower heart rate ( < 0.001 and ES = 0.2), perceived exertion ( < 0.01 and ES = 0.7), and blood lactate concentration ( < 0.001 and ES = 0.7) riding on the flat than uphill. Uphill specialists presented lower perceived exertion ( < 0.01 and ES = 0.8) and blood lactate concentration ( < 0.01 and ES = 0.5) riding uphill than on the flat. In conclusion, the combination of cyclist specialization and road gradient affects physiological and effort perception parameters in response to a similar power output demand. These factors deserve attention in training schedules and monitoring performance using power output data.-means cluster analyses differentiate uphill and flat specialists according to lactate responses during riding on two different road gradients.Flat specialists presented lower heart rate, perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration riding on the flat than uphill.Climb specialists presented lower perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration riding uphill than on the flat.Results suggest that the control of training load, performance prediction and scientific research, based on power output, may need to consider the road gradient and the cyclist specialization due to its effect on effort perception and physiological response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1785016DOI Listing
July 2020

Winter School on sEMG Signal Processing: An Initiative to Reduce Educational Gaps and to Promote the Engagement of Physiotherapists and Movement Scientists With Science.

Front Neurol 2020 24;11:509. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Universidade Federal Do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil.

The application of surface electromyography (sEMG) in neurology is sometimes limited by a scientific background in the use of sEMG. Students frequently use sEMG only when developing their graduate studies. To reduce these barriers, we promoted a free Winter School on sEMG to Latin American students. The school was a 3-day event with theoretical classes and computer programming in Matlab. Lectures were delivered in Portuguese and Spanish to 50 participants. All lectures were recorded and made available on YouTube®. After the School, participants completed a written exam to receive a certificate. The written exam revealed the average effectiveness of 71 ± 20% in the comprehension of topics addressed during the school. Participants rated the School as "excellent" and considered the event as having changed their thoughts about the use of sEMG. Limited mathematical skills or background were the main barriers identified to follow the lectures and to make use of sEMG. We conclude that the Winter School had a positive impact on participant's formation, especially by showing them the importance of continuous involvement with the concepts related to sEMG to become proficient in its use. From the participant's point of view, the activity was excellent and the follow up of the school on YouTube® suggests that combining face-to-face activities followed by the online availability of lectures is a valid strategy to reinforce the learning process and to reduce barriers in the use of sEMG. Whether similar results would be achieved for a paid registration event in an economically developing region, still requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326787PMC
June 2020

Intense Cycling Exercise Improves Acute Cognitive Responses.

Int J Sports Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa - Uruguaiana Campus, Uruguaiana, Brazil.

Intense exercise promotes long-term gains in cognitive functions. On the other hand, intense exercise may result in acute effects not clearly determined for cognitive performance. A condition of stochastic intensity ranging from moderate to maximal efforts is part of sports like cycling, in which cognitive integrity is also important for fast decision making and information processing especially during high-speed performances. In this study we investigate the acute effect of cycling at intensities corresponding to 60%, 80% and 95% of the maximal power output (MP) on selective attention, reaction time and short-term memory in amateur trained cyclists. In this cross sectional study 20 male cyclists performed maximal and submaximal cycling tests under different exercise intensities. Cognitive measures were conducted before and after exercise. We found that short duration high intensity cycling (95%) improves selective attention but increases variability in simple reaction time responses, without significant effects on short-term memory. The high intensity exercise improves ability to manage more complex cognitive task especially when the variability in the task does not increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1114-6170DOI Listing
June 2020

Plantar loading in the youth soccer player during common soccer movements and risk for foot injury.

Injury 2020 Aug 12;51(8):1905-1909. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Federal University of Pampa - Laboratory of Neuromechanics, 97500-970, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Soccer players are at high risk of stress injuries in the foot. While most research addresses this issue in professional athletes, there is little information concerning young athletes. As soccer is practiced around the world since early infancy, we set out to determine whether young soccer athletes are susceptible to increased foot loading that increase risk factors for foot injuries in a similar manner as reported by the literature to the adult athlete.

Methods: twenty-six male adolescents (mean age 16 years old) were organized into two groups: soccer players (n = 13) and controls (n = 13). Groups were compared regarding foot sensitivity, ankle range of motion, Q-angle, and plantar pressure determined during running and cutting movements performed at maximal speed and using different shoes.

Results: Foot sensitivity, ankle range of motion and Q-angle did not differ between the groups. During performance of soccer actions, young players showed higher peak pressure in the lateral region of the foot including the fifth metatarsal region. These higher peaks were minimized by manipulation of the footwear.

Conclusion: In summary, young soccer athletes show dynamic plantar pressure patterns that are related to foot injury in the adult athlete, and this condition can be minimized by the manipulation of the footwear. Additional attention should be paid to the young athlete in soccer aiming to minimize long-term risk for stress injuries in the foot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.06.009DOI Listing
August 2020

Acute responses to barefoot 5 km treadmill running involve changes in landing kinematics and delayed onset muscle soreness.

Gait Posture 2020 03 4;77:231-235. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Barefoot running has gained popularity among physical activity practitioners, but there is a lack of information regarding the acute adaptations to this running technique without supervision. Information about acute adaptations can help to define the best way to insert barefoot running in the routine of runners willing to, and also provide orientation for those people who want to experience this technique.

Research Question: What acute adaptations can be observed among recreational runners exposed to barefoot running?

Methods: Sagittal 2D kinematics, plantar pressure, foot sensitivity and delayed onset muscle soreness were compared between conditions of shod and barefoot running in 13 recreational runners who performed two trials of 5 km treadmill running.

Results: We found an acute effect of barefoot running on foot landing that changes from a rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike pattern. This change most likely contributed to the increase in neuromuscular recruitment of calf muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius and soleus) resulting in higher perception of delayed onset muscle soreness. Barefoot running also elicited higher stride cadence. Plantar pressure before and after running revealed higher pressure in the different foot regions after barefoot running. Foot sensitivity increased after running regardless of the footwear condition.

Conclusion: Barefoot running has acute effects on running technique including higher perception of delayed onset muscle soreness in the 48 h following the exercise.

Significance: Our results highlight the importance of following participants for days after a first session of barefoot running in order to properly manage the acute adaptation periods as well provide precise advices for those trying the barefoot technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.02.004DOI Listing
March 2020

Do asymmetry scores influence speed and power performance in elite female soccer players?

Biol Sport 2019 Sep 30;36(3):209-216. Epub 2019 May 30.

Faculty of Science and Technology, London Sports Institute, Middlesex University, London, UK.

This study examined the relationships between vertical jump asymmetries and speed and power performance in elite female soccer athletes. Sixteen professional female soccer players (age: 23.0 ± 3.8 years; body mass: 60.2 ± 7.3 kg; height: 165.1 ± 5.5 cm) from the same professional club participated in this study. Athletes performed unilateral and bilateral squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) on a portable force plate; 30-m sprinting test; Zigzag change-of-direction (COD) test; and muscle power testing using the jump squat (JS) exercise. Asymmetry scores were obtained from the results of the unilateral SJ and CMJ by the percentage difference between the dominant and non-dominant legs. The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation was used to analyse the correlations between the bilateral and unilateral vertical jump variables and the physical tests. The bilateral vertical jump performance (in both SJ and CMJ) was closely related to sprinting and JS power performances (r values ranging from 0.50 to 0.73; P< 0.05). In contrast, no significant associations were found between jump asymmetries and performance measures. Our data suggest that asymmetry scores derived from unilateral vertical jumps are not capable of influencing the speed-power performance of professional female soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2019.85454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786326PMC
September 2019

A preliminary investigation about the observation of regional skin temperatures following cumulative training loads in triathletes during training camp.

J Therm Biol 2019 Aug 30;84:431-438. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Research Group in Sports Biomechanics (GIBD), Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil.

There are controversial results in the literature concerning the concept that cumulative training load could affect basal skin temperature in the days following training sessions. The objective was to measure skin temperature in triathletes during a training camp with cumulative training load. Ten male recreational triathletes involved in a training camp underwent measurements of perception of pain and fatigue (visual analogue scale), skin temperature (infrared thermography), and jump performance (counter movement jump test) before, one day, and two days after the beginning of the training camp. All measurements were performed before the breakfast. Jump height did not differ between the days (p > 0.05). Fatigue perception increased after the first and second day of training for most of the body regions (p < 0.05). Pain perception increased after two days of training (p < 0.05). Mean and maximum skin temperature increased after the second day of training for most of the body regions (p < 0.05). Skin temperature in some body regions was directly related with muscle mass, weekly training volume, and inverse related with fatigue perception (p < 0.05 and R > 0.4). Possible explanations of these results in comparison with previous studies may include the influence of control of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to the skin temperature assessment (for instance, the time of the day, lack of muscle soreness, daily activity control). These preliminary results have important implication on the use of skin basal temperature data to monitor exercise recovery, which claims for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.07.035DOI Listing
August 2019

Pattern analysis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture suffered during high jump preparation in an official national-level athletic competition.

Sports Biomech 2019 Aug 29:1-11. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa , Uruguaiana , RS , Brazil.

Elite athletes are subject to injuries like the Achilles tendon rupture. This injury requires a long recovery process, with no guarantee of returning to the pre-injury level. When a rupture happens during natural life, movement analysis can provide useful insights concerning patterns of rupture to understand and prevent Achilles tendon injuries. Here we determined the pattern of rupture of an Achilles tendon (AT) in an elite high-jumper athlete who ruptured an AT during the straight line running phase in preparation for a high-jump attempt. This study is a novel case report regarding a national-level elite athlete. The main outcomes were kinematics parameters obtained from video analysis. The pattern of the rupture was determined by pixel intensity and outlier analysis. The rupture occurred at 44% of the single stance. The injured leg showed a higher ankle dorsal flexion and knee-ankle ratio, and a lower knee flexion compared to contralateral leg. An eccentric pattern of rupture occurred during the transition from the mid to terminal stance phases of running. The lower knee flexion and the increased ankle dorsal flexion during the stance suggest a loss of knee-ankle coordination. This might have favoured a major elongation of Achilles tendon causing the rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1651897DOI Listing
August 2019

Correlation between lower limb isometric strength and muscle structure with normal and challenged gait performance in older adults.

Gait Posture 2019 09 4;73:101-107. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Biomechanics and Kinesiology Research Group, Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physical Therapy and Dance, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Muscular parameters have been considered to influence gait of older adults, but it is still unclear which specific lower limb muscular parameters correlate with kinematics of overground and obstacle crossing in older adults.

Research Question: What lower limb muscular parameters correlate and explain kinematics of overground walking and obstacle crossing ability in the elderly?

Methods: Muscle structure was evaluated in 15 older individuals (75.4 ± 5 years) through measures of architecture (muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle) and muscle quality (echo intensity) from lower limb muscles (vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis). Muscle function was assessed through isometric strength of hip, knee and ankle joint muscles. Gait kinematics (toe and heel clearances, step length and gait speed) was evaluated during walking with and without obstacle crossing at preferred and maximal gait speeds. Correlation and regression analyses were performed considering a significance level of 0.05.

Results: Isometric strength did not correlate with gait kinematics and gait speed. Tibialis anterior thickness correlated with lead limb toe clearance, and vastus lateralis thickness with gait speed and step length. Vastus lateralis echo intensity correlated with step length and gait speed.

Significance: Tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis muscles deserve attention in physical training to improve gait of older adults. Specifically, tibialis anterior should receive more attention on exercise programs aiming at improvement of obstacle crossing, and knee extensors when aiming at improving gait speed and step length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.07.131DOI Listing
September 2019

IS MUSCULAR AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE RELATED TO GAIT SYMMETRY IN OLDER ADULTS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Sep - Oct;84:103899. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Federal University of Pampa, Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Gait asymmetries are a matter of discussion concerning gait adaptation in older adults. While most studies perform unilateral gait assessments, the hypothesis that asymmetry in gait biomechanics is influenced by muscular and functional performance in older people needs to be confirmed.

Purpose: Here we performed a systematic review (CRD42018093189) to discuss the relationship between muscular and functional performance and gait asymmetries in older adults.

Materials And Methods: Searches were performed using Medline via Pubmed, Scopus, PEDro, Cochrane Central, and Lilacs databases. Studies investigating leg asymmetries during overground locomotion and recording kinetics, kinematics or muscular activation parameters to determine at least one muscular or functional parameter were included.

Results: Findings show that gait asymmetries, especially in step temporal parameters, are mainly related to functional outcomes, but the relationship with muscular performance was not possible to determine.

Conclusions: The relationship of gait asymmetry with muscular performance is still unknown, and there is a lack of investigations. Improvements in performance of functional tasks lead to a more symmetric gait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.103899DOI Listing
March 2020

Use of accelerometers for automatic regional chest movement recognition during tidal breathing in healthy subjects.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2019 Aug 25;47:105-112. Epub 2019 May 25.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Uruguaiana, Uruguaiana, Brazil. Electronic address:

Recognition of breathing patterns helps clinicians to understand acute and chronic adaptations during exercise and pathological conditions. Wearable technologies combined with a proper data analysis provide a low cost option to monitor chest and abdominal wall movements. Here we set out to determine the feasibility of using accelerometry and machine learning to detect chest-abdominal wall movement patterns during tidal breathing. Furthermore, we determined the accelerometer positions included in the clusters, considering principal component domains. Eleven healthy participants (age: 21 ± 0.2 y, BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m, FEV: 4.1 ± 0.3 L, VO: 4.6 ± 0.2 mL/min kg) were included in this cross-sectional study. Spirometry and ergospirometry assessments were performed with participants seated with 13 accelerometers placed over the thorax. Data collection lasted 10  min. Following signal pre-processing, principal components and clustering analyses were performed. The Euclidean distances in respect to centroids were compared between the clusters (p < 0.05), identifying two clusters (p < 0.001). The first cluster included sensors located at the right and left second rib midline, body of sternum, left fourth rib midline, right and left second thoracic vertebra midline, and fifth thoracic vertebra. The second cluster included sensors at the fourth right rib midline, right and left seventh ribs, abdomen at linea alba, and right and left tenth thoracic vertebra midline. Costal-superior and costal-abdominal patterns were also recognized. We conclude that accelerometers placed on the chest and abdominal wall permit the identification of two clusters of movements regarding respiration biomechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2019.05.016DOI Listing
August 2019

Strength training and running elicit different neuroprotective outcomes in a β-amyloid peptide-mediated Alzheimer's disease model.

Physiol Behav 2019 07 14;206:206-212. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Applied Neuromechanics Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, 97501-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aerobic exercise induces neuroprotection, but few studies investigated whether strength training has similar potential. Here we examine whether effects of strength training differ from those of running training concerning cognitive symptomatology, oxidative stress and cholinergic status in a model of AD-like cognitive impairment induced by intrahippocampal infusion of a mix of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 8 weeks of running exercise (RunEx; 40 min sessions at 70% of indirect VO max, 3 times/week) or strength exercise (StrEx; 3 sessions/week, 12 repetitions in 8 sets, 2 sets with repetitions at 50%, 2 at 75%, 2 at 90% and 2 at 100% of the maximum load), followed by Aβ infusion in the dorsal hippocampus. Short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) object recognition (OR) and social recognition (SR) memories were evaluated. Hippocampal oxidative status was determined by quantification of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test, total antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity (AChE). Aβ infusion impaired STM and LTM and resulted in higher hippocampal oxidative damage and impaired AChE activity. StrEx results in better neuroprotection than RunEx by preventing deficits in OR and SR memories, prevents increases in lipid peroxidation, and decreases in AChE activity. RunEx elicits neuroprotection only for SR memory deficits, prevents increase in ROS and lipid peroxidation, and preserves the total antioxidant capacity. While RunEx effects are related to oxidative status, only StrEx shows potential to also influence the cholinergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.012DOI Listing
July 2019

Association between physiological stress and skin temperature response after a half marathon.

Physiol Meas 2019 04 3;40(3):034009. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Biophysics and Medical Physics Group, Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between skin temperature response and the physiological stress after a half marathon.

Approach: Seventeen runners were measured 48 h before, 24 h before, 24 h after and 48 h after completing a half marathon. The measurements on each day of testing included blood markers (creatine kinase [CK] and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase [GOT]), perception of pain and fatigue (using a visual analogue scale), skin temperature (using infrared thermography), and jump performance (using countermovement jump test).

Main Results: CK (p   <  0.001 and ES  =  2.1), GOT (p   =  0.04 and ES  =  1.3), and perception of fatigue and pain (p   <  0.001 and ES  >  1.0) increased 24 h after the half marathon, whereas jump performance decreased (p   <  0.01 and ES  =  0.4). No increase of skin temperature was observed in the tests after the competition and no regression model was able to predict physiological stress using skin temperature. Only a bivariate correlation was observed between the 24 h variation (pre-24 h) of CK and the skin temperature of the posterior upper limb (p   =  0.04 and r  =  0.5), and between the 48 h variation (pre-48 h) of pain perceived and the skin temperature of the knee (p   <  0.01 and r  =  0.6).

Significance: In conclusion, follow-up on basal skin temperatures does not seem to be an adequate method to detect physiological stress after a half marathon. In line with the observed results, we recommend caution when interpreting peaks in basal skin temperature in field sports assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/ab0fdcDOI Listing
April 2019

A retrospective international study on factors associated with injury, discomfort and pain perception among cyclists.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0211197. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil.

Although cycling has been associated with overuse/fatigue and acute injuries, there is lack of information regarding associated risk factors and prevention factors. The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with injury, and perceptions of discomfort and pain in cyclists. A total of 739 cyclists completed an online questionnaire between February and October 2016. The questionnaire acquired information on participant demographics, characteristics related to cycling profile and fitness training, bike components and cycling posture, self-reported perceptions of comfort and pain, and injuries sustained in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) that examined factors associated with reporting overuse/fatigue injury, acute injury, body discomfort, saddle discomfort, and pain while cycling. Odds of reporting an overuse/fatigue injury increased when the cyclists complemented training with running (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.03-2.91) or swimming (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.19-3.88), and with reported pain while cycling (OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-3.69) and not cycling (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.07-2.90). Odds of reporting an acute injury increased when biking to work (OR = 1.79; 95%CI = 1.07-2.86), and decreased with increased average cycling speed (1-km/h decrease OR = 0.93; 95%CI = 0.88-0.97), and compared to low-end bike, with the use of mid-range (OR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.09-0.72) and high-end bike (OR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.13-0.96). Although body discomfort was only associated with saddle discomfort and the presence of pain during cycling, saddle discomfort was also associated with biking to work (OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.22-0.88). Finally, pain perception was associated with a number of factors such as ride to work, core training, cycling experience, saddle discomfort, pain while not cycling. Numerous factors are associated with injury, and perceptions of discomfort and pain in cyclists. Such factors should be considered when developing training routines, bicycle maintenance best practices, and injury prevention programs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347182PMC
October 2019

Within and between-days repeatability and variability of plantar pressure measurement during walking in children, adults and older adults.

Adv Rheumatol 2018 Jul 11;58(1):15. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Federal University of Pampa,Uruguaiana, BR 472 km 592, Po box 118, Uruguaiana, RS, ZIP 97500-970, Brazil.

Background: Previous studies discussed the repeatability and variability in plantar pressure measurement, but a few considered different age groups. Here we determine within and between-days repeatability and variability of plantar pressure measurement during gait in participants from different age groups.

Method: Plantar pressure was recorded in children, young adults and older adults walking at preferred speed in four non-consecutive days within one week. Data from 10 steps from each foot in each day were analyzed considering the different regions of the foot. Mean and peak plantar pressure and data variability were compared between the steps, foot regions and days.

Results: To describe mean and peak pressure during gait in children and adults a single measurement can be enough, but elderly will requires more attention especially concerning peak values. Variability in mean pressure did not differ between age groups, but peak pressure variability differed across foot regions and age groups.

Conclusion: One single observation can be used to describe plantar pressure during gait in children and adults. When the interest concerns older people, it might be pertinent to consider more than one day of assessment, especially when looking at peak pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42358-018-0014-zDOI Listing
July 2018

The association of bike fitting with injury, comfort, and pain during cycling: An international retrospective survey.

Eur J Sport Sci 2019 Jul 15;19(6):842-849. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

e Applied Neuromechanics Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics , Federal University of Pampa , Uruguaiana , Brazil.

Although bike fitting is recommended to help reduce injury risk, little empirical evidence exists to indicate an association between bike fitting and injury incidence. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bike fitting on self-reported injury, comfort, and pain while cycling from a worldwide survey of cyclists. A total of 849 cyclists completed an online questionnaire between February and October 2016. Questionnaire collected data on respondent demographics, cycling profile, bike fitting, comfort and pain while cycling, and injury history. The main predictor variable was bike fitting (yes, by the respondent, i.e. user bike fitting; yes, by a professional service; or no). Covariates included demographic and cycling profile characteristics. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of injury within the last 12 months, reporting a comfortable body posture while cycling, and not reporting pain while cycling. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. User bike fitting was associated with increased odds of reporting a comfortable posture (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.06, 4.68). User (OR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.48, 3.84) and professional bike fitting (OR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.42, 3.98) were both associated with increased odds of not reporting pain while cycling. No associations were found between bike fitting and injury within the last 12 months. In conclusion, we found an association between bike fitting and reported comfort and pain while cycling. We recommend integrating bike fitting into cycling maintenance. However, further studies with longer follow-up are necessary to determine the presence of an association between bike fitting and injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1556738DOI Listing
July 2019

Can exercise-induced muscle damage be related to changes in skin temperature?

Physiol Meas 2018 10 30;39(10):104007. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Applied Neuromechanics Research Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil.

Objective: Measurement of skin temperature using infrared thermography has become popular in sports, and has been proposed as an indicator of exercise-induced muscle damage after exercise. However, the relationship between skin temperature and exercise-induced muscle damage is still unclear. Here we set out to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and exercise-induced muscle damage.

Approach: Twenty untrained participants completed a protocol of exercise for calf muscles. Before and after exercise blood samples were collected to determine creatine kinase and acetylcholinesterase activity. Thermal images were recorded from the exercised muscles to determine skin temperature. Delayed onset muscle soreness was quantified. Correlations between skin temperature and exercise-induced muscle damage were analyzed considering thermal data, creatine kinase and acetylcholinesterase activity at different time moments.

Main Results: We found delayed onset muscle soreness and an increased creatine kinase activity 48 h after exercise (P  <  0.01). Skin temperature parameters (average, maximal, amplitude and difference pre- and post-exercise, immediately after and 48 h after) did not correlate with the creatine kinase responses (P  >  0.05). Acetylcholinesterase activity remained stable (P  =  0.59).

Significance: We recommend caution when considering changes in skin temperature as dependent on the level of localized and symmetric muscle damage considering calf muscles in untrained participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aae6dfDOI Listing
October 2018