Publications by authors named "Felipe Jiménez-Aspee"

31 Publications

Antiglycating Effect of Phenolics from the Chilean Currant under Thermal Treatment.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Laboratorio de Cultivo Celular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Campus Lircay, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Numerous dietary polyphenols possess antiglicating activity, but the effects of thermal treatment on this activity are mostly unknown. The effect of thermal treatment in the antiglycating activity of polyphenolic enriched extracts (PEEs) from towards glyoxal-induced glycation of sarcoplasmic proteins was assessed. Sarcoplasmic proteins from chicken, beef, salmon, and turkey, were incubated 2 h at 60 °C with and without glyoxal and different concentrations of PEEs (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/mL). The antiglycating activity was evaluated by: (1) Lys and Arg consumption, (2) Carboxymethyl lysine (CML) generation, and (3) lipid-derived electrophiles inhibition in a gastric digestion model. Protective effects were observed against CML generation in proteins and a decrease of electrophiles in the gastric digestion model. A dose-dependent consumption of Lys and Arg in proteins/PEEs samples, indicated the possible occurrence of quinoproteins generation from the phenolics. Protein/PEEs incubations were assessed by: (1) High pressure liquid chromatography analysis, (2) Gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and (3) Redox cycling staining of quinoproteins. Protein/PEEs incubations produced: (1) Decrease in phenolics, (2) increase of protein crosslinking, and (3) dose-dependent generation of quinoproteins. We demonstrate that phenolic compounds from under thermal treatment act as antiglycating agents, but oxidative reactions occurs at high concentrations, generating protein crosslinking and quinoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146124PMC
April 2021

Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of raw and boiled Chilean Araucaria araucana kernels.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 9;350:129241. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Center for Systems Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Chile Research, Avenida Del Cóndor 844, Piso 3, Huechuraba, Santiago, Chile.

The Araucaria araucana kernels are a traditional food in southern Chile and Argentina. The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) of the boiled kernels as well as their antioxidant capacity, inhibitory activity on metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes and effect on postprandial oxidative stress in a simulated gastric digestion model. The PEEs composition was assessed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The main PEEs constituents were catechin and epicatechin in the unbound form, while hydroxybenzoic acids occurred mainly in the bound form. The unbound phenolics from boiled kernels showed significant correlations with DPPH, FRAP, TEAC (Pearson's r of 0.481, 0.331 and 0.417, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (r = 0.381) and were more active than the bound phenolics. The extracts were highly active against α-glucosidase (IC: 0.33-3.15 µg/mL) and reduced lipoperoxidation. Traditional processing increases the flavan-3-ol content. Our results suggest that this traditional food has potential health promoting properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129241DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide association study of cyanogenic glycosides, proline, sugars, and pigments in Eucalyptus cladocalyx after 18 consecutive dry summers.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Food Biofunctionality, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Natural variation of cyanogenic glycosides, soluble sugars, proline, and nondestructive optical sensing of pigments (chlorophyll, flavonols, and anthocyanins) was examined in ex situ natural populations of Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. grown under dry environmental conditions in the southern Atacama Desert, Chile. After 18 consecutive dry seasons, considerable plant-to-plant phenotypic variation for all the traits was observed in the field. For example, leaf hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations varied from 0 (two acyanogenic individuals) to 1.54 mg cyanide g DW. Subsequent genome-wide association study revealed associations with several genes with a known function in plants. HCN content was associated robustly with genes encoding Cytochrome P450 proteins, and with genes involved in the detoxification mechanism of HCN in cells (β-cyanoalanine synthase and cyanoalanine nitrilase). Another important finding was that sugars, proline, and pigment content were linked to genes involved in transport, biosynthesis, and/or catabolism. Estimates of genomic heritability (based on haplotypes) ranged between 0.46 and 0.84 (HCN and proline content, respectively). Proline and soluble sugars had the highest predictive ability of genomic prediction models (PA = 0.65 and PA = 0.71, respectively). PA values for HCN content and flavonols were relatively moderate, with estimates ranging from 0.44 to 0.50. These findings provide new understanding on the genetic architecture of cyanogenic capacity, and other key complex traits in cyanogenic E. cladocalyx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13349DOI Listing
January 2021

Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from Gaultheria tenuifolia berries.

J Food Sci 2020 Sep 18;85(9):2792-2802. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Campus Lircay, Talca, 3460000, Chile.

Gaultheria berries (Ericaceae) are consumed as food or used in folk medicine throughout the world. In the present study, Gaultheria tenuifolia berries were studied to describe their polyphenol and iridoid composition, aroma volatiles, and cytoprotective effects. In total, 14 metabolites were isolated using a combination of countercurrent chromatography and Sephadex LH-20, namely, cyanidin-3-O-β-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-β-arabinoside, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-β-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-arabinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside, 6α-hydroxydihydromonotropein-10-trans-cinnamate, monotropein-10-trans-cinnamate, and an (epi)-catechin dimer and trimer. Other flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and iridoids were tentatively identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric means in the fruit extracts. The tentative volatile organic compound characterization pointed to methyl salicylate as responsible for the aroma of this species. The extracts showed significant cytoprotective effects in an oxidative stress model in human gastric epithelial cells. This is the first report on the isolation, characterization, and potential biological activity of secondary metabolites from G. tenuifolia berries and insights on its possible application as a functional food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Berries are desirable fruit species because of their phytochemical composition and pleasant taste. Gaultheria berries are special due to their high content of iridoids and the presence of salicylic acid derivatives. Aroma of native berries is relevant for the development of new products reflecting the local identity and use of fruits. The present work involves cooperation of academia and industry on the constituents of the native products. The results provided in this article could be useful for the introduction of this species in the food and nutraceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15380DOI Listing
September 2020

Phenolic Fingerprinting, Antioxidant, and Deterrent Potentials of Extracts.

Molecules 2020 Jul 3;25(13). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratorio de Ecología Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Gral. Flores 2124 CP 11800, Montevideo 11800, Uruguay.

(Polygonaceae) (known as lady's thumb) is an annual morphologically variable weed that is widely distributed in Chile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifeedant potential of methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH), and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from the aerial parts of this plant collected in the Valparaíso and Curicó provinces (Chile) and relate this activity to the antioxidant capacity and the presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. A phenolic profile based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 26 phenolic compounds, most of them glycosyl derivatives of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. In addition, the total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion scavenging (O), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) of the extracts are reported. The antifeedant potentials of the plant extracts were tested against , , , and insects for the first time. The activity against the aphid was significant for the DCM extracts of plants from Valparaíso and Curicó (settling % = 23% ± 4% and 23% ± 5%, respectively). The antifeedant activities against the beetle and the lepidoptera were significant for Valparaíso extracts, especially when tested against (IFP = 1.0 ± 0.0). Finally, the MeOH and EtOH extracts from Valparaíso plants reduced the diet consumption of the psilid ( < 0.05). The results showed that is a good source of flavonoids with some antioxidant capacities and has potential interest as botanical eco-friendly alternative with deterrent activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411858PMC
July 2020

A cyclic dipeptide from the Chilean hazelnut cotyledons (Gevuina avellana Mol., Proteaceae).

Sci Rep 2020 04 27;10(1):7070. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Campus Lircay, Talca, Chile.

The Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana Mol., Proteaceae) is a southern South American nut consumed as a snack and included in different preparations of traditional Chilean cuisine. Recently we described the fatty acid profile, oxylipins, phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant capacity. The main compounds of the phenolic-enriched extract were only tentatively identified by spectrometric means. In the present work, we describe the isolation and full characterization of a cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Arg-Trp) and other compounds from the phenolic enriched extracts of the G. avellana cotyledons. Compounds were isolated by means of counter-current chromatography and structures were established by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. This is the first report on small peptides in G. avellana and adds evidence on the possible beneficial effects of this nut in human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63983-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184718PMC
April 2020

Integral use of Argentinean red fruits as functional food ingredient to prevent metabolic syndrome: effect of simulated gastroduodenal digestion.

Heliyon 2020 Feb 10;6(2):e03387. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Laboratorio de Investigación de Productos Naturales (LIPRON), Instituto de Bioprospección y Fisiología Vegetal (INBIOFIV-CONICET-UNT), San Lorenzo 1469, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina.

The "red chilto" ( Cav) is a native fruit from the Yungas forest of Argentina. Red chilto is a neglected and underutilized native species (NUS). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of pulp, seed and skin from "red chilto" as a functional food ingredient to add value to a native resource of Argentine Yungas to promote sustainable integral use of it. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid and caffeoylquinic acid), anthocyanins, condensed tannins, carotenoids, potassium, and fiber. The phenolics of chilto powders showed, before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion, antioxidant activity (ABTS; HO; O; HO) and were able to inhibit enzymes related to metabolic syndrome, such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase. Chilto powder showed hypoglycemic effect by increasing glucose adsorption, decreasing glucose diffusion rate and by promoting glucose transport across the cell membrane. These results suggest the potential of Argentinean "red chilto" fruits as functional food ingredients or dietary supplements to prevent metabolic syndrome principally by its antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipemic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013136PMC
February 2020

Iridoids and Amino Acid Derivatives from the Paraguayan Crude Drug (ysypó hû).

Molecules 2020 Jan 1;25(1). Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Centro de Estudios Rurales Interdisciplinarios, Oliva 1019, Edificio Lider V, Piso 17, oficina 172, Asunción 01421, Paraguay.

The crude drug ysypó hû ( DC., Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally by the Guarani of Eastern Paraguayan as a male sexual enhancer. The aim of the present study was to identify the main constituents of the crude drug and to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity towards the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). The main compounds were isolated by counter-current chromatography (CCC). The metabolites were identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The chemical profiling of the extracts was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The crude extract and main isolated compounds were tested for their PDE-5 inhibitory activity using commercial kits. The iridoid theviridoside and 4-hydroxy-1-methylproline were isolated as the main constituent of the crude drug. Four chlortheviridoside hexoside derivatives were detected for the first time as natural products. Chemical profiling by HPLC-MS/MS led to the tentative identification of nine iridoids, six phenolics, and five amino acids. The crude extracts and main compounds were inactive towards PDE-5 at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL. Iridoids and amino acid derivatives were the main compounds occurring in the Paraguayan crude drug. The potential of ysypó hû as a male sexual enhancer cannot be discarded, since other mechanisms may be involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983124PMC
January 2020

Bioactive Constituents from South American Prosopis and their Use and Toxicity.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 ;26(5):542-555

Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Background: The pods from several South American Prosopis species have been considered relevant food in arid and semi-arid South America since prehistoric times. Traditionally the meal from the pods was processed to prepare different foods and beverages.

Objective: The objective was to discuss literature from the archaeological evidence of use to study the chemistry and (bio)activity of the extracts and secondary metabolites occurring in different Prosopis food products.

Methods: The review was carried out by searching electronic databases, including ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Scopus, Scielo, Google Scholar, PubMed and hand-search on literature. The review mainly covers studies performed in the year 1995-2019 and the first-hand experience of the authors. References on the historical and prehistorical uses of the natural resource were also included.

Results: In the last decades, most studies on the edible South American Prosopis focused on the constituents of pods meal, traditional preparations and by-products. Total 45 flavonoids, ellagic acid derivatives, catechin and simple phenolics were identified. Alkaloids occur mainly in the leaves, that are not used for human nutrition but as food for domestic animals. Piperidine alkaloids, tryptamine, tyramine and β-phenethylamine were isolated and identified from several species. The (bio)activity studies included mainly the antioxidant effect, antiinflammatory and enzyme inhibition associated with metabolic syndrome. The products showed no toxicity or mutagenic effect.

Conclusion: While data on the chemistry, some (bio)activities and toxicity are available for the pods meal and byproducts, little is known about the composition of the fermented Algarrobo beverages. Further studies are needed on the digestion of Algarrobo products both in humans and cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200102143755DOI Listing
November 2020

Andean (Podocarpacae) Fruit Extracts: Characterization of Secondary Metabolites and Potential Cytoprotective Effect.

Molecules 2019 Nov 7;24(22). Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

The fruits from the Chilean Podocarpaceae have been consumed since pre-Hispanic times. Little is known about the composition and biological properties of this fruit. The aim of this work was to identify the secondary metabolites of the edible part of fruits and to assess their antioxidant activity by means of chemical and cell-based assays. Methanol extracts from fruits were fractionated on a XAD7 resin and the main compounds were isolated by chromatographic means. Antioxidant activity was determined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The cytoprotective activity of the extract against oxidative and dicarbonyl stress was evaluated in human gastric epithelial cells (AGS). The total intracellular antioxidant activity (TAA) of the extract was determined in AGS cells. The inhibition of meat lipoperoxidation was evaluated under simulated gastric digestion conditions. Rutin, caffeic acid β-glucoside and 20-hydroxyecdysone were identified as major components of the fruit extract. Additional compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detector mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and/or co-injection with standards. Extracts showed dose-dependent cytoprotective effects against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced damage in AGS cells. The TAA increased with the pre-incubation of AGS cells with the extract. This is the first report on the composition and biological activity of this Andean fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891447PMC
November 2019

Polyphenol Composition and (Bio)Activity of Species and Wild Strawberry from the Argentinean Patagonia.

Molecules 2019 Sep 12;24(18). Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Departamento de Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca 346000, Región del Maule, Chile.

The Argentinean Patagonia berries , , and ssp. f. patagonica were investigated for their polyphenol content and composition by means of liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and lipase) of the fruit extracts was assessed. The most complex polyphenol profile was found in the samples, with 10 anthocyanins, 27 hydroxycinnamic acids, 3 proanthocyanidins, 2 flavan-3-ol, and 22 flavonols. presented four anthocyanins, nine ellagitannins, two proanthocyanidin dimers, one flavan-3-ol, and five flavonols. The samples showed the best antioxidant capacity, while displayed better activity against α-glucosidase and lipase. The phenolic content and composition of the Argentinean Patagonia berries was similar to that reported for Chilean samples but with some chemical differences between Eastern (Argentina) and Western (Chile) Patagonia. The data obtained supports the consumption of these berries as sources of beneficial polyphenols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766907PMC
September 2019

Effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on polyphenols and bioactivity of the native Chilean red strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. patagonica).

Food Res Int 2019 09 19;123:106-114. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The native Chilean red strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. patagonica) is a wild strawberry with high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity originating in central-southern Chile. The aim of the present work was to compare the composition and bioactivity of polyphenol-concentrated extracts (PCE) of the fruit, before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Twenty nine compounds were tentatively identified in the non-digested PCE. After GID, 26 and 23 compounds were detected, in the gastric and intestinal steps, respectively. The compounds that were more affected by the simulated GID were cyanidin hexoside, bis hexahydroxydiphenic acid (HHDP) hexosides, bis HHDP galloyl hexosides, apigenin hexoside, and quercetin dihexoside. Results show a decrease in the total phenolic content by 3.4% and 43% at the end of the gastric and intestinal steps, respectively. In the same way, the total flavonoid content decreased by 60.4% and 90.9% at the end of the gastric and intestinal step, respectively. Overall, the antioxidant activity decreased during the gastrointestinal process; as well as the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and lipase was reduced by the simulated digestion. These results are a first approach to understand the effects induced by the gastrointestinal digestion on the bioactivity and polyphenolic profile of this native fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.04.039DOI Listing
September 2019

Phenolic, oxylipin and fatty acid profiles of the Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana): Antioxidant activity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

Food Chem 2019 Nov 15;298:125026. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Biotechnology Centre and Chemical Sciences Faculty, University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile. Electronic address:

Roasted cotyledons of the Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana) are appreciated as snacks. The aim of our work was to assess the fatty acid, oxylipin and phenolic composition using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), ultra- high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to MS and HPLC coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Additionally, various antioxidant activities were assessed. The inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1/COX-2), and lipoxygenase was determined. The main fatty acids were oleic and 7-hexadecenoic acids. Eight phytoprostanes and three phytofurans were identified and quantified. Hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic compounds. Oils showed antioxidant activity determined by EPR, and inhibition of COX-1/COX-2. The statistical analysis showed that the roasting does not affect the composition of the samples. The occurrence of oxylipins in this species is reported for the first time. Chilean hazelnuts can be considered a source of health promoting compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125026DOI Listing
November 2019

Patagonian berries as native food and medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Sep 30;241:111979. Epub 2019 May 30.

Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Patagonia is the southernmost part of the South American continent including Chile and Argentina. Berries and wild fruits have been gathered by the native Patagonians as food and medicine for over 14,000 years. The economic potential of the native berries as health promoting and relevant sources of bioactive substances has become apparent with several studies in the last decades.

Aim Of Study: This work aims to provide an insight into the ethnohistorical records of wild edible fruits from Patagonia starting with the archeobotanical studies to the contemporary use of the resources. The chemical and bioactivity studies on the native fruits are presented and discussed.

Methodology: A search of electronic databases including Scopus, Scielo, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and SciFinder, as well as hand-search was carried out to perform an integrative review on the native Patagonian berries.

Results: The use of native berries as food and medicine by the ancient hunter-gatherer societies can be traced back to the early occupation of Patagonia. The same species used in prehistoric times are still used as food by the contemporary population in this area. Chemical and bioactivity studies have reported remarkable activities in several of the native berries, including calafate (Berberis spp.), native strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis), currants (Ribes spp.), Patagonian raspberries (Rubus spp.) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) fruits. The increasing demand for maqui and calafate led to the selection of varieties for commercial production. The fruit constituents show strong antioxidant and inhibitory effect towards enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase. Some berry constituents exert anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. The phytochemicals identified include a wide array of phenolics of different structural skeletons. Changes in composition and bioactivity after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion, as well as colonic fermentation, have been reported in some Patagonian species.

Conclusions: Patagonian berries are a relevant source of bioactive compounds with several health promoting properties. The long tradition of use and the interest of the population for their consumption has led to the development of some of this fruits as new potential crops. The ethnobotanical evidence shows a shared knowledge among the different indigenous communities on plant uses according to the local resources, and an integration of the ancient knowledge into the contemporary society. Other species are being investigated to get a more complete picture of the food and medicinal plants from Patagonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111979DOI Listing
September 2019

Antioxidant activity and the isolation of polyphenols and new iridoids from Chilean Gaultheria phillyreifolia and G. poeppigii berries.

Food Chem 2019 Sep 5;291:167-179. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Departamento de Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The berries from the native Chilean Gaultheria phillyreifolia and G. poeppigii are appreciated for their sweet taste and aroma. Fruits from both species were investigated for their secondary metabolite composition and antioxidant activity. The extracts were submitted to membrane chromatography to separate anthocyanins from copigments. Four anthocyanins were isolated by counter-current chromatography (CCC) and identified as cyanidin galactoside, cyanidin arabinoside, delphinidin galactoside and delphinidin arabinoside. From the copigments, CCC allowed the separation of quercetin(Q)-3-arabinoside, Q-3-rutinoside Q-3-rhamnoside and 3-caffeoylquinic acid. Additionally, the iridoids monotropein-10-trans-coumarate, monotropein-10-trans-cinnamate and 6α-hydroxy-dihydromonotropein-10-trans-cinnamate were isolated. The latter two iridoids are reported here for the first time. Some 34 other compounds were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The antioxidant activity showed differences between anthocyanins and copigments from both species. Main compounds were quantified and submitted to a Partial-Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). This is the first report on the isolation of phytochemicals from the selected Chilean Gaultheria species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.019DOI Listing
September 2019

Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of meristem and leaves from "chagual" (Puya chilensis Mol.), a salad from central Chile.

Food Res Int 2018 12 31;114:90-96. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Programa de Investigación de Excelencia Interdisciplinaria en Química y Bio-orgánica de Recursos Naturales (PIEI-QUIM-BIO), Universidad de Talca, Chile; Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, 3460000 Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The Bromeliaceae Puya chilensis Mol. is a native monocotyledonous food plant that can be found in central Chile. It is traditionally known as chagual. The tender basal part of the leaves, just starting from the meristem, are consumed as a salad. The aim of this work was to describe the phenolic content and composition of the meristem and leaves of chagual, as well as their antioxidant capacity and inhibitory activity against metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Samples of chagual, including two cultivated and three wild growing plants, were analyzed and compared for composition and bioactivity. From the phenolic enriched extract of the plant (PEE), 26 compounds were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, including 12 hydroxycinnamic acids and 14 flavonoids. The main compounds were identified as diferuloyl hexaric acid isomers and 5-p-Coumaroylquinic acid. The compounds were quantified in both meristem and leaves. The PEE content was up to ten times higher in the meristem than in the leaves, ranging from 0.18 to 124.08 mg/g PEE. The samples inhibited α-glucosidase, but did not show effect on α-amylase and pancreatic lipase. This is the first report on the polyphenol composition and bioactivity of the edible components of the chagual food plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.07.051DOI Listing
December 2018

Male sexual enhancers from the Peruvian Amazon.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jan 16;229:167-179. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana - IIAP, Head, Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Peru.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Selected Peruvian Amazon plants are macerated into sugar cane distillates to prepare alcoholic beverages used to improve male sexual performance. The tree bark from Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth (Fabaceae), Swartzia polyphylla DC (Fabaceae), Minquartia guianensis Aubl. (Olacaceae) and Thynantus panurensis (Bureau) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) usually are used as crude drugs in mixtures of several ingredients.

Aim Of Study: Describe the chemical composition of the most traded traditional male enhancer beverages, namely "Levántate Lazaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla", and their single crude drug constituents, as well as their inhibitory activity towards the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5. The presence of pro-sexual drugs such as Sildenafil® and derivatives was assessed in the samples.

Materials And Methods: Single plant constituents and the preparation mixtures were purchased in the Mercado Belen (Iquitos, Peru). Chemical profiling was carried out by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The extracts were assessed for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition. The occurrence of pro-sexual drugs was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

Results: Chemical profiling allowed the identification of condensed tannins as the main constituents of C. angustifolia and S. polyphylla, hydrolysable tannins for M. guianensis, and C-glycosides for T. panurensis. The traditional preparations showed similar composition compared to the crude drugs. At 200 µg/mL, the traditional preparation "Levántate Lázaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla" inhibited the phosphodiesterase-5 by 49.88% and 27.90%, respectively. No adulterations with pro-sexual drugs were found in the samples. From the crude drugs, low effect was found for the extracts of S. polyphylla and T. panurensis and high activity for C. angustifolia which inhibited the enzyme by 89.37% and 81.32% at 200 and 100 µg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: The traditional preparations used to improve sexual performance in the Peruvian Amazon showed activity as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The most active ingredient of the traditional preparations was C. angustifolia, with some contribution from T. panurensis. These results encourage additional studies, including animal models to confirm the male enhancer effect of the preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Inhibition of key enzymes in the inflammatory pathway by hybrid molecules of terpenes and synthetic drugs: In vitro and in silico studies.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2019 03 30;93(3):290-299. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Programa de Investigación de Excelencia Interdisciplinaria en Química y Bio-orgánica de Recursos Naturales (PIEI-QUIM-BIO), Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile.

The aim of this work was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds prepared from terpenes and the synthetic drugs ibuprofen and naproxen. The anti-inflammatory activity of the hybrid compounds was compared with the activity of the parent compounds. This was accomplished using in vitro inhibition of lipoxygenases (LOX) and COX-2, and in silico docking studies in 15-LOX and COX-2. The synthesized hybrids showed an inhibition of COX-2 and LOX between 9.8%-57.4% and 0.0%-97.7%, respectively. None of the hybrids showed an improvement in the inhibitory effect toward these pro-inflammatory enzymes, compared to the parent terpenes and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The docking studies allowed us to predict the potential binding modes of hybrids 6-15 within COX-2 and 15-LOX active sites. The relative affinity of the compounds inside the binding sites could be explained by forming non-covalent interactions with most important and known amino acids reported for those enzymes. A good correlation (r  = 0.745) between docking energies and inhibition percentages against COX-2 was found. The high inhibition obtained for compound 10 against COX-2 was explained by hydrogen bond interactions at the enzyme binding site. New synthetic possibilities could be obtained from our in silico models, improving the potency of these hybrid compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13415DOI Listing
March 2019

Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

Food Chem 2018 Aug 14;258:144-155. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, 3460000 Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24 h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.053DOI Listing
August 2018

Changes in polyphenol composition and bioactivity of the native Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

Food Res Int 2018 03 8;105:10-18. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) is a semi-domesticated strawberry with high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity occurring in southern Chile. The aim of this work was to compare the composition and bioactivity of the polyphenol-enriched fruit extract (PEE) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Results show a decrease by >50% in the total phenolic (TP) content at the end of the GID, compared to the non-digested PEE. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the PEEs was observed after GID by means of DPPH, FRAP, TEAC and anion superoxide assays. After simulated GID the PEE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC value of 3.13μg/mL. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase was reduced by 95% after GID. All the PEEs did not show inhibitory effect towards α-amylase throughout the GID. In the same way, the PEEs did not significantly protect human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells against HO-induced stress. Thirty eight compounds were tentatively identified in the non-digested PEE. The compounds that were more affected by the simulated GID were simple phenolics. After the GID, only 33 and 25 compounds were detected, in the gastric and intestinal steps, respectively. These results evidence the changes elicited by GID on the bioactivity and polyphenolic composition of the white strawberry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.074DOI Listing
March 2018

The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes.

Molecules 2017 Sep 18;22(9). Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

The native tree (chañar) grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92.1% and inactive to 76.0% at 50 µg PEE/mL, respectively. The IC values of the PEEs towards lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity were between 43.6-96.8 and 98.9-156.0 μg PEE/mL, respectively. Samples inhibited α-glucosidase (IC 0.8-7.3 μg PEE/mL) and lipase (9.9 to >100 μg PEE/mL). However, samples did not inhibit α-amylase. The HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the PEEs allowed the tentative identification of 53 compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and procyanidins. The procyanidin content of the Chilean pulp was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase. These results indicate that the Chilean chañar fruit contains bioactive polyphenols with functional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151650PMC
September 2017

Qualitative and quantitative changes in polyphenol composition and bioactivity of Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

Food Chem 2017 Dec 8;237:1073-1082. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Laboratorio de Cultivo Celular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, 3460000 Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The wild Chilean currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID) on phenolic content, composition and antioxidant capacity was determined. The inhibitory activity of the non-digested and digested samples towards metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase) was evaluated. The total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid contents (TF) decreased by about 50% at the end of the in vitro GID. Main anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids were strongly affected by this process, with a loss of about 80%. A decrease in the antioxidant activity was observed throughout the digestion steps, which was correlated with the reduction in the TP and TF content. After the in vitro GID of the samples, only the inhibition of α-glucosidase was preserved. Our results show that the simulated GID modified the health-promoting properties of the studied currants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.060DOI Listing
December 2017

Inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes by medicinal plants from the Argentinean highlands (Puna).

J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Jun 19;205:57-68. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Instituto de Bioprospección y Fisiología Vegetal (INBIOFIV, CONICET-UNT), San Lorenzo 1469, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Human groups in the Argentinean Andes highlands (Puna) selected native plants as anti-inflammatory agents. The indications of use are mainly to relieve pain, as infusions, ethanolic extracts or plasters.

Aim Of The Study: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from native highland plants as anti-inflammatory agents according to the traditional indications of use. The chemical profile of the three most active species was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS to get an insight into the constituents and the effects observed according to the ethnopharmacological information.

Materials And Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from 13 Argentinean Puna plants used as anti-inflammatory were evaluated as inhibitors of the pro-inflammatory enzymes phospholipase A (sPLA), lipoxygenase (LOX), hyaluronidase, and for their capacity to stabilize red blood cells membrane. In addition, the extracts were evaluated to determine their reducing power, iron chelating capacity and ABTS radical scavenging effect. The chemical profiles of the most active species were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS.

Results: Among the species investigated, Ephedra multiflora was the most active as LOX inhibitor (IC:132µg/mL), by reducing the non-heme iron group and by scavenging radicals. The IC values of the reference compounds caffeic acid and naproxen were 57.0 and 14.0µg/mL, respectively. Parastrephia lucida showed the highest sPLA inhibitory effect (63% of inhibition at 200µg/mL). Under the same experimental conditions, the IC of the reference compound acetylsalicylic acid was 65±1µg/mL. Tessaria absinthioides exhibited the best inhibition towards hyaluronidase with an IC of 93.2±4.3µg/mL. Under the same experimental conditions, the reference compounds quercetin and indomethacin presented IC values of 340.0±17.0 and 502.0±10.0µg/mL, respectively. Among the most active species, 13 compounds were tentatively identified by HPLC-ESI-MS in E. multiflora and P. lucida, and 12 compounds in T. absinthioides. The constituents included caffeoyl- and feruloylquinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, simple phenolics and sesquiterpene glycosides.

Conclusions: Six out of the 13 species investigated showed a moderate to strong effect towards the enzyme sPLA (>40% inhibition at 200µg/mL) while three species presented a strong activity against LOX with IC<250µg/mL and three were very active against hyaluronidase. Most of the crude drug extracts were able to stabilize the red blood cells membrane, preventing their lysis. The compounds identified in the extracts explain, at least in part, the activity found in the samples. The effect observed for the most active species supports their traditional use as anti-inflammatory agents. However, more studies should be undertaken to disclose the potential of the Puna plants as anti-inflammatory crude drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.04.013DOI Listing
June 2017

Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

Food Chem 2017 Feb 8;216:70-9. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Laboratorio de Investigación de Productos Naturales (LIPRON), Instituto de Química del NOA (INQUINOA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina. Electronic address:

The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.015DOI Listing
February 2017

Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

Food Sci Nutr 2016 Jul 19;4(4):595-610. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales Universidad de Talca Talca Chile.

The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930503PMC
July 2016

The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

Food Chem 2016 Mar 2;194:908-19. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile. Electronic address:

The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.117DOI Listing
March 2016

Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Effect and Chemical Composition of Propolis from the Región del Maule, Central Chile.

Molecules 2015 Oct 6;20(10):18144-67. Epub 2015 Oct 6.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Propolis is commercialized in Chile as an antimicrobial agent. It is obtained mainly from central and southern Chile, but is used for the same purposes regardless of its origin. To compare the antimicrobial effect, the total phenolic (TP), the total flavonoid (TF) content and the phenolic composition, 19 samples were collected in the main production centers in the Región del Maule, Chile. Samples were extracted with MeOH and assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. TP and TF content, antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC methods were also determined. Sample composition was assessed by HPLD-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Differential compounds in the samples were isolated and characterized. The antimicrobial effect of the samples showed MICs ranging from 31.5 to > 1000 µg/mL. Propolis from the central valley was more effective as antibacterial than those from the coastal area or Andean slopes. The samples considered of interest (MIC ≤ 62.5 µg/mL) showed effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis. Two new diarylheptanoids, a diterpene, the flavonoids pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Some 29 compounds were dereplicated by HPLC-MS and tentatively identified, including nine flavones/flavonol derivatives, one flavanone, eight dihydroflavonols and nine phenyl-propanoids. Propolis from the Región del Maule showed large variation in antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and composition. So far the presence of diarylheptanoids in samples from the coastal area of central Chile can be considered as a marker of a new type of propolis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201018144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332341PMC
October 2015

Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 Apr 29;96(6):2142-53. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, 3460000, Talca, Chile.

Background: Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis.

Results: TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active.

Conclusion: High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7330DOI Listing
April 2016

Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

Molecules 2015 Apr 17;20(4):7017-33. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Laboratorio de Investigación de Productos Naturales (LIPRON), Instituto de Química del NOA (INIQUINOA.CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán 4000, Argentina.

In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20047017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272463PMC
April 2015

Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2015 Jun;70(2):135-40

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile.

Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0468-7DOI Listing
June 2015