Publications by authors named "Fekede Asefa"

8 Publications

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Patterns and predictors of gestational weight gain in Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study.

Reprod Health 2021 Jul 28;18(1):159. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Gaining excessive or inadequate gestational weight is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of fetal growth restriction, pre-term birth, and low birth weight. It is a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and predictors of GWG in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among pregnant women who attended antenatal care in health centres in Addis Ababa, from January to September 2019. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and checklists and analysed using Stata version-14. Weight at or before 16 weeks gestation was used as a proxy for pre-pregnancy weight. Women's height and baseline weight were measured by data collectors, and we obtained weight at the end of the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation from women's medical records. GWG was categorized as inadequate, adequate and excessive based on the United States Institute of Medicine criteria. Predictors of GWG were identified using multinomial logistic regression.

Results: A total of 395 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. GWG was assessed for 369 (93%) women. The median GWG was 8.7 kg with inter quartile ranges (25th, 75th percentiles) of 7.0 kg and 11.6 kg. More than two-third of the participants, 248 (67.2% [95% CI: 62.2, 72.0%]), gained inadequate weight; 103 (27.9% [95% CI: 23.4, 32.8%]) gained adequate weight; and 18 (4.9% [95% CI: 2.9%, 7.6%]) gained excessive weight. Three quarters (75%) of underweight women gained inadequate gestational weight, whereas 43% of overweight or obese women gained inadequate gestational weight. Being underweight (AOR = 3.30 [95% CI: 1.32, 8.24]) or normal weight (AOR = 2.68 [95% CI: 1.37, 5.24]) before pregnancy increased the odds of gaining inadequate gestational weight compared to overweight or obese women. Not having paid employment was associated with higher odds of gaining inadequate gestational weight compared to women employed outside the home (AOR = 2.17 [95% CI: 1.16, 4.07]).

Conclusions: Most pregnant women in Addis Ababa gain inadequate gestational weight. In particular, three quarters of underweight women gained inadequate gestational weight. Being underweight, normal weight or having no paid employment were associated with higher odds of inadequate GWG. Promoting adequate GWG in Addis Ababa among underweight and normal weight women may be an important public health initiative.
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July 2021

Midwives' and obstetricians' perspectives about pregnancy related weight management in Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(12):e0244221. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Midwives and obstetricians are key maternity care providers; they are the most trusted source of information regarding nutrition and gestational weight gain. However, their views, practices and perceived barriers to managing pregnancy related weight gain have not been studied in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to explore midwives' and obstetricians' observations and perspectives about gestational weight gain and postpartum weight management in Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 11 midwives and 10 obstetricians, from January 2019 to March 2019. All interview data were transcribed verbatim. We analysed the data using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.

Results: We identified three themes and associated subthemes. Midwives and obstetricians had limited knowledge of the optimal gestational weight gain. Almost all participants were unaware of the presence of the Institute of Medicine recommendations for optimal weight gain in pregnancy. According to the study participants, women in Ethiopia do not want to gain weight during pregnancy, but do want to gain weight after the birth. Counselling about gestational weight gain and postpartum weight management was not routinely provided for pregnant women. This is mostly because gestational weight gain counselling was not considered to be a priority by maternity care providers in Ethiopia.

Conclusions: The limited knowledge of and low attention to pregnancy related weight management by midwives and obstetricians in this setting needs appropriate intervention. Adapting a guideline for pregnancy weight management and integrating it into antenatal care is essential.
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March 2021

Gestational weight gain and its effect on birth outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(4):e0231889. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Centre for Midwifery, Child and Family Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: An increased metabolic demand during pregnancy is fulfilled by gaining sufficient gestational weight. Women who gain inadequate-weight are at a high-risk of premature birth or having a baby with low-birth weight. However, women who gain excessive-weight are at a high-risk of having a baby with macrosomia. The aim of this review was to determine the distribution of gestational weight gain and its association with birth-outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we performed a literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. We searched grey-literature from Google and Google Scholar, and region-specific journals from the African Journals Online (AJOL) database. We critically appraised the included studies using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Two independent reviewers evaluated the quality of the studies and extracted the data. We calculated pooled relative-risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Of 1450 retrieved studies, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies classified gestational weight gain according to the United States Institute of Medicine recommendations. The percentage adequate amount of gestational weight ranged from 3% to 62%. The percentage of inadequate weight was >50% among nine studies. Among underweight women, the percentage of women who gained inadequate gestational weight ranged from 67% to 98%. Only two studies were included in the meta-analyses to evaluate the association of gestational weight gain with pre-eclampsia and macrosomia. No difference was observed among women who gained inadequate and adequate gestational weight regarding experiencing pre-eclampsia (RR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.22, 2.28, P = 0.57). Excessive gestational weight gain was not significantly associated with macrosomia compared to adequate weight gain (RR, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.22, P = 0.20).

Conclusion: A substantial proportion of sub-Saharan African women gain inadequate gestational weight particularly high among underweight women. Future interventions would need to design effective pre-pregnancy weight management strategies.
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July 2020

Second-line HIV treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 29;14(7):e0220159. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

School of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Background: Increased second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure rate narrows future options for HIV/AIDS treatment. It has critical implications in resource-limited settings; including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where the burden of HIV-infection is immense. Hence, pooled estimate for second-line HIV treatment failure is relevant to suggest valid recommendations that optimize ART outcomes in SSA.

Methods: We retrieved literature systematically from PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and AJOL. The retrieved studies were screened and assessed for eligibility. We also assessed the eligible studies for their methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute's appraisal checklist. The pooled estimates for second-line HIV treatment failure and its associated factors were determined using STATA, version 15.0 and MEDCALC, version 18.11.3, respectively. We assessed publication bias using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software, version 3. Detailed study protocol for this review/meta-analysis is registered and found on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42018118959).

Results: A total of 33 studies with the overall 18,550 participants and 19,988.45 person-years (PYs) of follow-up were included in the review. The pooled second-line HIV treatment failure rate was 15.0 per 100 PYs (95% CI: 13.0-18.0). It was slightly higher at 12-18 months of follow-up (19.0/100 PYs; 95% CI: 15.0-22.0), in children (19.0/100 PYs; 95% CI: 14.0-23.0) and in southern SSA (18.0/100 PYs; 95% CI: 14.0-23.0). Baseline values (high viral load (OR: 5.67; 95% CI: 13.40-9.45); advanced clinical stage (OR: 3.27; 95% CI: 2.07-5.19); and low CD4 counts (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.83-4.29)) and suboptimal adherence to therapy (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.28-2.86) were the factors associated with increased failure rates.

Conclusion: Second-line HIV treatment failure has become highly prevalent in SSA with alarming rates during the 12-18 month period of treatment start; in children; and southern SSA. Therefore, the second-line HIV treatment approach in SSA should critically consider excellent adherence to therapy, aggressive viral load suppression, and rapid immune recovery.
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March 2020

Gestational weight gain and its associated factors in Harari Regional State: Institution based cross-sectional study, Eastern Ethiopia.

Reprod Health 2016 Aug 30;13:101. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Federal Police Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia.

Background: Gestational weight gain is an important factor that supports optimal outcome for mothers and their infant. Whereas women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy have a risk of bearing a baby with low birth weight, those who gain excessive weight are at increased risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Nonetheless, data on gestational weight gain and its determinants are scarce in developing countries, as it is difficult to collect the information throughout the pregnancy period. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess weight gain during pregnancy and its associated factors.

Methods: The study employed a health facility based quantitative cross-sectional study design in Harari Regional State. The study included 411 women who had given birth at health institutions from January to July of 2014. The researchers collected both primary and secondary data by using a structured questionnaire and a checklist. Using logistic regression, the factors associated with gestational weight gain were assessed and, based on the United States Institute of Medicine criteria, gestational weight gains were categorized as inadequate, adequate and excessive.

Results: The study revealed that 69.3 %, 28 %, and 2.7 % of the women gained inadequate, adequate and excess gestational weight, respectively. The mean gestational weight gain was 8.96 (SD ±3.27) kg. The factors associated with adequate gestational weight gain were body mass index ≥ 25Kg/m(2) at early pregnancy (AOR = 3.2, 95 % CI 1.6, 6.3); engaging in regular physical exercise (AOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.6); Antenatal care visit of ≥4 times (AOR = 2.9, 95 % CI 1.7, 5.2); consuming fruit and vegetable (AOR = 2.7, 95 % CI 1.2, 6.6), and meat (AOR = 2.7, 95 % CI 1.1, 97.2).

Conclusions: Generally, a small proportion of the women gained adequate gestational weight. The women who were with higher body mass index at early pregnancy, who frequently visited Antenatal care visit, and who consumed diverse food items were more likely to measure adequate gestational weight.
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August 2016

Magnitude of, trends in, and associated factors of road traffic collision in central Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health 2014 Oct 15;14:1072. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P,O, Box 235, Harar, Ethiopia.

Background: Road traffic collision (RTC) is one of many public health problems. Globally, about 1.2 million people die due to RTCs every year. Of these, 85% reside in low- and middle-income countries. Despite low road network density and vehicle ownership, Ethiopia has a relatively high collision record. Collisions in the Addis Ababa and Oromia Regions account for 58% of all fatal collisions in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of, trends in and factors associated with RTCs in central Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using relevant police reports obtained from eight police stations found between Akaki and Adama towns located in central Ethiopia. The study included reports from July 2007 to June 2012. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed, and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with the RTCs.

Results: From July 2007 to June 2012, 2,335 collisions were registered, though the outcomes of 24 of these crashes were not recorded. Among these collisions, 389 (16.7%) resulted in death, 316 (13.5%) brought about severe injuries, 290 (12.4%) caused slight injuries, and 1,316 (56.4%) caused property damage. These collisions affected about 1,745 individuals. While 515 (29.5%) people died, 549 (31.5%) were severely injured, and the remaining 681 (39%) were slightly injured. Driving at midnight [AOR 1.67, 95% CI; 1.2-2.4], driving above the speed limit [AOR 5.3, 95% CI; 2.9-9.6], failing to give priority for other vehicles and pedestrians [AOR 5.03, 95% CI; 2.3-9.3], and vehicular technical problems [AOR 19, 95% CI; 6.4-56] were determinants of RTC fatality.

Conclusions: RTCs steadily increased in the study area over this period of time. This calls for urgent interventions. Ensuring that drivers obey traffic rules and enforcing the speed limit appear to be the most critical parts of necessary interventions.
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October 2014

Modern contraceptive utilization among female ART attendees in health facilities of Gimbie town, West Ethiopia.

Reprod Health 2014 Apr 14;11:30. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Department of ART, Filtu Zonal Hospital, Somali region, Ethiopia.

Background: In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. To address these problems family planning is the best solution. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to assess modern contraceptive use among females on ART in health facilities of Gimbie town, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gimbie town, western Ethiopia from December 2012 to January 2013. HIV infected women of reproductive age group (15-49 years) who came for ART care follow up during the data collection period were included in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression and multivariate analysis were employed using SPSS version 17.

Results: Three hundred ninety five women on ART have participated in the study. More than half, 224 (56.7%), of the respondents were using modern contraceptive, of whom 67 (30%) use dual contraceptive method. Having information on modern contraception is positively associated with modern contraceptive use with (AOR=6.3, 95% CI (1.67, 24.1)) and respondents who have family size ≤4 were 50% less contraceptive users than those who have family size >4 (AOR=0.51, 95% CI (0.27, 0.96)).

Conclusion: In this study contraceptive use among HIV positive women is better than the general population. However, use of dual methods, long acting and permanent method of contraceptives were found to be low. Continuous and targeted information provision on modern contraceptive should be done.
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April 2014