Publications by authors named "Feijun Luo"

79 Publications

Dietary polysaccharides exert biological functions via epigenetic regulations: Advance and prospectives.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Forestry Edible Resources Safety and Processing, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Bioactive substances derived from natural products are valued for effective health-related activities. As extremely important component of plants, animal cell membrane and microbes cytoderm, polysaccharides have been applied as medications, foods and cosmetics stemming from their prominent biological functions and minor side-effects. Recent studies indicate that polysaccharides exert biological effects also through epigenetic mechanism. Through the intervention of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, polysaccharides participatate in regulation of immunity/inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant damage and anti-tumor, which presents novel mechanism of polysaccharide exerting various functions. In this review, the latest advances in the biological functions of dietary polysaccharides via epigenetic regulations were comprehensively summarized and discussed. From the view point of epigenetic regulation, investigating the relationship between polysaccharides and biological effects will enhance our understandings of polysaccharides and also means huge breakthrough of molecular mechanism in the polysaccharide research fields. The paper will provide important reference to these investigators of polysaccharide research and expand the applications of dietary polysaccharides in the functional food developments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1944974DOI Listing
July 2021

Dietary Supplementation of Octacosanol Improves Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Its Molecular Mechanism.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 5;69(27):7603-7618. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-Oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, No. 498, Shaoshan Road, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China.

Several publications report that octacosanol (OCT) has different biological functions. This study was designed to evaluate the antifatigue effect and molecular mechanism of octacosanol (200 mg/(kg day)) in forced exercise-induced fatigue models of trained male C57BL/6 mice. Results showed that octacosanol ameliorated the mice's autonomic activities, forelimb grip strength, and swimming endurance, and the levels of liver glycogen (LG), muscle glycogen (MG), blood lactic acid (BLA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also regulated. Gene analysis results showed that treatment with OCT upregulated 29 genes, while 38 genes were downregulated in gastrocnemius tissue. Gene ontology (GO) analyses indicated that these genes enriched functions in relation to myofibril, contractile fiber, and calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity. Octacosanol supplementation significantly adjusted the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels related to fatigue performance. Octacosanol has an observably mitigating effect in exercise-induced fatigue models, and its molecular mechanism may be related to the regulation of tripartite motif-containing 63 (Trim63), periaxin (Prx), calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α1 H (Cacna1h), and myosin-binding protein C (Mybpc3) expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01764DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes in structural, digestive, and rheological properties of corn, potato, and pea starches as influenced by different ultrasonic treatments.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 20;185:206-218. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and By-product Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

Ultrasound was widely used in starch modification, whereas there was no review focusing on the effects of different ultrasonic treatments on A-, B- and C-type starches. In this study, the effects of ultrasonic power (UP, 100-600 W) and ultrasonic time (UT, 5-35 min) on structural, digestibility and rheology of corn starch (CS), potato starch (PtS), and pea starch (PS) were investigated. As a result, UP and UT decreased the apparent amylose content of CS and PS, while increased the apparent amylose content of PtS. UP and UT enhanced R values of CS, whereas those of PtS and PS were decreased. Moreover, UP and UT decreased the gelatinization enthalpy of CS, PtS and PS. In vitro digestion revealed that UP and UT decreased the resistant starch content of PtS and PS, but increased the resistant starch content of CS. Rheological tests indicated that UP and UT decreased the flow behavior index of CS, PtS and PS pastes, and caused an increase in storage modulus and loss modulus. Results revealed that ultrasonic treatment represented a promising technology to obtain CS, PtS and PS with tailored digestibility and rheology, which allowed the texture and glycemic response of starch-based products to be adjusted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.127DOI Listing
August 2021

Toward improvements for enhancement the productivity and color value of pigments: a critical with recent updates.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 16:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Edible forestry Resources Safety and Processing Utilization, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China.

pigments are a kind of high-quality natural edible pigments fermented by filamentous fungi, which have been widely used in food, cosmetics, medicine, textiles, dyes and chemical industries as active functional ingredients. Moreover, pigments have a good application prospect because of a variety of biological functions such as antibacterial, antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, regulating cholesterol, and anti-cancer. However, the low productivity and color value of pigments restrict their development and application. In this review, we introduced the categories, structures, biosynthesis and functions of pigments, and summarized the current methods for improving the productivity and color value of pigments, including screening and mutagenesis of strains, optimization of fermentation conditions, immobilized fermentation, mixed fermentation, additives, gene knockout and overexpression technologies, which will help to develop the foundation for the industrial production of pigments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1935443DOI Listing
June 2021

δ-Tocotrienol induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 31;12(14):6374-6388. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, College of Food Science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Processing of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has a notably high incidence rate in Southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa, Middle East, and the Arctic. δ-Tocotrienol is abundant in cereal and has some health benefits. In our recent study, we showed that δ-tocotrienol exerted anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages in vitro. The aim of this study was to further investigate the chemopreventive effects of δ-tocotrienol on human CNE1 cells. We showed that δ-tocotrienol induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G/G and M phases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Microarray analysis revealed that after CNE1 cells were treated with δ-tocotrienol, 169 genes were up-regulated and 167 down-regulated. ERK1/2 was shown to play a vital role in cell cycle arrest by gene chips. The results suggest that δ-tocotrienol induces cell cycle arrest in CNE1 cells via the p16/CDK4/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Western blots showed that CNE1 apoptosis was related to dysregulated expression of Bax-2 and Bcl-2. Furthermore, caspase-3, -8, -9 up-regulation was related to the apoptotic effect of δ-tocotrienol; therefore, δ-tocotrienol triggers apoptosis in CNE1 cells through caspase-3 signaling. δ-Tocotrienol may potentially be developed as an anti-cancer agent in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00461aDOI Listing
July 2021

Structural changes of A-, B- and C-type starches of corn, potato and pea as influenced by sonication temperature and their relationships with digestibility.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 20;358:129858. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and By-product Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

The effect of sonication temperature on the structures and digestion behaviour of corn starch (CS, A-type), potato starch (PtS, B-type), and pea starch (PS, C-type) was investigated. For CS, sonication temperature resulted in a rough surface, decreased apparent amylose content, gelatinization enthalpy and gelatinization degree, increased short-range orders, long-range orders, retrogradation degree and resistant starch content. For PtS, sonication temperature led to a coarser surface with scratches, increased apparent amylose content and gelatinization degree, decreased short-range orders, long-range orders, gelatinization enthalpy, retrogradation degree, and resistant starch content. For PS, sonication temperature showed partial disintegration on surface, increased gelatinization degree, decreased apparent amylose content, short-range orders, long-range orders, gelatinization enthalpy, retrogradation degree and resistant starch content. This study suggested that starch digestion features could be controlled by the crystalline pattern of starch used and the extent of sonication temperature, and thus were of value for rational control of starch digestion features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129858DOI Listing
October 2021

Dietary Fiber: An Opportunity for a Global Control of Hyperlipidemia.

Authors:
Ying Nie Feijun Luo

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 8;2021:5542342. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, College of Food science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Processing of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

Dietary fiber has a long history in the intervention study of hyperlipidemia. In this review, current understandings of structures, sources, and natures of various kinds of dietary fibers (DFs) were analyzed first. Available evidences for the use of different varieties of DFs in the lipid-lowering action both and were subsequently classified, including both soluble ones, such as glucans, pectins, and gums, and insoluble ones, including arabinooxylans and chitosans, in order to draw a primary conclusion of their dose and molecular weight relationship with lipid-lowering effect. Their potential mechanisms, especially the related molecular mechanism of protective action in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia, were summarized at last. Five major mechanisms are believed to be responsible for the antihyperlipidemic benefits of DFs, including low levels of energy, bulking effect, viscosity, binding capacity, and fermentation thus ameliorating the symptoms of hyperlipidemia. From the molecular level, DFs could possibly affect the activities of HMG-CoA reductase, LDL receptors, CYP7A1, and MAPK signaling pathway as well as other lipid metabolism-related target genes. In summary, dietary fibers could be used as alternative supplements to exert certain lipid-lowering effects on humans. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen this proposal and its fully underlying mechanism still requires more investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5542342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052145PMC
May 2021

State-Level Economic Costs of Opioid Use Disorder and Fatal Opioid Overdose - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 16;70(15):541-546. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Approximately 47,000 persons in the United States died from an opioid-involved overdose in 2018 (1), and 2.0 million persons met the diagnostic criteria for an opioid use disorder in 2017 (2). The economic cost of the U.S. opioid epidemic in 2017 was estimated at $1,021 billion, including cost of opioid use disorder estimated at $471 billion and cost of fatal opioid overdose estimated at $550 billion (3). CDC used national-level cost estimates to estimate the state-level economic cost of opioid use disorder and fatal opioid overdose during 2017. Cases and costs of state-level opioid use disorder and fatal opioid overdose and per capita costs were calculated for each of the 38 states and the District of Columbia (DC) that met drug specificity requirements for mortality data (4). Combined costs of opioid use disorder and fatal opioid overdose (combined costs) varied substantially, ranging from $985 million in Wyoming to $72,583 million in Ohio. Per capita combined costs also varied considerably, ranging from $1,204 in Hawaii to $7,247 in West Virginia. States with high per capita combined costs were mainly in two regions: the Ohio Valley and New England. Federal and state public health agencies can use these data to help guide decisions regarding research, prevention and response activities, and resource allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7015a1DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of Annual Cost of Substance Use Disorder in US Hospitals.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e210242. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: A persistently high US drug overdose death toll and increasing health care use associated with substance use disorder (SUD) create urgency for comprehensive estimates of attributable direct costs, which can assist in identifying cost-effective ways to prevent SUD and help people to receive effective treatment.

Objective: To estimate the annual attributable medical cost of SUD in US hospitals from the health care payer perspective.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This economic evaluation of observational data used multivariable regression analysis and mathematical modeling of hospital encounter costs, controlling for patient demographic, clinical, and insurance characteristics, and compared encounters with and without secondary SUD diagnosis to statistically identify the total attributable cost of SUD. Nationally representative hospital emergency department (ED) and inpatient encounters from the 2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample were studied. Statistical analysis was performed from March to June 2020.

Exposures: International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) principal or secondary SUD diagnosis on the hospital discharge record according to the Clinical Classifications Software categories (disorders related to alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, stimulants, and other substances).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Annual attributable SUD medical cost in hospitals overall and by substance type (eg, alcohol). The number of encounters (ED and inpatient) with SUD diagnosis (principal or secondary) and the mean cost attributable to SUD per encounter by substance type are also reported.

Results: This study examined a total of 124 573 175 hospital ED encounters and 33 648 910 hospital inpatient encounters from the 2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample. Total annual estimated attributable SUD medical cost in hospitals was $13.2 billion. By substance type, the cost ranged from $4 million for inhalant-related disorders to $7.6 billion for alcohol-related disorders.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study's results suggest that the cost of effective prevention and treatment may be substantially offset by a reduction in the high direct medical cost of SUD hospital care. The findings of this study may inform the treatment of patients with SUD during hospitalization, which presents a critical opportunity to engage patients who are at high risk for overdose. Aligning incentives such that prevention cost savings accrue to payers and practitioners that are otherwise responsible for SUD-related medical costs in hospitals and other health care settings may encourage prevention investment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936257PMC
March 2021

Natural Polyphenols as Targeted Modulators in Colon Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Applications.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:635484. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.

Colon cancer commonly develops from long-term chronic inflammation in the intestine and seriously threatens human health. Natural polyphenols have been valued as a crucial regulator of nutrient metabolism and metabolic diseases, owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions and the ability to maintain a balance between gut microbes and their hosts. Notably, experimental and clinical evidence has shown that natural polyphenols could act as a targeted modulator to play a key role in the prevention or treatment of colon cancer. Thus, in this review, we summarized recent advances in the possible regulatory mechanism and the potential application of natural polyphenols in colon cancer, which might be regarded as a novel platform for the colon cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.635484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921316PMC
February 2021

Special Report from the CDC Antidepressant subclass use and fall risk in community-dwelling older Americans.

J Safety Res 2021 02 13;76:332-340. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Introduction: Falls among older adults are a significant health concern affecting more than a quarter of older adults (age 65+). Certain fall risk factors, such as medication use, increase fall risk among older adults (age 65+).

Aim: The aim of this study is to examine the association between antidepressant-medication subclass use and self-reported falls in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: This analysis used the 2009-2013 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a nationally representative panel survey. A total of 8,742 community-dwelling older adults, representing 40,639,884 older Medicare beneficiaries, were included. We compared self-reported falls and psychoactive medication use, including antidepressant subclasses. These data are controlled for demographic, functional, and health characteristics associated with increased fall risk. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using SAS 9.4 and Stata 15 software.

Results: The most commonly used antidepressant subclass were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressants (13.1%). After controlling for characteristics associated with increased fall risk (including depression and concurrent psychoactive medication use), the risk of falling among older adults increased by approximately 30% among those who used a SSRI or a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) compared to non-users. The adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for SSRI was 1.29 (95% CI = 1.13, 1.47) and for SNRI was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.07, 1.62).

Conclusion: SSRI and SNRI are associated with increased risk of falling after adjusting for important confounders. Medication use is a modifiable fall risk factor in older adults and can be targeted to reduce risk of falls. Practical Applications: Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors increased the risk of falling in older adults by approximately 30%, even after controlling for demographic, functional, and health characteristics, including depression. Health care providers can work towards reducing fall risk among their older patients by minimizing the use of certain medications when potential risks outweigh the benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2020.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139010PMC
February 2021

Estimating From the Payer Perspective the Implementation Cost of Dating Matters®: A Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Model.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Dec 15:886260520980389. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

"Dating Matters" is a CDC-developed comprehensive, multi-component teen dating violence (TDV) prevention model, made available to the public in 2019. A longitudinal, multi-site demonstration project found that the model significantly reduced TDV during middle school relative to an evidence-based, single-program intervention (Safe Dates; Niolon et al., 2019), when implemented across 46 middle schools in four high-risk urban areas with predominantly Black (55%) and Hispanic (28%) youth participants. Research on the costs of implementing TDV prevention strategies is limited, despite recognition within the field of prevention science that such data are critical to widespread dissemination. The current study adds to the available literature on the cost of dating violence prevention by estimating the budgetary impact from the payer perspective of implementing the comprehensive Dating Matters model, compared to Safe Dates, at four sites over four school years to inform prevention planning in communities. Total costs of implementing Dating Matters were relatively stable within sites over time but varied greatly between sites ( = $175,452 per year; range = $130,149 to $227,604). The mean per-student cost of Dating Matters was $145.40 but also ranged widely ($20.66 to $324.65) across sites and years. Variation was largely driven by staffing costs and number of students served. As expected, total and per-student costs were substantially lower at all sites for the Safe Dates program ( = $12,148; range = $2,848 to $17,840; $44.81 per student) compared to Dating Matters. This study provides an estimate from the payer perspective to demonstrate the budgetary impact of Dating Matters. These estimates can help inform implementation decisions and planning by potential funders, communities, and organizations as they seek to support and implement effective TDV prevention strategies. It also adds substantially to understanding of the additional costs associated with a move from single-program interventions to community-wide initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520980389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203742PMC
December 2020

The economic burden of opioid use disorder and fatal opioid overdose in the United States, 2017.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 01 27;218:108350. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The United States (U.S.) is experiencing an ongoing opioid crisis. Economic burden estimates that describe the impact of the crisis are needed when considering federal and state resources devoted to addressing overdoses. In this study, we estimate the societal costs for opioid use disorder and fatal overdose from all opioids in 2017.

Methods: We estimated costs of fatal overdose from all opioids and opioid use disorder based on the incidence of overdose deaths and the prevalence of past-year opioid use disorder for 2017. Incidence of fatal opioid overdose was obtained from the National Vital Statistics System; prevalence of past-year opioid use disorder was estimated from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Costs were estimated for health care, criminal justice and lost productivity. Costs for the reduced quality of life for opioid use disorder and life lost due to fatal opioid overdose were valued using U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for valuing reductions in morbidity and mortality.

Results: Costs for opioid use disorder and fatal opioid overdose in 2017 were estimated to be $1.02 trillion. The majority of the economic burden is due to reduced quality of life from opioid use disorder and the value of life lost due to fatal opioid overdose.

Conclusions: These estimates can assist decision makers in understanding the magnitude of opioid use disorder and fatal overdose. Knowing the magnitude and distribution of the economic burden can inform public policy, clinical practice, research, and prevention and response activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091480PMC
January 2021

Modulating the in vitro digestibility of chemically modified starch ingredient by a non-thermal processing technology of ultrasonic treatment.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jan 17;70:105350. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and By-product Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

Chemically modified starch (RS4) was commercially available as a food ingredient, however, there was a lack of knowledge on how ultrasonic treatment (non-thermal technology) modulated the enzymatic resistance of RS4. In this study, structural change of RS4 during ultrasonic treatment and its resulting digestibility was investigated. Results from scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that ultrasonic treatment remained the granule morphology, increased the apparent amylose content, reduced the particle size, destroyed the crystalline structure, decreased the helical orders, but enhanced the short-range molecular orders of ultrasonic-processed RS4. In vitro digestibility analysis showed that the total content of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch was increased, whereas the content of resistant starch was decreased. Overall, ultrasonic treatment substantially reduced the enzymatic resistance of RS4, indicating that RS4 was not stability against the non-thermal processing technology of ultrasonic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786522PMC
January 2021

Systematic evaluation of the physicochemical properties and the volatile flavors of yak meat during chilled and controlled freezing-point storage.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Apr 9;57(4):1351-1361. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

1National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-Oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, Changsha Engineering Research Center of Food Storage and Preservation, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004 Hunan China.

In this study, the physicochemical properties (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, and peroxide value) and the volatile flavors of yak meat were systematically evaluated during chilled (0 °C) and controlled freezing-point (- 2 °C) storage. The TVB-N reached 15.21 mg/100 g after 18 days of storage at 0 °C, which exceeded the secondary freshness value according to the Chinese national standard. For storage at - 2 °C, the TVB-N did not exceed 15 mg/100 g until 24 days. Compared with storage at 0 °C, the samples stored at - 2 °C had a slower rate of increase in TVB-N, pH, and peroxide values. The changes in volatile compounds in yak meat during storage at - 2 °C and 0 °C for 24 days were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The correlations between the changes in the volatile compound contents and meat quality deterioration revealed significant negative correlations (  = 0.902,  < 0.05) between some aldehyde flavor components (nonanal, heptanal, benzaldehyde, decanal, and myristal) and TVB-N in the samples stored at controlled freezing-point and chilled temperatures. The decreases in nonanal, benzaldehyde, and myristal contents in yak meat followed zero order reaction kinetics. This result indicated, because of the highly selective and sensitive colorimetric detection method, that volatile compounds can effectively predict the decay in quality of yak meat stored at low temperature in advance. Thus, based on physicochemical and volatile flavor analyses, a new method is proposed to investigate the storage and preservation of yak meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04169-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054576PMC
April 2020

Investigation on mercury migration discipline in different paper-plastic food packaging containers.

J Food Sci 2020 Apr 16;85(4):1186-1192. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

College of Food Science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410004, China.

The understanding of the migration of mercury from packaging materials to food stuffs is the prerequisite for the development of food safety regulations. In this article, the migration of mercury from food paper-plastic packaging containers to four food stimulants under different migrated temperatures is studied. The results show that the mobility and the maximum migration volume of mercury increase at certain temperatures when the migration time is extended. It is also noted that the time to reach equilibrium is reduced as the temperature increases. Meanwhile, different solvents appear various different while the rates of migration are 3% acetic acid >10% ethanol >20% ethanol >50% ethanol. But they show the same trend at the different temperatures. Our data suggest that different solvents, temperatures, and food stimulants affect the migration rates, and ameliorate those conditions will reduce migration and promote food quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15060DOI Listing
April 2020

Evaluation of the Genotoxic and Oxidative Damage Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human NCM460 and HCT116 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 27;21(5). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Key Laboratory of Biological Nanomaterials and Devices, College of life sciences and chemistry, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007, China.

Nano Ag has excellent antibacterial properties and is widely used in various antibacterial materials, such as antibacterial medicine and medical devices, food packaging materials and antibacterial textiles. Despite the many benefits of nano-Ag, more and more research indicates that it may have potential biotoxic effects. Studies have shown that people who ingest nanoparticles by mouth have the highest uptake in the intestinal tract, and that the colon area is the most vulnerable to damage and causes the disease. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of different concentrations of Ag-NPs on normal human colon cells (NCM460) and human colon cancer cells (HCT116). As the concentration of nanoparticles increased, the activity of the two colon cells decreased and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. RT-qPCR and Western-blot analyses showed that Ag NPs can promote the increase in P38 protein phosphorylation levels in two colon cells and promote the expression of P53 and Bax. The analysis also showed that Ag NPs can promote the down-regulation of Bcl-2, leading to an increased Bax / Bcl-2 ratio and activation of P21, further accelerating cell death .This study showed that a low concentration of nano Ag has no obvious toxic effect on colon cells, while nano Ag with concentrations higher than 15 μg/mL will cause oxidative damage to colon cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084348PMC
February 2020

Understanding the mechanism of ultrasonication regulated the digestibility properties of retrograded starch following vacuum freeze drying.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Jan 21;228:115350. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and By-product Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

The digestibility properties and structural changes of retrograded starch (RS3) induced by ultrasonic treatment (UT) were investigated. The digestion profiles showed that UT increased the slowly digestible starch (SDS) or resistant starch (RS) of RS3 as an effective green process, corresponding to a change in hydrolysis kinetic parameters (equilibrium starch hydrolysis percentage and kinetic constant). SEM analysis showed that ultrasound led to breakage of RS3 particles followed by cracking, reorientation and crystallization. Differences in amylose content, granule size, and ζ-potential were found for native RS3 and ultrasound-treated RS3 (UT-RS3). UT decreased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy but enhanced short-range order of RS3 based on the results of XRD, DSC, and FT-IR, respectively. Surprisingly, diffractive peaks at 13°and 20° (V-type crystalline structure) and a new exothermic peak were also observed for UT-RS3. The outcome was believed to open new pathways for regulating the digestibility properties of RS3 by UT and development of low glycemic response food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115350DOI Listing
January 2020

Metabolites analysis for cold-resistant yeast (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) strains own antioxidant activity on cold stored fish mince.

Food Chem 2020 Jan 13;303:125368. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

The effect of eight cold-resistant yeast strains (J3, J7, J8, J9, J12, J15, J18, and J25) of Wickerhamomyces anomalus on the lipid oxidation of cold stored fish mince (4 °C) were investigated. And the metabolites of these yeast were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These strains could effectively inhibit the increase of hydroperoxides value (p < 0.05), and the inhibiting rate was positively correlated with the content of isolongifolene, xylitol, turanose, thymol-glucoside, and uridine. Especially, the J3, J7, J8, J9, J12, and J18 could eliminate a large part of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.05), the eliminating rate was proportionate to the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Several bacteriostatic metabolites were detected: thymol-glucoside, 2-phenylethanol, cedro, and 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol. In addition, W. anomalus produced many metabolites with fruit and floral notes. In conclusion, cold-resistant W. anomalus strains own antioxidant activity were potential new bio-preservatives in the cold storage of muscle products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125368DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of on lipid oxidation and carbonyl compounds in silver carp mince during cold storage.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jul 25;7(7):2404-2411. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

College of Food Science and Engineering Central South University of Forestry and Technology Changsha China.

Fish lipid is highly susceptible to oxidation, resulting in accumulation of toxic substances reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs), the reduction of nutritional value, and the production of odorous substances. In this study, the effect of yeast () on RCCs, fat acid composition, volatiles, and sensory traits in silver carp mince stored at 4°C was evaluated. Yeast eliminated malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyl-2-hexenal, and 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal by about 80%, 68%, and 60%, which increased by about 170%, 340%, and 300% in the control, respectively. Yeast helped retain about 80% of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively; only about 53% and 46% of EPA and DHA, respectively, were maintained in the control. Yeast removed off-odors hexanal, nonanal, and decenal, resulting in enhanced sensory traits. These findings were economically important for improving the quality of fish products. It might present an approach to improve the flavor of fish products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657708PMC
July 2019

Psychoactive medication use among older community-dwelling Americans.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2019 Sep - Oct;59(5):686-690. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Background: Falls are a common and serious health issue among older Americans. A common fall risk factor is the use of psychoactive medications. There is limited recent information on the national prevalence of psychoactive medication use among older Americans.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of psychoactive medication use among community-dwelling older Americans and compare it with previous estimates from 1996.

Methods: The data source was the 2013 Cost and Use Data files combining Medicare claims data and survey data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, an in-person nationally representative survey of Medicare beneficiaries. Participants were included if they were 65 years of age and older, lived in the community, and had a complete year of prescription use data. Medication use was examined for 7 classes of psychoactive medications categorized by the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers criteria as increasing fall risk. These include opioids, benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, anticonvulsants, nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants. Data on participant demographic factors were also collected.

Results: Among the 6959 community-dwelling older adults studied, representing 33,268,104 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries, 53.3% used at least 1 psychoactive medication linked to falls in 2013. The most frequently used medication classes were opioids (34.9%), benzodiazepines (15.4%), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (14.3%), and anticonvulsants (13.3%). These estimates are considerably higher for all classes except tricyclic antidepressants than previous reports from 1996 that used the same data source. Among most psychoactive medication classes observed, women had higher usage than men.

Conclusion: More than half of all older Americans used at least 1 psychoactive medication in 2013. Health care providers, including pharmacists, play a vital role in managing older adults' exposure to psychoactive medications. Medication management can optimize health and reduce older adult falls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2019.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830519PMC
August 2020

Insights into the relations between the molecular structures and digestion properties of retrograded starch after ultrasonic treatment.

Food Chem 2019 Oct 9;294:248-259. Epub 2019 May 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and By-product Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-oil Deep Process and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

In this study, ultrasound was used to modulate the molecular structure of retrograded starch (RS3) responsible for the digestion properties, and the relationships among the ultrasonic power, molecular structure, and RS3 digestibility were revealed. Results revealed that the morphological characteristics of RS3 changed after ultrasonic treatment, and high power resulted in more compact block-shape structure. The results of particle size analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction showed that ultrasound decreased the long-range orders but increased the median particle size, short-range orders, and V-type polymorph of ultrasound-treated RS3. A decreased (double helix of amylopectin) and an increased (single helix of V-amylose) enthalpy change were observed by differential scanning calorimeter. Digestion profiles showed that some fractions of rapidly-digestible starch were converted into slowly-digestible starch and/or resistant starch. This study provides a potential approach to regulate the digestion of starch-rich foods with desired digestibility through ultrasonic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.050DOI Listing
October 2019

Glutamate and aspartate alleviate testicular/epididymal oxidative stress by supporting antioxidant enzymes and immune defense systems in boars.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Jan 15;63(1):116-124. Epub 2019 May 15.

Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.

Several potential oxidative agents have damaging effects on mammalian reproductive systems. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) supplementation on antioxidant enzymes and immune defense systems in the outer scrotum of boars injected with HO. A total of 24 healthy boars were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (basal diet, saline-treated), HO (basal diet, HO-challenged outer scrotum (1 mL kg BW)), Glu (basal diet +2% Glu, HO-challenged), and Asp (basal diet+2% Asp, HO-challenged). Our results showed that both Glu and Asp supplementation improved testicular morphology and decreased the genital index in the HO-treated boars. Glu and Asp administration increased the antioxidant enzyme activities and affected the testicular inflammatory cytokine secretion but had no effect on sex hormone levels. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of CAT, CuZnSOD, and GPx4 was altered in the testes and epididymis of boars treated with Asp and Glu. Glu and Asp supplementation also modulated the expression of TGF-β1, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that dietary Glu and Asp supplementation might enhance antioxidant capacity and regulate the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines to protect the testes and epididymis of boars against oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9492-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Inactivation of Soybean Bowman-Birk Inhibitor by Stevioside: Interaction Studies and Application to Soymilk.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Feb 15;67(8):2255-2264. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and Byproduct Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, School of Food Science and Engineering , Center South University of Forestry and Technology , Changsha 410004 , China.

In this work, the interaction of the soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) with stevioside (STE) was studied by stopped-flow-fluorescence and molecular docking. STE's inactivation of protease-inhibitor activities in soymilk and the influence of STE addition on the sensory character of soymilk were also evaluated. The results indicate that STE binds BBI with a binding constant ( K) of 3.38 × 10 L mol to form a 1:1 complex. The docking study reveals that two hydrogen bonds are formed between the side-chain of Lys16 (reactive site 1) of BBI and the glucose-ring hydroxyl groups of STE, which may block BBI from contacting trypsin and thus deactivate the trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) of BBI. Moreover, the residual TIA in soymilk could also be inactivated by STE. A mixture of 159 mg/L STE and 60 g/L sucrose could be used for sweetening soymilk without affecting the sensory characteristics when compared to a reference product sweetened with 9% sucrose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05609DOI Listing
February 2019

Inactivation of Soybean Bowman-Birk Inhibitor by Stevioside: Interaction Studies and Application to Soymilk.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Feb 15;67(8):2255-2264. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Rice and Byproduct Deep Processing, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food For Special Medical Purpose, School of Food Science and Engineering , Center South University of Forestry and Technology , Changsha 410004 , China.

In this work, the interaction of the soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) with stevioside (STE) was studied by stopped-flow-fluorescence and molecular docking. STE's inactivation of protease-inhibitor activities in soymilk and the influence of STE addition on the sensory character of soymilk were also evaluated. The results indicate that STE binds BBI with a binding constant ( K) of 3.38 × 10 L mol to form a 1:1 complex. The docking study reveals that two hydrogen bonds are formed between the side-chain of Lys16 (reactive site 1) of BBI and the glucose-ring hydroxyl groups of STE, which may block BBI from contacting trypsin and thus deactivate the trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) of BBI. Moreover, the residual TIA in soymilk could also be inactivated by STE. A mixture of 159 mg/L STE and 60 g/L sucrose could be used for sweetening soymilk without affecting the sensory characteristics when compared to a reference product sweetened with 9% sucrose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05609DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of the low-income housing tax credit on children's health and wellbeing in Georgia.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2018 Oct;93:390-396

Office of the Director, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Housing instability is a risk factor for child abuse and neglect (CAN). Thus, policies that increase availability of affordable housing may reduce CAN rates. The Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program is the largest affordable housing policy initiative in the country. This study used fixed-effects models to estimate the relationship between LIHTC units and county-level CAN reports in Georgia from 2005 to 2015, controlling for county demographic characteristics. One-way fixed-effects models (including only county fixed-effects) demonstrated significant negative associations between number of LIHTC units and substantiated cases of CAN and total reports of sexual abuse. In two-way fixed-effects models (including county and year fixed-effects), LIHTC units were not associated with any of the outcomes. The findings are subject to limitations, including voluntary provision of CAN data, suppressed data for counties with < 10 CAN cases, and no assessment of the quality of LIHTC neighborhood. LIHTC may be a promising prevention strategy, but more research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314036PMC
October 2018

The impact of the low-income housing tax credit on children's health and wellbeing in Georgia.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2018 Oct;93:390-396

Office of the Director, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Housing instability is a risk factor for child abuse and neglect (CAN). Thus, policies that increase availability of affordable housing may reduce CAN rates. The Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program is the largest affordable housing policy initiative in the country. This study used fixed-effects models to estimate the relationship between LIHTC units and county-level CAN reports in Georgia from 2005 to 2015, controlling for county demographic characteristics. One-way fixed-effects models (including only county fixed-effects) demonstrated significant negative associations between number of LIHTC units and substantiated cases of CAN and total reports of sexual abuse. In two-way fixed-effects models (including county and year fixed-effects), LIHTC units were not associated with any of the outcomes. The findings are subject to limitations, including voluntary provision of CAN data, suppressed data for counties with < 10 CAN cases, and no assessment of the quality of LIHTC neighborhood. LIHTC may be a promising prevention strategy, but more research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314036PMC
October 2018

Enhancement of Monascus pigment productivity via a simultaneous fermentation process and separation system using immobilized-cell fermentation.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Jan 29;272:552-560. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-Oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, College of Food Science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China. Electronic address:

A mutant Monascus purpureus strain, M183, which produced monascus pigments (MPs) at 8460 U/g via solid-state batch-fermentation, was generated using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation system. The optimal glucose concentration (80 g/L) in traditional fermentation media that yielded the highest MPs productivity was determined. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to maximize MPs production using liquid-state batch-fermentation. Under optimal conditions (0.58 g/L MgSO·7HO, 0.02 g/L ZnSO·7HO, 0.02 g/L FeSO·7HO and 4.85 g/L NHNO), 207.67 U/mL of MPs were produced with 98.12% validity based on the predicted value. Extracellular MPs production increased significantly to 35.52 U/mL, compared to 14.19 U/mL of the original strain, M. purpureus LQ-6. M. purpureus spores immobilized in sodium alginate were studied. A simultaneous fermentation and separation system was established for MPs using the novel absorption resin LX300C to enhance production efficiency of extracellular MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.10.072DOI Listing
January 2019

Prevention of Oxidative Stress by α-Ketoglutarate via Activation of CAR Signaling and Modulation of the Expression of Key Antioxidant-Associated Targets in Vivo and in Vitro.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 22;66(43):11273-11283. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process , National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production , Changsha 410125 , PR China.

α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) can act as an antioxidant both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of the protective effects of AKG are still not well understood. We evaluated the effects of AKG supplementation on the regulation of the constitutive-androstane-receptor (CAR) pathway in porcine intestinal cells and piglets exposed to HO. Our data showed that AKG treatment significantly increased not only the intra- and extracellular levels of AKG (26.9 ± 1.31 μmol/g protein, 1064.4 ± 39.80 μmol/L medium) but also those of Asp (29.3 ± 0.21 μmol/g, 4.20 ± 0.11 μmol/L), Gln (24.82 ± 1.50 μmol/g, 1087.80 ± 16.10 μmol/L), and Glu (91.90 ± 3.6 μmol/g, 19.76 ± 1.00 μmol/L). There was approximately a 4-fold increase in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mRNA levels in enterocytes and a simultaneous reduction in ROS levels ( P < 0.05). Moreover, AKG treatment increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the efficiency of cellular respiration ( P < 0.05). AKG also regulated the mRNA levels of the target genes involved in antioxidant responses and xenobiotic detoxification in enterocytes. Increases in the protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAR, RXRα, and UCP2 and marked reductions in the expression levels of Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins ( P < 0.05) were observed after AKG administration in the HO-induced piglets. Our results indicated that AKG may protect against oxidative stress by activating CAR signaling and modulating the expression of key antioxidant-related targets, which improves cellular respiration and antioxidant capacity. The in vivo and in vitro effects of AKG suggest that it may prove to be useful in the reduction of oxidative stress in animal and human trials and subsequent prevention of gastrointestinal pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b04470DOI Listing
October 2018

δ-Tocotrienol, Isolated from Rice Bran, Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect via MAPKs and PPARs Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 4;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-Oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, College of Food Science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China.

δ-Tocotrienol, an important component of vitamin E, has been reported to possess some physiological functions, such as anticancer and anti-inflammation, however their molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, δ-tocotrienol was isolated and purified from rice bran. The anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of δ-tocotrienol against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Results showed that δ-tocotrienol significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) production and blocked the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). δ-Tocotrienol repressed the transcriptional activations and translocations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which were closely related with downregulated cytokine expressions. Meanwhile, δ-tocotrienol also affected the PPAR signal pathway and exerted an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, our data showed that δ-tocotrienol inhibited inflammation via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalings in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212927PMC
October 2018
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