Publications by authors named "Fei Wei"

191 Publications

Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect against irradiation-induced cellular damage while augmenting osteogenesis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 29;126:112145. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Biionix Cluster, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Increased bone loss and risk of fracture are two of the main challenges for cancer patients who undergo ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. This decline in bone quality is in part, caused by the excessive and sustained release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) have proven antioxidant and regenerative properties and the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CeONPs in reducing IR-induced functional damage in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). hBMSCs were supplemented with CeONPs at a concentration of either 1 or 10 μg/mL 24 h prior to exposure to a single 7 Gy irradiation dose. ROS levels, cellular proliferation, morphology, senescence, DNA damage, p53 expression and autophagy were evaluated as well as alkaline phosphatase, osteogenic protein gene expression and bone matrix deposition following osteogenic differentiation. Results showed that supplementation of CeONPs at a concentration of 1 μg/mL reduced cell senescence and significantly augmented cell autophagy (p = 0.01), osteogenesis and bone matrix deposition >2-fold (p = 0.0001) while under normal, non-irradiated culture conditions. Following irradiation, functional damage was attenuated and CeONPs at both 1 or 10 μg/mL significantly reduced ROS levels (p = 0.05 and 0.001 respectively), DNA damage by >4-fold (p < 0.05) while increasing autophagy >3.5-fold and bone matrix deposition 5-fold (p = 0.0001 in both groups). When supplemented with 10 μg/mL, p53 expression increased 3.5-fold (p < 0.05). We conclude that cellular uptake of CeONPs offered a significant, multifunctional and protective effect against IR-induced cellular damage while also augmenting osteogenic differentiation and subsequent new bone deposition. The use of CeONPs holds promise as a novel multifunctional therapeutic strategy for irradiation-induced bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112145DOI Listing
July 2021

CFP is a prognostic biomarker and correlated with immune infiltrates in Gastric Cancer and Lung Cancer.

J Cancer 2021 12;12(11):3378-3390. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology, School of medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China.

Complement factor properdin (), encodes plasma glycoprotein, is a critical gene that regulates the complement pathway of the innate immune system. However, correlations of in cancers remain unclear. In this study, the expression pattern and prognostic value of in pan-cancer were analyzed via the Oncomine, PrognoScan, GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotters. In addition, we used immunohistochemical staining to validate CFP expression in clinical tissue samples. Finally, we evaluated the correlations between and cancer immune infiltrates particularly in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) by using GEPIA and TIMER databases. The results of database analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression level of CFP in STAD and LUAD was lower than that in normal tissues. Low expression level of was associated with poorer overall survival (OS), first progression (FP), post progression survival (PPS) and was detrimental to the prognosis of STAD and LUAD, specifically in stage 3, stage T3, stage N2 and N3 of STAD (0.05). Moreover, expression of had significant positive correlations with the infiltration levels of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells (DCs) in STAD and LUAD. Furthermore, gene markers of infiltrating immune cells exhibited different -related immune infiltration patterns such as tumor-associated-macrophages (TAMs). These results suggest that can serve as a prognostic biomarker for determining prognosis and immune infiltration in STAD and LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.50832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100816PMC
April 2021

Multi-functional cerium oxide nanoparticles regulate inflammation and enhance osteogenesis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 24;124:112041. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Biionix Cluster, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress increases bone loss and limits repair, in part, through immunoregulation and the formation and maintenance of low-grade chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) on (i) macrophage phenotype and cytokine expression under normal and simulated acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and, (ii) human mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSCs) proliferation, osteoinduction and osteogenic differentiation. Spherical particles composed of 60% Ce with a hydrodynamic size of ~35 nm and surface charge of 25.4 mV were internalized within cells. Under both acute and chronic conditions, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity decreased with a significant reduction seen in the 1 and 10 μg/mL groups (p < 0.001). A dose dependent and significant increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression was observed in all CeONP groups under chronic inflammatory condition. No increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity or mineral deposits were measured following hBMSCs cultured without osteogenic media in any of the CeONP groups, however, a significant increase in osteogenic-related gene expression, ALP activity and bone mineral deposits was measured when supplemented with both CeONPs and osteogenic media. CeONP activity was multifaceted and exhibited low toxicity. A therapeutic dose of 1 μg/mL delivered a disparate but protective effect when under both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions while at the same dose, potentiated osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112041DOI Listing
May 2021

A single-molecule van der Waals compass.

Nature 2021 04 21;592(7855):541-544. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Single-molecule imaging is challenging but highly beneficial for investigating intermolecular interactions at the molecular level. Van der Waals interactions at the sub-nanometre scale strongly influence various molecular behaviours under confinement conditions. Inspired by the traditional compass, here we use a para-xylene molecule as a rotating pointer to detect the host-guest van der Waals interactions in the straight channel of the MFI-type zeolite framework. We use integrated differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy to achieve real-space imaging of a single para-xylene molecule in each channel. A good correlation between the orientation of the single-molecule pointer and the atomic structure of the channel is established by combining the results of calculations and imaging studies. The orientations of para-xylene help us to identify changes in the van der Waals interactions, which are related to the channel geometry in both spatial and temporal dimensions. This work not only provides a visible and sensitive means to investigate host-guest van der Waals interactions in porous materials at the molecular level, but also encourages the further study of other single-molecule behaviours using electron microscopy techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03429-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of cotton residues incorporation on soil properties, organic nitrogen fractions, and nitrogen-mineralizing enzyme activity under long-term continuous cotton cropping.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11053. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of cotton residues incorporation on soil properties, soil organic nitrogen (N) fractions, and N-mineralizing enzyme (protease, and urease) activity in the 0-40 cm soil layer in the long-term continuous cotton field. In this experiment, seven treatments, including cotton residues incorporation for 5, 10, 15 and 20 years (marked as 5a, 10a, 15a, and 20a) and continuous cropping for 5, 10 and 20 years (marked as CK5, CK10 and CK20) were conducted. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (C) and N increased gradually with the increase in the duration of continuous cropping with cotton residues incorporation. Compared with CK20, the 20a treatments reduced the content of amino acid N (AAN), ammonium N (AN), amino sugar N (ASN), hydrolysable unidentified N (HUN), and acid insoluble N (AIN) significantly by 48.6, 32.2, 96.9, 48.3, and 38.7%, respectively ( < 0.05). The activity of protease and urease in 20a treatments significantly increased by 53.4 and 53.1% respectively as compared to CK20 ( < 0.05). Soil organic C and N-mineralizing enzyme activity decreased with the increase in cropping duration in the absence of cotton residues incorporation, while the organic N increased slightly. In conclusion, cotton residues returning can increase the storage of soil organic C and N in long-term continuous cropping cotton field, and improve the soil quality and soil fertility of continuous cropping cotton field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035904PMC
April 2021

Bandgap-Coupled Template Autocatalysis toward the Growth of High-Purity sp Nanocarbons.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 18;8(7):2003078. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology Department of Chemical Engineering Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China.

Extraordinary properties and great application potentials of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene fundamentally rely on their large-scale perfect sp structure. Particularly for high-end applications, ultralow defect density and ultrahigh selectivity are prerequisites, for which metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most promising approach. Due to their structure and peculiarity, CNTs and graphene can themselves provide growth templates and nonlocal dual conductance, serving as template autocatalysts with tunable bandgap during the CVD. However, current growth kinetics models all focus on the external factors and edges. Here, the growth kinetics of sp nanocarbons is elaborated from the perspective of template autocatalysis and holistic electronic structure. After reviewing current growth kinetics, various representative works involving CVD growth of different sp nanocarbons are analyzed, to reveal their bandgap-coupled kinetics and resulting selective synthesis. Recent progress is then reviewed, which has demonstrated the interlocking between the atomic assembly rate and bandgap of CNTs, with an explicit volcano dependence whose peak would be determined by the environment. In addition, the topological protection for perfect sp structure and the defect-induced perturbation for the interlocking are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the kinetic selective growth of perfect nanocarbons are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202003078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025012PMC
April 2021

Resolving atomic SAPO-34/18 intergrowth architectures for methanol conversion by identifying light atoms and bonds.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 13;12(1):2212. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The micro-structures of catalyst materials basically affect their macro-architectures and catalytic performances. Atomically resolving the micro-structures of zeolite catalysts, which have been widely used in the methanol conversion, will bring us a deeper insight into their structure-property correlations. However, it is still challenging for the atomic imaging of silicoaluminophosphate zeolites by electron microscopy due to the limits of their electron beam sensitivity. Here, we achieve the real-space imaging of the atomic lattices in SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 zeolites, including the Al-O-P atoms and bonds, by the integrated differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (iDPC-STEM). The spatial distribution of SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 domains in SAPO-34/18 intergrowths can be clearly resolved. By changing the Si contents and templates in feed, we obtain two SAPO-34/18 catalysts, hierarchical and sandwich catalysts, with highly-mixed and separated SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 lattices respectively. The reduced diffusion distances of inside products greatly improve the catalytic performances of two catalysts in methanol conversion. Based on the observed distributions of lattices and elements in these catalysts, we can have a preliminary understanding on the correlation between the synthesis conditions and structures of SAPO-34/18 intergrowth catalysts to further modify their performances based on unique architectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22438-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044160PMC
April 2021

High-order superlattices by rolling up van der Waals heterostructures.

Nature 2021 03 17;591(7850):385-390. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials and the associated van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have provided great flexibility for integrating distinct atomic layers beyond the traditional limits of lattice-matching requirements, through layer-by-layer mechanical restacking or sequential synthesis. However, the 2D vdW heterostructures explored so far have been usually limited to relatively simple heterostructures with a small number of blocks. The preparation of high-order vdW superlattices with larger number of alternating units is exponentially more difficult, owing to the limited yield and material damage associated with each sequential restacking or synthesis step. Here we report a straightforward approach to realizing high-order vdW superlattices by rolling up vdW heterostructures. We show that a capillary-force-driven rolling-up process can be used to delaminate synthetic SnS/WSe vdW heterostructures from the growth substrate and produce SnS/WSe roll-ups with alternating monolayers of WSe and SnS, thus forming high-order SnS/WSe vdW superlattices. The formation of these superlattices modulates the electronic band structure and the dimensionality, resulting in a transition of the transport characteristics from semiconducting to metallic, from 2D to one-dimensional (1D), with an angle-dependent linear magnetoresistance. This strategy can be extended to create diverse 2D/2D vdW superlattices, more complex 2D/2D/2D vdW superlattices, and beyond-2D materials, including three-dimensional (3D) thin-film materials and 1D nanowires, to generate mixed-dimensional vdW superlattices, such as 3D/2D, 3D/2D/2D, 1D/2D and 1D/3D/2D vdW superlattices. This study demonstrates a general approach to producing high-order vdW superlattices with widely variable material compositions, dimensions, chirality and topology, and defines a rich material platform for both fundamental studies and technological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03338-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Macrophages at Low-Inflammatory Status Improved Osteogenesis via Autophagy Regulation.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Accumulating evidence indicates that the interaction between immune and skeletal systems is vital in bone homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanisms between macrophage polarization and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (bone marrow-derived stromal cells [BMSCs]) remain largely unknown. We observed enhanced macrophage infiltration along with bone formation , which showed a transition from early-stage M1 phenotype to later stage M2 phenotype, cells at the transitional stage expressed both M1 and M2 markers that actively participated in osteogenesis, which was mimicked by stimulating macrophages with lower inflammatory stimulus (compared with typical M1). Using conditioned medium (CM) from M0, typical M1, low-inflammatory M1 (M1), and M2 macrophages, it was found that BMSCs treated with M1 CM showed significantly induced migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization, compared with others. Along with the induced osteogenesis, the autophagy level was the highest in M1 CM-treated BMSCs, which was responsible for BMSC migration and osteogenic differentiation, as autophagy interruption significantly abolished this effect. This study indicated that low-inflammatory macrophages could activate autophagy in BMSCs to improve osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2021.0015DOI Listing
April 2021

Monochromatic Carbon Nanotube Tangles Grown by Microfluidic Switching between Chaos and Fractals.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 15;15(3):5129-5137. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The nature of chaos is in that elusive flow that is an advanced order out of our vision. It is wise to take advantage of chaos after recognizing or modifying its unique fractal properties. Here, a magnetron weaving strategy was developed for producing chaotic but monochromatic carbon nanotube tangles (CNT-Ts) under Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The self-similarity characteristic facilitated individual ultralong CNTs to manipulate their entropy-driven fractal geometry, resulting in ∼10 μm CNT-Ts with variable curvature radius. In addition, based on the rate-selected mechanism, 85% metallic and ∼100% semiconducting CNT-Ts were synthesized and separated simultaneously at different length positions. After modifying their fractal into aligned CNTs with hydrogel, these CNT-Ts delivered a current of 10 μA μm in transistors with an on/off ratio >10. It has provided the third route as a paradigm of applying one-dimensional nanomaterials by switching between chaos and fractal, in parallel with that of direct synthesis and postseparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10300DOI Listing
March 2021

Expression of VAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance.

Neoplasma 2021 Mar 14;68(2):416-422. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Graduate Department, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of vesicular amine transporter 1 (VAT1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its prognostic value and to analyze the relationship between VAT1 expression and clinicopathological features of HCC. First, several public databases, including Ualcan, GEPIA, and Oncomine, were used to analyze the expression of VAT1 in HCC and normal liver tissue. Next, 330 HCC and 190 normal liver samples were stained by immunohistochemistry and scored. Finally, we evaluated the clinical significance of VAT1 as a prognostic factor according to the clinicopathological characteristics. We observed that the expression level of VAT1 in HCC samples was significantly higher than that in normal liver tissues, and the high expression of VAT1 protein in HCC was significantly correlated with patient age, tumor size, number of tumors, and vascular metastasis (p<0.05). The average survival time of HCC patients with high expression of VAT1 was significantly lower than that of patients with low expression of VAT1. Further analysis demonstrated that VAT1 expression was significantly correlated with the length of overall survival in HCC patients. In conclusion, VAT1 may have an essential function in the progression of HCC, and the level of its expression may effectively predict the invasion and prognosis of HCC. Moreover, the combination of information contained in public databases and the results of the analysis of clinical samples can help us to understand better the mechanism of action of molecular oncogenes in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/neo_2020_201008N1061DOI Listing
March 2021

Modulatory effect of Tagetes erecta flowers essential oils via Nrf2/HO-1/NF-κB/p65 axis mediated suppression of N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric cancer in rats.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Mar 4;476(3):1541-1554. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital With Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing City, 210029, China.

Protective effect of Tagetes erecta flowers essential oils was investigated on oxidative stress, immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis against N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric cancer in rats. Essential oil were extracted from Tagetes erecta flowers and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For observing a protective effect against MNNG induced gastric cancer, we divided rats into 4 groups (group A to D) having 10 rats in each group. Performed various experiments and measured a different parameters to investigate antioxidant activity, immune response, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. The levels of malondialdehyde were markedly increased in the presence of N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitroguanidine, whereas, the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, and catalase were lowered in the treated rats in contrast with the control. Intervention with TEEO to gastric cancer-induced rats upregulated the redox status and the activity of the immune system to decrease cancer risk. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) secretions that were induced by MNNG were markedly inhibited by TEEO. Administration of TEEO also significantly reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive gastric cancer cells, expression of mRNA of caspase-3, and Bax. Whereas, the expression of Bcl-2 was increased. Additionally, downregulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and IκBα degradation and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression in tissues of the stomach of MNNG-induced-rats were markedly elevated due to TEEO. This suggested possession of TEEO with a protective shield against MNNG induced gastric cancer by the exertion of antioxidative stress, anti-apoptotic response, the anti-inflammatory response through Nrf2/HO-1, and NF-κB signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-04005-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Bioactivation of Encapsulation Membranes Reduces Fibrosis and Enhances Cell Survival.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 14;12(51):56908-56923. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

Encapsulation devices are an emerging barrier technology designed to prevent the immunorejection of replacement cells in regenerative therapies for intractable diseases. However, traditional polymers used in current devices are poor substrates for cell attachment and induce fibrosis upon implantation, impacting long-term therapeutic cell viability. Bioactivation of polymer surfaces improves local host responses to materials, and here we make the first step toward demonstrating the utility of this approach to improve cell survival within encapsulation implants. Using therapeutic islet cells as an exemplar cell therapy, we show that internal surface coatings improve islet cell attachment and viability, while distinct external coatings modulate local foreign body responses. Using plasma surface functionalization (plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)), we employ hollow fiber semiporous poly(ether sulfone) (PES) encapsulation membranes and coat the internal surfaces with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) to enhance islet cell attachment. Separately, the external fiber surface is coated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) to polarize local macrophages to an M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype, muting the fibrotic response. To demonstrate the power of our approach, bioluminescent murine islet cells were loaded into dual FN/IL-4-coated fibers and evaluated in a mouse back model for 14 days. Dual FN/IL-4 fibers showed striking reductions in immune cell accumulation and elevated levels of the M2 macrophage phenotype, consistent with the suppression of fibrotic encapsulation and enhanced angiogenesis. These changes led to markedly enhanced islet cell survival and importantly to functional integration of the implant with the host vasculature. Dual FN/IL-4 surface coatings drive multifaceted improvements in islet cell survival and function, with significant implications for improving clinical translation of therapeutic cell-containing macroencapsulation implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20096DOI Listing
December 2020

A comprehensive analysis of cotton VQ gene superfamily reveals their potential and extensive roles in regulating cotton abiotic stress.

BMC Genomics 2020 Nov 16;21(1):795. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, 455000, Henan, China.

Background: Valine-glutamine (VQ) motif-containing proteins play important roles in plant growth, development and abiotic stress response. For many plant species, the VQ genes have been identified and their functions have been described. However, little is known about the origin, evolution, and functions (and underlying mechanisms) of the VQ family genes in cotton.

Results: In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the characteristics of 268 VQ genes from four Gossypium genomes and found that the VQ proteins evolved into 10 clades, and each clade had a similar structural and conservative motif. The expansion of the VQ gene was mainly through segmental duplication, followed by dispersal. Expression analysis revealed that many GhVQs might play important roles in response to salt and drought stress, and GhVQ18 and GhVQ84 were highly expressed under PEG and salt stress. Further analysis showed that GhVQs were co-expressed with GhWRKY transcription factors (TFs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) could hybridize to their cis-regulatory elements.

Conclusions: The results in this study broaden our understanding of the VQ gene family in plants, and the analysis of the structure, conserved elements, and expression patterns of the VQs provide a solid foundation for exploring their specific functions in cotton responding to abiotic stresses. Our study provides significant insight into the potential functions of VQ genes in cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07171-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667805PMC
November 2020

Do polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against bone loss in our aging and osteoporotic population?

Bone 2021 02 7;143:115736. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Biionix Cluster, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, United States; Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Age-related bone loss is inevitable in both men and women and there will soon be more people of extreme old age than ever before. Osteoporosis is a common chronic disease and as the proportion of older people, rate of obesity and the length of life increases, a rise in age-related degenerating bone diseases, disability, and prolonged dependency is projected. Fragility fractures are one of the most severe complications associated with both primary and secondary osteoporosis and current treatment strategies target weight-bearing exercise and pharmacological intervention, both with limited long-term success. Obesity and osteoporosis are intimately interrelated, and diet is a variable that plays a significant role in bone regeneration and repair. The Western Diet is characterized by its unhealthy components, specifically excess amounts of saturated fat intake. This review examines the impact of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption on chronic inflammation, osteogenesis, bone architecture, and strength and explores the hypothesis that dietary polyunsaturated fats have a beneficial effect on osteogenesis, reducing bone loss by decreasing chronic inflammation, and activating bone resorption through key cellular and molecular mechanisms in our aging population. We conclude that aging, obesity and a diet high in saturated fatty acids significantly impairs bone regeneration and repair and that consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with significantly increased bone regeneration, improved microarchitecture and structural strength. However, ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were typically pro-inflammatory and have been associated with an increased fracture risk. This review suggests a potential role for ω-3 fatty acids as a non-pharmacological dietary method of reducing bone loss in our aging population. We also conclude that contemporary amendments to the formal nutritional recommendations made by the Food and Nutrition Board may be necessary such that our aging population is directly considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115736DOI Listing
February 2021

Robotic surgery versus open surgery for thyroid neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020 Dec 27;146(12):3297-3312. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and, Dept. of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No 14, Section 3 of Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Robotic surgical system has been gradually applied in thyroid neoplasms as a novel treatment for years, with presenting some superiorities as well as limitations. To compare the effectiveness and safety of robotic surgery with open surgery for the patients with thyroid neoplasms, this review was conducted METHODS: We performed electronic search in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Opengray, and Sciencepaper Online databases and manual search in specific online databases and according to the reference list of relevant papers to get all the studies that compared the effectiveness and safety of robotic surgery with that of open surgery for patients with thyroid neoplasms. Last update was conducted in March 2020. Randomized-controlled trials, case-control studies, cohort studies, and cross-sectional surveys were all included.

Results: In this review, 59 studies were included: two RCTs, 15 NRSs, 40 cohort studies, and two cross-sectional studies. Robotic surgery was found to be associated with longer operative duration, less retrieved lymph nodes, higher postoperative thyroglobulin before radioactive iodine ablation, similar complication incidence but less blood loss, better functional recovery, and higher cosmetic satisfaction compared to open surgery.

Conclusions: Robotic surgery is a safe and feasible approach with remarkable superiority in reducing intraoperative damage and improving patients' quality of life compared to open surgery for thyroid neoplasms. Meanwhile, this procedure is also associated with long operative duration, insufficient removal of neck lymph nodes, which need to be given careful consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03418-0DOI Listing
December 2020

Super-durable ultralong carbon nanotubes.

Science 2020 08;369(6507):1104-1106

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Fatigue resistance is a key property of the service lifetime of structural materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the strongest materials ever discovered, but measuring their fatigue resistance is a challenge because of their size and the lack of effective measurement methods for such small samples. We developed a noncontact acoustic resonance test system for investigating the fatigue behavior of centimeter-long individual CNTs. We found that CNTs have excellent fatigue resistance, which is dependent on temperature, and that the time to fatigue fracture of CNTs is dominated by the time to creation of the first defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aay5220DOI Listing
August 2020

Relationship between Short-term Exposure to PM and Daily Lung Cancer Mortality in Nanjing.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 07;33(7):547-551

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.072DOI Listing
July 2020

Suppressing the Side Reaction by a Selective Blocking Layer to Enhance the Performance of Si-Based Anodes.

Nano Lett 2020 Jul 17;20(7):5176-5184. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Building a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is an effective method to enhance the performance of Si-based materials. However, the general strategy ignores the severe side reaction that originates from the penetration of the fluoride anion which influences the stability of the SEI. In this work, an analytical method is established to study the chemical reaction mechanism between the silicon and electrolyte by combining X-ray diffraction (XRD) with mass spectrometry (MS) technology. Additionally, a selective blocking layer coupling selectivity for the fluoride anion and a high conductivity is coated on the surface of silicon. With the protection of the selective blocking layer, the rate of the side reaction is decreased by 1700 times, and the corresponding SEI thickness is dwindled by 4 times. This work explores the mechanism of the intrinsic chemical reaction and provides future directions for improving Si-based anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01394DOI Listing
July 2020

Crocin Reverses Depression-Like Behavior in Parkinson Disease Mice via VTA-mPFC Pathway.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jul 3;57(7):3158-3170. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Interdisciplinary Institute for Personalized Medicine in Brain Disorders, and Research Center for Formula and Syndromes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Depression is a common non-motor symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and difficult to treat. Crocin is a natural multipotential neuroprotective compound that has been shown to elicit antidepressant activity and is promising for the therapy of neuropsychological diseases. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of crocin in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease depression (PDD) and clarified the underlying mechanism. We prepared 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced subacute mouse model of PD, and found that around 60% of the model mice showed depression-like behavior, using the forced swimming test (FST). A regime of 10-day treatment of crocin alleviated the PDD symptoms. The crocin reduced the structural damage in soma volume and axon length of neurons and inhibited their spontaneous discharge in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Notably, the MPTP-treated mice showed the decrease in the critical signaling for synaptic plasticity, including the proteins of PSD-95, synapsin-1, and GluR-1, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) where it receives efferent from VTA and regulates depression-like behavior. However, crocin treatment rescued the defect of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in PDD mice. Furthermore, the antidepressant action of crocin was blunted after blockade of mTOR signaling with the antagonist rapamycin. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crocin protected the DA projection neurons in the VTA through activating mTOR, which subsequently improved the neural synaptic plasticity of mPFC, and ameliorated depression-like behavior in PD mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-01941-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Graphene oxide coated Titanium Surfaces with Osteoimmunomodulatory Role to Enhance Osteogenesis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Aug 20;113:110983. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Australia-China Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (ACCTERM), Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives are currently being explored for the modification of bone biomaterials. However, the effect of GO coatings on immunoregulation and subsequent impacts on osteogenesis are not known. In this study, GO was coated on pure titanium using dopamine. GO-coated titanium (Ti-GO) surfaces exhibited good biocompatibility, with the ability to stimulate the expression of osteogenic genes, and extracellular matrix mineralization in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Interestingly, it was found that GO-coated surfaces could manipulate the polarization of macrophages and expression of inflammatory cytokines via the Toll-like receptor pathway. Under physiological conditions, Ti-GO activated macrophages and induced mild inflammation and a pro-osteogenic environment, characterized by a slight increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as increased expression of the TGF-β1 and oncostatin M genes. In an environment mimicking acute inflammatory conditions, Ti-GO attenuated inflammatory responses, as shown by the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Conditioned medium collected from macrophages stimulated by Ti-GO played a significant stimulatory role in the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. In summary, GO-coated surfaces displayed beneficial immunomodulatory effects in osteogenesis, indicating that GO could be a potential substance for the modification of bone scaffolds and implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110983DOI Listing
August 2020

Imaging the node-linker coordination in the bulk and local structures of metal-organic frameworks.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2692. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown wide applications in catalysis, gas storage and separation due to their highly tunable porosity, connectivity and local structures. However, the electron-beam sensitivity of MOFs makes it difficult to achieve the atomic imaging of their bulk and local structures under (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) to study their structure-property relations. Here, we report the low-dose imaging of a beam-sensitive MOF, MIL-101, under a Cs-corrected STEM based on the integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) technique. The images resolve the coordination of Cr nodes and organic linkers inside the frameworks with an information transfer of ~1.8Å. The local structures in MIL-101 are also revealed under iDPC-STEM, including the surfaces, interfaces and defects. These results provide an extensible method to image various beam-sensitive materials with ultrahigh resolution, and unravel the whole framework architectures for further defect and surface engineering of MOFs towards tailored functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16531-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264187PMC
June 2020

Finite-time synchronization of memristor neural networks via interval matrix method.

Neural Netw 2020 Jul 9;127:7-18. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of System Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, PR China; College of Science, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the finite-time synchronization problems of two types of driven-response memristor neural networks (MNNs) without time-delay and with time-varying delays are investigated via interval matrix method, respectively. Based on interval matrix transformation, the driven-response MNNs are transformed into a kind of system with interval parameters, which is different from the previous research approaches. Several sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are driven to guarantee finite-time synchronization for MNNs. Correspondingly, two types of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed. Meanwhile, the upper-bounded of the settling time functions are estimated. Finally, two numerical examples with simulations are given to illustrate the correctness of the theoretical results and the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2020.04.003DOI Listing
July 2020

Synergistic regulation of osteoimmune microenvironment by IL-4 and RGD to accelerate osteogenesis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Apr 29;109:110508. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia; Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510140, China; The Australia-China Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (ACCTERM), Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Electronic address:

The control of early inflammatory reactions and recruitment of progenitor cells are critical for subsequent tissue repair and regeneration after biomaterial implantation. The aim of this study was to design a multi-functional biomaterial with a controlled drug delivery system to create an optimal local environment for early osteogenesis. Here, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 and pro-osteogenic RGD peptide were assembled layer-by-layer on TiO nanotubes. A poly(dopamine) (DOP) coating was employed onto TiO nanotubes (T/DOP) to functionalized with IL-4 (T/DOP-IL4). Then, a carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel layer (CG) was generated on T/DOP-IL4 to control IL-4 release and RGD peptide immobilization. Cell co-culture models were applied to study macrophage polarization on various material surfaces and the regulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. Our data suggest that T/DOP-IL4/CG-RGD surfaces developed in this study are multi-functional, and can not only drive phenotypic changes in macrophages (switching to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype), resulting in the production of reparative cytokines such as IL-10, but also enhance MSC differentiation related to the activation of BMP/SMAD/RUNX2 signaling. This study further confirmed that the introduction of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4) and cell adhesive motif (RGD) onto Ti substrate can work synergistically to generate a more favorable early-stage osteo-immune environment with superior osteogenic properties, thus representing a potential ideal surface for the generation of bone biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110508DOI Listing
April 2020

The onjisaponin B metabolite tenuifolin ameliorates dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Neuroreport 2020 04;31(6):456-465

Department of physiology, School of Medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Onjisaponin B (OB) is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb polygala, which is effective against neurodegenerative disorders. However, the target of OB is currently unknown. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are both risk factors for the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we used a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced subacute mouse model of PD to explore the efficacy and neuroprotective mechanism of OB in PD. Immunohistochemistry was used to mark dopaminergic (DA) neurons and microglia in the substantia nigra pars compact. Administration of OB (20 and 40 mg/kg) prevented the degeneration of DA neurons and improved motor impairment in the rotarod test. Furthermore, OB attenuated microglia over-activation and reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as determined by ELISA. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were used to measure the level of oxidative stress in brain homogenates and suppression of excessive lipid epoxidation and increased antioxidant enzyme activity were found in OB-treated PD mice. Finally, OB inhibits the expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in the nucleus and attenuated expression of the RhoA and ROCK2 proteins in PD mice. Consequently, our results show that OB ameliorates DA neurodegeneration in a MPTP-induced mouse model of PD through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities mediated via the RhoA/ROCK2 signaling pathway. This finding demonstrates that OB may be a promising drug for DA neuron degeneration, which may provide a new therapeutic agent for future discovery of drugs for PD.See video abstract: http://links.lww.com/WNR/A580.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001428DOI Listing
April 2020

The hepatitis B core antibody positive/hepatitis B surface antigen negative pattern is associated with the increased risk of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(2):e18752

Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in Asia raises the question as to whether HBV infection is associated with ICAS. To answer this question, we tested the association between HBV infection and ICAS. Totally, 3072 in-hospital subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All subjects underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and serological testing for HBV infection. Based on the results of CTA, all subjects were categorized into 4 groups including ICAS, extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), ICAS/ECAS (both ICAS and ECAS), and normal. HBV infection was divided into 4 patterns including hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive/hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-positive, and anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-negative. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were collected based on medical records. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between infection patterns and ICAS. We found that the anti-HBc-positive / HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS (OR = 1.462) and not associated with ECAS or ICAS / ECAS. The HBc-positive/HBsAg-positive pattern was not associated with ICAS, ECAS or ICAS/ECAS. In conclusions, the anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS. Anti-HBc should be employed to investigate the association between HBV infection and cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6959876PMC
January 2020

Dihydrolipoic Acid-Gold Nanoclusters Regulate Microglial Polarization and Have the Potential To Alter Neurogenesis.

Nano Lett 2020 01 6;20(1):478-495. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation , Queensland University of Technology , 60 Musk Avenue , Kelvin Grove, Brisbane , QLD 4059 , Australia.

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the most significant features in a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia become polarized upon stimulation. The two extremes of the polarization are the neuron-destructive proinflammatory M1-like and the neuron-regenerative M2-like phenotypes. Thus, manipulating microglial polarization toward the M2 phenotype is a promising therapeutic approach for CNS repair and regeneration. It has been reported that nanoparticles are potential tools for regulating microglial polarization. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) could penetrate the blood-brain barrier and have neuroprotective effects, suggesting the possibility of utilizing AuNCs to regulate microglial polarization and improve neuronal regeneration in CNS. In the current study, AuNCs functionalized with dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA-AuNCs), an antioxidant with demonstrated neuroprotective roles, were prepared, and their effects on polarization of a microglial cell line (BV2) were examined. DHLA-AuNCs effectively suppressed proinflammatory processes in BV2 cells by inducing polarization toward the M2-like phenotype. This was associated with a decrease in reactive oxygen species and reduced NF-kB signaling and an improvement in cell survival coupled with enhanced autophagy and inhibited apoptosis. Conditioned medium from DHLA-AuNC-treated BV2 cells was able to enhance neurogenesis in both the neuronal cell line N2a and in an ex vivo brain slice stroke model. The direct treatment of brain slices with DHLA-AuNCs also ameliorated stroke-related tissue injury and reduced astrocyte activation (astrogliosis). This study suggests that by regulating neuroinflammation to improve neuronal regeneration, DHLA-AuNCs could be a potential therapeutic agent in CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04216DOI Listing
January 2020

Atomic Spatial and Temporal Imaging of Local Structures and Light Elements inside Zeolite Frameworks.

Adv Mater 2020 Jan 29;32(4):e1906103. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Identifying the atomic structures of porous materials in spatial and temporal dimensions by (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) is significant for their wide applications in catalysis, separation and energy storage. However, the sensitivity of materials to electron beams made it difficult to reduce the electron damage to specimens while maintaining the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. It is therefore still challenging to capture multiple images of the same area in one crystal to image the temporal changes of lattices. Usings integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) STEM, atomic-resolution imaging of beam-sensitive zeolite frameworks is achieved with an ultralow dose of 40 e Å , 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional STEM. Based on the iDPC technique, not only the atomic 3D architecture of ZSM-5 crystals but also the changes of frameworks are observed during in situ experiments. Local structures and light-element aromatics in ZSM-5 crystals can also be revealed directly under iDPC-STEM. These results provided not only an efficient tool to image beam-sensitive materials with ultralow beam current but also a new strategy to observe and investigate the hydrocarbon pools in zeolite catalysts at the single-molecule scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201906103DOI Listing
January 2020

Multiple Treatment Meta-Analysis of Intra-Articular Injection for Temporomandibular Osteoarthritis.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Mar 31;78(3):373.e1-373.e18. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Professor, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular injections of different agents for temporomandibular osteoarthritis (TMJOA) using a network meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was performed in multiple English and Chinese language electronic databases. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of intra-articular injections of different agents to treat TMJOA were included in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The bias of risk in each study was assessed, with data extraction performed independently by 2 reviewers. The primary outcomes included pain intensity and maximal mouth opening.

Results: A total of 11 trials were included in the present study, and 10 different agents (ie, hyaluronic acid, dexamethasone, prednisolone, betamethasone, betamethasone plus hyaluronic acid, morphine, tramadol, platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF], placebo, arthrocentesis alone) administered using intra-articular injections were assessed. The evidence from the direct comparisons showed that arthrocentesis plus sodium hyaluronate resulted in significantly better pain relief outcomes compared with arthrocentesis alone. Also, the visual analog scale score was further reduced to 1.27 by PDGF injection after arthrocentesis (arthrocentesis plus PDGF) compared with arthrocentesis alone. Morphine and tramadol had a high probability of being the best treatment for pain control, with PDGF ranked third. When considering pain relief, arthrocentesis plus sodium hyaluronate resulted in a better outcome than arthrocentesis alone, and arthrocentesis plus PDGF was better than arthrocentesis plus placebo. PDGF injections had the greatest probability of being the best treatment for improving joint opening, followed by sodium hyaluronate.

Conclusions: Tramadol, morphine, and PDGF injections after arthrocentesis were effective in the treatment of TMJOA with excellent effects in reducing pain and improving joint opening. Hyaluronic acid injections were effective for improving the maximal mouth opening of patients with TMJOA in the short-term. The combination of a corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injection reduced the symptoms of TMJOA more than corticosteroid injections alone, but not of hyaluronic acid alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2019.10.016DOI Listing
March 2020

Tuning element distribution, structure and properties by composition in high-entropy alloys.

Nature 2019 10 9;574(7777):223-227. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

High-entropy alloys are a class of materials that contain five or more elements in near-equiatomic proportions. Their unconventional compositions and chemical structures hold promise for achieving unprecedented combinations of mechanical properties. Rational design of such alloys hinges on an understanding of the composition-structure-property relationships in a near-infinite compositional space. Here we use atomic-resolution chemical mapping to reveal the element distribution of the widely studied face-centred cubic CrMnFeCoNi Cantor alloy and of a new face-centred cubic alloy, CrFeCoNiPd. In the Cantor alloy, the distribution of the five constituent elements is relatively random and uniform. By contrast, in the CrFeCoNiPd alloy, in which the palladium atoms have a markedly different atomic size and electronegativity from the other elements, the homogeneity decreases considerably; all five elements tend to show greater aggregation, with a wavelength of incipient concentration waves as small as 1 to 3 nanometres. The resulting nanoscale alternating tensile and compressive strain fields lead to considerable resistance to dislocation glide. In situ transmission electron microscopy during straining experiments reveals massive dislocation cross-slip from the early stage of plastic deformation, resulting in strong dislocation interactions between multiple slip systems. These deformation mechanisms in the CrFeCoNiPd alloy, which differ markedly from those in the Cantor alloy and other face-centred cubic high-entropy alloys, are promoted by pronounced fluctuations in composition and an increase in stacking-fault energy, leading to higher yield strength without compromising strain hardening and tensile ductility. Mapping atomic-scale element distributions opens opportunities for understanding chemical structures and thus providing a basis for tuning composition and atomic configurations to obtain outstanding mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1617-1DOI Listing
October 2019
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