Publications by authors named "Fei Wang"

4,997 Publications

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Biotrophic Fungal Pathogens: a Critical Overview.

Authors:
Wang Fei Ye Liu

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Xiangtan Institute for Food and Drug Control, Xiangtan, China.

Biotrophic fungi are one group of heterogeneous organisms and these fungi differ in their traits like mode of nutrition, types of reproduction, and dispersal systems. Generally, based on the nutritional mode, fungi are classified into three broad categories, viz. biotrophs, necrotrophs, and hemi-biotrophs. Biotrophs derive their nutrients and energy from living plant cells and survive within the interstitial space of the cells. Biotrophic fungi cause serious crop diseases but are highly challenging to investigate and develop a treatment strategy. Blumeria (Erysiphe) graminis, Uromyces fabae, Ustilago maydis, Cladosporium fulvum, Puccinia graminis, and Phytophthora infestans are some of the significant biotrophic fungi that affect mainly plants. One among the biotrophic fungus, Pneumocystis jirovecii (Taphrinomycotina subphylum of the Ascomycota) exclusively a human pathogen, can cause lung diseases such as "pneumocystis." Biotrophic fungus widely parasitizing Solanaceae family crops (Tomato and potato) has done massive damage to the crops and has led to economic impact worldwide. During infection and for nutrient absorption, biotrophs develops external appendages such as appressoria or haustoria. The hyphae or appressorium adheres to the plant cell wall and collapses the layers for their nutrient absorption. The pathogen also secretes effector molecules to escape from the plant defense mechanism. Later, plants activate their primary and secondary defense mechanisms; however, the pathogen induces virulence genes to escape the host immune responses. Obligate biotrophic fungi pathogenicity has not been fully understood at the molecular level because of the complex interaction, recognition, and signaling with the host. This review summarizes the mechanism of infection in the host, and immune response to emphasize the understanding of the biotrophic fungal biology and pathogenesis in crops. Thus, the detailed review will pave the way to design methods to overcome the resistance of biotrophic fungi and develop disease-free crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04087-0DOI Listing
August 2022

Single-cell Transcriptomics Dissects Premalignant Progression in Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia.

Oral Dis 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is characterized by a spectrum of clinicopathological features and a high risk of malignant transformation. In this study, we aimed to delineate the dynamic changes in molecular signature during PVL progression and identify the potential cell subtypes that play a key role in the premalignant evolution of PVL.

Methods: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on three biopsy samples from a large PVL lesion. These samples exhibited a histopathological continuum of PVL progression.

Results: By analyzing the transcriptome profiles of 27,611 cells from these samples, we identified ten major cell lineages and revealed that cellular remodeling occurred during the progression of PVL lesions, including epithelial, stromal, and immune cells. Epithelial cells are shifted to tumorigenic states and secretory patterns at the premalignant stage. Immune cells showed growing immunosuppressive phenotypes during PVL progression. Remarkably, two novel cell subtypes INSR endothelial cells and ASPN fibroblasts, were discovered and may play vital roles in microenvironment remodeling, such as angiogenesis and stromal fibrosis, which are closely involved in malignant transformation.

Conclusion: Our work is the first to depict the cellular landscape of PVL and speculate that disease progression may be driven by functional remodeling of multiple cell subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.14347DOI Listing
August 2022

Direct growth of h-BN multilayers with controlled thickness on non-crystalline dielectric substrates without metal catalysts.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

We report an rGO-assisted CVD approach that enables the direct growth of high-quality single crystalline h-BN films with adjustable thickness and layered order on amorphous quartz and SiO/Si substrates at relatively low temperatures. This work demonstrates a viable prototype for growing continuous ultrathin h-BN films on desired substrates without the requirement of lattice orientation, thus offering a great opportunity for their appealing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc03025jDOI Listing
August 2022

MicroRNA-122a aggravates intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting pyroptosis via targeting EGFR-NLRP3 signaling pathway.

Life Sci 2022 Aug 5:120863. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116044, China; Key Laboratory for Basic and Applied Research on Pharmacodynamic Substances of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Liaoning Province, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116044, China. Electronic address:

Multiple studies have confirmed the significance of microRNA (miR)-122a in disease regulation. However, its impact on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. In this study, we propose that the promoting role of miR-122a exists in I/R injuries. Two models, including hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-injured IEC-6 cells in vitro and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injured C57BL/6 mice intestinal tissues in vivo, were used to verify our purpose. Applying dual-luciferase reporter assays and transfection tests, the regulatory impacts of miR-122a were examined by promoting pyroptosis on intestinal I/R injury via targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) signaling pathway. Both H/R-injured IEC-6 cells and I/R-injured mice intestinal tissues had elevated miR-122a expression, which targeted EGFR directly. Increased miR-122a expression significantly inhibited EGFR activity, decreased EGFR mRNA and protein expression, increased NLRP3 mRNA and protein expression, and up-regulated caspase 1, N-GSDMD, ASC, IL-1β, and IL-18 protein expression to promote pyroptosis. Furthermore, in IEC-6 cells, a miR-122a inhibitor and an EGFR-overexpression plasmid significantly reduced pyroptosis and alleviated intestinal I/R injury via activating the EGFR-NLRP3 signaling pathway, showing that miR-122a is very essential for regulating intestinal I/R injury. In brief, miR-122a promotes pyroptosis by inhibiting the EGFR-NLRP3 signaling pathway, which should be evaluated as a therapeutic target for intestinal I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120863DOI Listing
August 2022

Artificial Intelligence Model for Antiinterference Cataract Automatic Diagnosis: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 22;10:906042. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Health Management Institute, The Second Medical Center & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. In order to achieve large-scale cataract screening and remarkable performance, several studies have applied artificial intelligence (AI) to cataract detection based on fundus images. However, the fundus images they used are original from normal optical circumstances, which is less impractical due to the existence of poor-quality fundus images for inappropriate optical conditions in actual scenarios. Furthermore, these poor-quality images are easily mistaken as cataracts because both show fuzzy imaging characteristics, which may decline the performance of cataract detection. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate an antiinterference AI model for rapid and efficient diagnosis based on fundus images. The datasets (including both cataract and noncataract labels) were derived from the Chinese PLA general hospital. The antiinterference AI model consisted of two AI submodules, a quality recognition model for cataract labeling and a convolutional neural networks-based model for cataract classification. The quality recognition model was performed to distinguish poor-quality images from normal-quality images and further generate the pseudo labels related to image quality for noncataract. Through this, the original binary-class label (cataract and noncataract) was adjusted to three categories (cataract, noncataract with normal-quality images, and noncataract with poor-quality images), which could be used to guide the model to distinguish cataract from suspected cataract fundus images. In the cataract classification stage, the convolutional-neural-network-based model was proposed to classify cataracts based on the label of the previous stage. The performance of the model was internally validated and externally tested in real-world settings, and the evaluation indicators included area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), and specificity (SPE). In the internal and external validation, the antiinterference AI model showed robust performance in cataract diagnosis (three classifications with AUCs >91%, ACCs >84%, SENs >71%, and SPEs >89%). Compared with the model that was trained on the binary-class label, the antiinterference cataract model improved its performance by 10%. We proposed an efficient antiinterference AI model for cataract diagnosis, which could achieve accurate cataract screening even with the interference of poor-quality images and help the government formulate a more accurate aid policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.906042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355278PMC
July 2022

Construction of a Medical Micro-Object Cascade Network for Automated Segmentation of Cerebral Microbleeds in Susceptibility Weighted Imaging.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 20;10:937314. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Health Statistics, College of Preventive Medicine, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The detection and segmentation of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) images are the focus of clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, segmentation is difficult in clinical practice, and missed diagnosis may occur. Few related studies on the automated segmentation of CMB images have been performed, and we provide the most effective CMB segmentation to date using an automated segmentation system. From a research perspective, we focused on the automated segmentation of CMB targets in susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) for the first time and then constructed a deep learning network focused on the segmentation of micro-objects. We collected and marked clinical datasets and proposed a new medical micro-object cascade network (MMOC-Net). In the first stage, U-Net was utilized to select the region of interest (ROI). In the second stage, we utilized a full-resolution network (FRN) to complete fine segmentation. We also incorporated residual atrous spatial pyramid pooling (R-ASPP) and a new joint loss function. The most suitable segmentation result was achieved with a ROI size of 32 × 32. To verify the validity of each part of the method, ablation studies were performed, which showed that the best segmentation results were obtained when FRN, R-ASPP and the combined loss function were used simultaneously. Under these conditions, the obtained Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) value was 87.93% and the F2-score (F2) value was 90.69%. We also innovatively developed a visual clinical diagnosis system that can provide effective support for clinical diagnosis and treatment decisions. We created the MMOC-Net method to perform the automated segmentation task of CMBs in an SWI and obtained better segmentation performance; hence, this pioneering method has research significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.937314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9350526PMC
July 2022

The emerging role of permanent thermoexpandable shape-memory alloy ureteral stents (PSMA-US) in anastomotic stenosis of MAINZ pouch II: Case report.

Authors:
Qiqi He Fei Wang

Asian J Surg 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2022.06.180DOI Listing
August 2022

Structural damage to the rat eye following long-term simulated weightlessness.

Exp Eye Res 2022 Aug 3;223:109200. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Eye School of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610036, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

To better perform space missions and develop human spaceflights, the eye health of astronauts is receiving increasing attention from researchers. In this study, we used prolonged tail suspension to simulate microgravity cephalad fluid shift in space to observe intraocular pressure (IOP) changes, retinal structure, and optic nerve damage in rats. We observed significant choroidal thickening and optic nerve demyelination lesions in the rats in each experimental group. At the cellular level, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survival was significantly reduced, optic nerve oligodendrocytes were reduced, and apoptotic factors and microglia-mediated inflammation-related factors were detected in both the retina and optic nerve. The severity of these changes increased with increasing tails suspension time. In conclusion, simulated long-term microgravity can lead to slight intraocular pressure fluctuations, choroidal thickening, reduced RGCs survival, and optic nerve demyelination in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2022.109200DOI Listing
August 2022

Microplastic pollution in soils, plants, and animals: A review of distributions, effects and potential mechanisms.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 3:157857. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Grassland Farming, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130102, China. Electronic address:

Increasing production of synthetic plastics and poor management of plastic wastes have dramatically increased the amount of plastics in the environment. In 2014, at the first United Nations Environment Assembly, marine plastic waste pollution was listed as one of the 10 most pressing environmental issues. In addition, there is much plastic waste in terrestrial ecosystems due to substantial residues from agricultural mulching and packing. As a recently recognized pollutant, microplastics (MPs) have attracted significant attention from the public and various governments. Concentrations of MPs in the environment vary among locations, from <100 to >1 × 10 particles per cubic meter. Many studies have addressed the impacts and potential mechanisms of MPs on the environment and organisms. Humans and other organisms can ingest or carry MPs in a variety of passive ways and these MPs can have a range of negative effects on metabolism, function, and health. Additionally, given their large surface area, MPs can sorb various pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, with serious implications for animals and human wellbeing. However, due to their complexity and a lack of accurate determination methods, the systematic impacts of MP pollution on whole foodwebs are not clearly established. Therefore, this review summarizes current research advances in MP pollution, particularly the impact of MPs on soils, plants, and animals, and proposes potential future research prospects to better characterize MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157857DOI Listing
August 2022

In vivo processing of digital information molecularly with targeted specificity and robust reliability.

Sci Adv 2022 Aug 5;8(31):eabo7415. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

DNA has attracted increasing interest as an appealing medium for information storage. However, target-specific rewriting of the digital data stored in intracellular DNA remains a grand challenge because the highly repetitive nature and uneven guanine-cytosine content render the encoded DNA sequences poorly compatible with endogenous ones. In this study, a dual-plasmid system based on gene editing tools was introduced into to process information accurately. Digital data containing large repeat units in binary codes, such as text, codebook, or image, were involved in the realization of target-specific rewriting in vivo, yielding up to 94% rewriting reliability. An optical reporter was introduced as an advanced tool for presenting data processing at the molecular level. Rewritten information was stored stably and amplified over hundreds of generations. Our work demonstrates a digital-to-biological information processing approach for highly efficient data storage, amplification, and rewriting, thus robustly promoting the application of DNA-based information technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abo7415DOI Listing
August 2022

Impact of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 rs956115 and CYP2C19 rs4244285 Genotypes on Clinical Outcome of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Aug 5:e025058. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Departments of Cardiology The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Nanjing Jiangsu China.

Background Insulin receptor substrate-1 () rs956115 is associated with vascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease and concomitant diabetes. (rs4244285) modulates clopidogrel response and predicts the outcome of coronary artery disease. This study was designed to explore the association between , genotypes, platelet reactivity, and 1-year outcome in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods and Results Genotyping was performed using an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction technique. Platelet aggregation was assessed by light transmission aggregometry. Major adverse cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. A total of 2213 consecutive patients were screened and 1614 were recruited. At 1 month, patients with CG genotype had significantly lower levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation compared with patients with CC homozygotes. Patients with CG or GG genotype had a 2.09-fold higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events compared with those with CC homozygotes (95% CI, 1.04-4.19; =0.0376). By comparison, patients with GA or AA genotype had higher ADP-induced platelet aggregation compared with patients with GG homozygotes. Although there was no significant difference in risk of major adverse cardiovascular events between patients with GA/AA and GG genotypes, patients with GA genotype had a 2.19-fold higher risk than those with GG homozygotes (95% CI, 1.13-4.24; =0.0200). No interaction between and genotypes was observed. Conclusions In patients following percutaneous coronary intervention, GG/CG and GA genotypes were associated with 2.09- and 2.19-fold increased cardiovascular risk, respectively, at 1-year follow-up. The association between genotypes and major adverse cardiovascular events appeared to be independent of known clinical predictors. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01968499.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025058DOI Listing
August 2022

Controlling sustained statins release in multi-layered composite scaffolds for healing of osteoporotic bone defects.

Biomater Adv 2022 Jun 5;137:212838. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science, Affiliated Hospital of University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu 610072, China. Electronic address:

The risk of fragility fracture sharply increases due to the decreased bone mineral density and toughness in patients with osteoporosis (OP). The local use of bone tissue scaffolds with both mechanical stability and drug-delivery functionality is one of the key strategies for the efficient curing of OP. In this work, we reported a layer-by-layer constructing strategy to fabricate 3-D composite bone tissue scaffolds (eSTPS) by assembling β-tri‑calcium phosphate (β-TCP)/polycaprolactone (PCL) microchips and lovastatin-loaded nanofiber membranes (eLOV/PCL). The eSTPS scaffolds show a strong and suited compressive strength as well as long-term delivery of lovastatin. The in vitro tests indicate well biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the scaffolds. The eSTPS scaffolds were implanted into the femur of OP modeled rabbits. After 12 weeks curing, the bone parameters are significantly improved, meanwhile ingrowth of new bone and vascular-like tissue were observed. These results suggest the eSTPS scaffolds to be a promising candidate for the local treatment of OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212838DOI Listing
June 2022

Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Killing Mechanisms of Antitumor Cytotoxic CD4 TCR-T Cells.

Front Immunol 2022 19;13:939940. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI)-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

T cell receptor-engineered T cells (TCR-Ts) have emerged as potent cancer immunotherapies. While most research focused on classical cytotoxic CD8 T cells, the application of CD4 T cells in adoptive T cell therapy has gained much interest recently. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms of CD4 TCR-Ts have not been fully revealed. In this study, we obtained an MHC class I-restricted MART-1-specific TCR sequence based on the single-cell V(D)J sequencing technology, and constructed MART-1-specific CD4 TCR-Ts and CD8 TCR-Ts. The antitumor effects of CD4 TCR-Ts were comparable to those of CD8 TCR-Ts and . To delineate the killing mechanisms of cytotoxic CD4 TCR-Ts, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing and found that classical granule-dependent and independent cytolytic pathways were commonly used in CD4 and CD8 TCR-Ts, while high expression of and various costimulatory receptors were unique features for cytotoxic CD4 TCR-Ts. Further signaling pathway analysis revealed that transcription factors Runx3 and Blimp1/Tbx21 were crucial for the development and killing function of cytotoxic CD4 T cells. Taken together, we report the antitumor effects and multifaceted killing mechanisms of CD4 TCR-Ts, and also indicate that MHC class I-restricted CD4 TCR-Ts could serve as potential adoptive T cell therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.939940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343810PMC
August 2022

Alterations of Plasma Lipids in Adult Women With Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Depression.

Front Psychiatry 2022 18;13:927817. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang'an Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Lipidomics has been established as a potential tool for the investigation of mental diseases. However, the composition analysis and the comparison of the peripheral lipids regarding adult women with major depressive depression (MDD) or bipolar depression (BPD) has been poorly addressed. In the present study, age-matched female individuals with MDD ( = 28), BPD ( = 22) and healthy controls (HC, = 25) were enrolled. Clinical symptoms were assessed and the plasma samples were analyzed by comprehensive lipid profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We found that the composition of lipids was remarkably changed in the patients with MDD and BPD when compared to HC or compared to each other. Moreover, we identified diagnostic potential biomarkers comprising 20 lipids that can distinguish MDD from HC (area under the curve, AUC = 0.897) and 8 lipids that can distinguish BPD from HC (AUC = 0.784), as well as 13 lipids were identified to distinguish MDD from BPD with moderate reliability (AUC = 0.860). This study provides further understanding of abnormal lipid metabolism in adult women with MDD and BPD and may develop lipid classifiers able to effectively discriminate MDD from BPD and HC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.927817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339614PMC
July 2022

Uptake of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography in China: A multi-centre population-based study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Oct 29;52:101594. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Office of Cancer Screening, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Background: Optimal uptake rates of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scans are essential for lung cancer screening (LCS) to confer mortality benefits. We aimed to outline the process model of the LCS programme in China, identify the high-risk individuals with low uptake based on a prospective multi-centre population-based cohort, and further explore associated structural characteristics.

Methods: A total of 221,955 individuals at high-risk for lung cancer from the National Lung Cancer Screening cohort were included. The logistic regression model was performed to identify the individual characteristics associated with the uptake of LCS, defined as whether the high-risk individual undertook LDCT scans in designated hospitals within six months following the initial risk assessment. The linear regression model was adopted to explore the structural characteristics associated with the uptake rates in 186 communities.

Findings: The overall uptake rate was 33·0%. The uptake rate was negatively correlated with the incidence of advanced-stage lung cancer (Pearson's coefficient -0·88, 0·0007). Multivariable regression models found that lower uptake rates were associated with males (OR 0·88, 95%CI 0·85-0·91), current smokers (OR 0·93, 95%CI 0·90-0·96), individuals with depressive symptoms (OR 0·92, 95%CI 0·90-0·94), and the structural characteristics, including longer structural delays in initiating LDCT scans (30-90 days vs. ≤14 days: β -7·17, 95%CI -12·76∼ -1·57; >90 days vs. ≤14 days: β -13·69, 95%CI -24·61∼ -2·76), no media-assisted publicity (β -6·43, 95%CI -11·26∼ -1·60), and no navigation assistance (β -5·48, 95%CI -10·52∼ -0·44).

Interpretation: Multifaceted interventions are recommended, which focus on poor-uptake individuals and integrate the 'assessment-to-timely-screening' approach to minimise structural delays, media publicity, and a navigation assistance along the centralised screening pathway.

Funding: Ministry of Finance and National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340538PMC
October 2022

Recent advances in macrocyclic arenes-based fluorescent indicator displacement assays.

Front Chem 2022 18;10:973313. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

School of Chemical and Printing-Dyeing Engineering, Henan University of Engineering, Zhengzhou, China.

Macrocyclic arenes-based fluorescent indicator displacement assays (F-IDAs) offer a unique and innovative approach to chemosensing, taking molecular recognition in host-guest chemistry to a higher level. Because of their special architecture and versatile host-guest binding properties, macrocyclic arenes, principally calix[]arenes and, in recent years, pillar[]arenes, in combination with various fluorophores, are widely used in F-IDAs for the specific and selective sensing of cationic, anionic, and neutral analytes. In this paper, we review recent progress in the development of F-IDAs based on macrocyclic arenes and outline the prospects and remaining challenges relating to macrocyclic arenes-based F-IDAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.973313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339958PMC
July 2022

Antitumor effect and metabonomics of niclosamide micelles.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Polymer micelles now have promising applications in the treatment of cancer, increasing the water solubility and bioavailability of drugs. Previous studies have found that micelles of niclosamide have good anti-liver cancer effect. In view of the poor water solubility of niclosamide (NIC), we decided to prepare niclosamide micelles. However, its therapeutic mechanism is not clear, so this paper conducted a preliminary study on its vitro anti-tumour mechanism and metabonomics to find out its impact. It was found that the drug-loaded micelles (PEG -FIbu/NIC) had an inhibitory effect on HepG2 cells. Moreover, it can promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells and block S and G2/M phase of cell cycle. The plasma and liver metabolomics of mice in normal group, model group and administration group were studied by UPLC-MS and H-NMR. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to process the data and find the relevant metabolites. metaboanalyst 5.0 was used to integrate the relevant metabolites to find the main related metabolic pathways. Thus, the anti-tumour mechanism of PEG -FIbu/NIC was analysed. Fifty-one biomarkers were detected in plasma, and 43 biomarkers were detected in liver. After comprehensive biomarker and metabolic pathway analysis, it was found that PEG -FIbu/NIC micelles could affect the changes of many metabolites, mainly affecting amino acid metabolism. This article is an in-depth study based on the published Preparation and pharmacodynamics of niclosamide micelles (DOI: 10.1016/j.jddst.2021.103088).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.17509DOI Listing
August 2022

Salvianolic acid B activates chondrocytes autophagy and reduces chondrocyte apoptosis in obese mice via the KCNQ1OT1/miR-128-3p/SIRT1 signaling pathways.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2022 Aug 3;19(1):53. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, No. 126 of Xiantai Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin Province, China.

Purpose: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) possesses strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of Sal B to improve the obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: C57BL/6 J male mice were fed with a normal control diet (NCD), a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD with Sal B (25 mg/kg), and mouse body weights and osteoarticular inflammatory factor levels were examined. Mouse chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 were transfected with lncRNA KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1 small hairpin RNA (KCNQ1OT1 shRNA), miR-128-3p mimic or Sirtuin-1 small interfering RNA (SIRT1 siRNA), then stimulated with Palmitic acid (PA) followed by the treatment of Sal B. Then, inflammatory response, apoptosis, and autophagy of ATDC5 cells in different groups were detected.

Results: Sal B reduced the body weight, decreased the levels of inflammatory markers, and improved cartilage damage in OA mice fed with HFD. KCNQ1OT1 was downregulated in OA mice fed with HFD, and PA-stimulated ATDC5 cells. Sal B protected ATDC5 cells against PA-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and the inhibition of autophagy, while knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 reversed these results. KCNQ1OT1 was found to be functioned as a ceRNA to bind and downregulate the expression of miR-128-3p that was upregulated in PA-induced cells. Furthermore, SIRT1 was verified as a target of miR-128-3p. MiR-128-3p overexpression reversed the effects of Sal B on inflammatory response, apoptosis, and autophagy in PA-stimulated cells, and knockdown of SIRT1 displayed the similar results.

Conclusion: Sal B exerted a chondroprotective effect by upregulating KCNQ1OT1, which indicates Sal B can used for a therapeutic agent in obesity-related OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-022-00686-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351265PMC
August 2022

Pectin oligosaccharides improved lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet fed mice.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2022 Aug 18;31(9):1197-1205. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, 120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, 110866 China.

Impacts of pectin oligosaccharide (POS) got from hawthorn fruitage on adiponectin signaling pathway and white adipose metabolism in mice fed with high-fat control. The results showed that POS significantly inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and down-regulated expression of CD68. POS dramatically reduced gene expression contents of fatty acid composite concerning enzymes ACC and FAS, as well as TG synthesis-related enzymes SCD-1 and DGAT1 as compared to a high-fat group (HFC). POS dramatically increased expression levels of oxidation-related enzymes of fatty acid ACO, CPT-1, and TG deposition-related enzymes ATGL and HSL as contrast to the high-fat control group. In addition, POS activated adiponectin-mediated AdipoR1/AMPK/PPARα signaling path by upregulating expression levels of AdipoR1, AMPK and PPARα. The results demonstrated that POS can improve lipid metabolism of adipose tissue, and contribute to the creation of functional foods to prevent and treat lipid metabolism disorders.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10068-022-01109-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-022-01109-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339051PMC
August 2022

Correction: Recent advances in microfluidic-based electroporation techniques for cell membranes.

Lab Chip 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

Correction for 'Recent advances in microfluidic-based electroporation techniques for cell membranes' by Fei Wang , Lab Chip, 2022, 22, 2624-2646, https://doi.org/10.1039/D2LC00122E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2lc90068hDOI Listing
August 2022

Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for strongly hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative early breast cancer: results of a prospective multi-center study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Breast Center, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, 100142, China.

Purpose: For estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) has been shown to be as effective as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). We evaluated the prognostic significance of Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI).

Methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center, non-randomized, controlled trial that enrolled postmenopausal early-stage strongly ER-positive (≥ 50%) and HER2-negative breast cancer patients. All patients were given 4-month NET before surgery. The primary objective was to investigate the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients who had PEPI 0-1 or pathological complete response (pCR) without chemotherapy. Patients who had PEPI 0-1 or pCR were recommended to receive adjuvant endocrine therapy only and patients had PEPI ≥ 2 may receive adjuvant chemotherapy at the discretion of the treating physician.

Results: A total of 410 patients were included and 352 patients constituted the per-protocol population. Overall, 9 patients (2.5%) had pCR (ypT0/is ypN0), 128 patients (36.4%) had PEPI = 0, and 56 patients (15.9%) had PEPI = 1. After a median follow-up of 60 months (4-104 months), patients who had PEPI 0-1 or pCR showed an improved 5-year RFS [99.5% (95% CI 98.5-99.9%) for PEPI 0-1 or pCR group vs. 93.7% (95% CI 89.6-97.8%) for PEPI ≥ 2 group, P = 0.028]. No survival difference was detected between patients received adjuvant chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy among PEPI ≥ 2 cases.

Conclusion: PEPI 0-1 or pCR may be used to define a group of ER-positive and HER2-negative postmenopausal early breast cancer patients with low relapse risk for whom adjuvant chemotherapy can be safely withheld. Studies on the identification and alternative treatment options for endocrine-resistant tumors are warranted.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01613560.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-022-06686-1DOI Listing
August 2022

Three-dimensional evaluation of pharyngeal airway and maxillary arch in mouth and nasal breathing children with skeletal Class I and II.

BMC Oral Health 2022 08 1;22(1):320. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, Clinical Research Center of Shaanxi Province for Dental and Maxillofacial Diseases, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the subjects with mouth breathing (MB) or nasal breathing (NB) with different sagittal skeletal patterns showed different maxillary arch and pharyngeal airway characteristics.

Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans from 70 children aged 10 to 12 years with sagittal skeletal Classes I and II were used to measure the pharyngeal airway, maxillary width, palatal area, and height. The independent t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for the intragroup analysis of pharyngeal airway and maxillary arch parameters.

Results: In the Skeletal Class I group, nasopharyngeal airway volume (P < 0.01), oropharyngeal airway volume (OPV), and total pharyngeal airway volume (TPV) (all P < 0.001) were significantly greater in subjects with NB than in those with MB. Furthermore, intermolar width, maxillary width at the molars, intercanine width, maxillary width at the canines, and palatal area were significantly larger in subjects with NB than in those with MB (all P < 0.001). In the Skeletal Class II group, OPV, TPV (both P < 0.05) were significantly greater in subjects with NB than in those with MB. No significant differences in pharyngeal airway parameters in the MB group between subjects with Skeletal Class I and those with Skeletal Class II.

Conclusion: Regardless of sagittal Skeletal Class I or II, the pharyngeal airway and maxillary arch in children with MB differ from those with NB. However, the pharyngeal airway was not significantly different between Skeletal Class I and II in children with MB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02355-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9341067PMC
August 2022

Carbon mineralization with concurrent critical metal recovery from olivine.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Aug 1;119(32):e2203937119. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Materials Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Carbon dioxide utilization for enhanced metal recovery (EMR) during mineralization has been recently developed as part of CCUS (carbon capture, utilization, and storage). This paper describes fundamental studies on integrating CO mineralization and concurrent selective metal extraction from natural olivine. Nearly 90% of nickel and cobalt extraction and mineral carbonation efficiency are achieved in a highly selective, single-step process. Direct aqueous mineral carbonation releases Ni and Co into aqueous solution for subsequent recovery, while Mg and Fe simultaneously convert to stable mineral carbonates for permanent CO storage. This integrated process can be completed in neutral aqueous solution. Introduction of a metal-complexing ligand during mineral carbonation aids the highly selective extraction of Ni and Co over Fe and Mg. The ligand must have higher stability for Ni-/Co- complex ions compared with the Fe(II)-/Mg- complex ions and divalent metal carbonates. This single-step process with a suitable metal-complexing ligand is robust and utilizes carbonation processes under various kinetic regimes. This fundamental study provides a framework for further development and successful application of direct aqueous mineral carbonation with concurrent EMR. The enhanced metal extraction and CO mineralization process may have implications for the clean energy transition, CO storage and utilization, and development of new critical metal resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2203937119DOI Listing
August 2022

Comparison of Factors Associated with Myopia among Middle School Students in Urban and Rural Regions of Anhui, China.

Optom Vis Sci 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China (WP, SMS, YNS), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China (WP), CAS Hefei Institute of Technology Innovation, Hefei, China (SMS), and Anhui Owl Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, China (FW).

Significance: The prevention and control of myopia have become a major public health task throughout the world. The analysis of the modifiable factors associated with myopia will help in planning concrete strategies that can be widely implemented by schools and families.

Purpose: This study assessed the modifiable factors associated with myopia and compared them between rural and urban regions.

Methods: Data were collected from December 2020 to March 2021. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 6154 middle school students. All children underwent an eye examination, including visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction. Data on near work, sleep and outdoor activities were collected in questionnaires.

Results: The myopia prevalence values in urban and rural regions were 68.1% and 63.7%, respectively (χ2 = 15.57, P < .001). More than 3 hours homework per day(OR in urban and rural region: 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07-1.75 vs. 1.72, 95% CI = 1.43-2.07), 36-40 core subjects per week(1.30, 95% CI = 1.04-1.57 vs. 1.42, 95% CI = 1.24-1.64) and going to sleep before 10 o'clock (0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.93 vs. 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.90) were significantly associated with myopia in both regions. In contrast, taking breaks during near work was a significant factor in the rural region (less than 1 hour: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.42-0.76; 1-2 hours: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46-0.86), but not in the urban region. More time outdoors per day was associated with a reduced prevalence of myopia only for urban children (2-3 hours: OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.97; more than 3 hours: OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.19-0.75).

Conclusions: Homework loads and the time of going to sleep were associated with myopia for children in both urban and rural regions. However, time outdoors was only associated with myopia in urban regions and taking breaks during near work only associated with myopia in rural regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001933DOI Listing
August 2022

Potential Value of Serum Uric Acid in the Identification of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 14;14:909738. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Objectives: The relationship between preoperative serum uric acid (SUA) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer-related biomarkers were investigated to determine whether high SUA is a potential risk factor for postoperative delirium (POD) and to evaluate its predictive efficacy.

Methods: The participants were selected from the Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorder Risk Factor and Prognosis (PNDRFAP) study and the Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorder and Biomarker Lifestyle (PNDABLE) study. The logistic regression equation was used to analyze the risk factors and protective factors of POD. The interaction term (SUA × Sex) was introduced into the linear model to explore the potential modification effects of sex on the identified correlations. We analyzed the mediating effects of Alzheimer-related biomarkers. Finally, we constructed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the nomogram model to evaluate the efficacy of SUA and Alzheimer-related biomarkers in predicting POD.

Results: Patients with POD had elevated SUA level (PNDRFAP: = 0.002, PNDABLE: < 0.001). Preoperative SUA level was positively correlated with CSF phosphorylated tau (P-tau) ( = 0.027) and β-amyloid42 (Aβ)/P-tau ( = 0.023). Interaction analysis did not find any modification effect of sex. The relationship between SUA and POD was partially mediated by CSF P-tau (15.3%). ROC curve showed that the model combining SUA and Alzheimer-related biomarkers had better performance in predicting POD [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.880; < 0.001], and the predictive model is accurate.

Conclusions: High SUA may enhance CSF P-tau level, thus increasing the risk of POD, and the model combining SUA and Alzheimer-related biomarkers can accurately predict the occurrence of POD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.909738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329914PMC
July 2022

The role of leptin in indirectly mediating "somatic anxiety" symptoms in major depressive disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2022 15;13:757958. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Leptin is a multifunctional hormone secreted from adipose tissue, which plays a core role in regulating energy intake and expenditure. Evidence has demonstrated that leptin receptors are located in brain areas involved in emotional processing, and major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysfunction of emotional processing. Taken together, these features suggest that leptin may play a potential role in the pathophysiology of MDD. However, the precise roles of leptin in modulating depressive symptoms in MDD remain unclear.

Methods: Participants [18 drug-naïve MDD patients, 15 unaffected first-degree relatives of MDD patients (FDR-MDD), and 40 healthy controls] completed clinical assessments and provided blood samples for measurement of leptin levels. We evaluated the effect of leptin on clinical status (MDD or FDR-MDD) and symptomatic dimensionalities of MDD using mediation analysis.

Results: We found that leptin was increased in MDD patients and this only predicted "somatic anxiety" symptoms. Furthermore, leptin was a significant and indirect mediator of the association between clinical status (MDD or FDR-MDD) and "somatic anxiety" symptoms.

Conclusion: Our finding that leptin was a significant and indirect mediator of clinical status (MDD or FDR-MDD) and "somatic anxiety" symptoms suggests that leptin may indirectly affect somatic depressive symptoms in MDD. Our findings may provide a theoretical basis for novel clinical interventions in MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.757958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9337242PMC
July 2022

The High Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under the Guidance of B-Ultrasound in the Treatment of Postoperative Renal Calculi.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 21;2022:1287910. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Urology Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen Medical College, Xiamen, Fujian 361026, China.

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the high risk factors and preventive measures of percutaneous nephrolithotomy under the guidance of B-ultrasound in the treatment of postoperative renal calculi.

Methods: The clinical data of 220 patients with renal calculi admitted to our hospital from 2018 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy  = 36) and nonbleeding group ( = 184), comparing the personal data, disease-related data, surgical operation related data of the two groups of patients, single factor and logistic multifactor regression analysis to explore the influence of B-guided percutaneous. Nephrolithotomy is a high-risk factor for postoperative bleeding in patients with kidney stones, and preventive measures are based on high-risk factors.

Results: There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with different genders, whether they had renal surgery, whether they had hypertension, and those with postoperative hepatic insufficiency in the hemorrhagic group and the nonbleeding group ( > 0.05). There was no significant difference in age and body mass index between the bleeding group and the nonbleeding group ( > 0.05). The proportion of patients with diabetes in the bleeding group was higher than that in the nonbleeding group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Compared with the nonbleeding group, the bleeding group had a higher proportion of patients with calculus diameter ≥2 cm. The proportion of patients with staghorn calculi in the bleeding group was higher than that in the nonbleeding group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with hemorrhage, single or multiple renal stones, and ureteral stones in the hemorrhage group compared with the nonbleeding group ( > 0.05). Compared with the nonbleeding group, the proportion of patients with bleeding in the first stage was higher, and the proportion of patients with operation time >90 min was higher. The difference between the groups was statistically significant ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients in the bleeding group compared with the nonbleeding group ( > 0.05). Using Logic multifactorial regression analysis, independent risk factors for bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound-guided bovery include diabetes mellitus, stone diameter, staghorn kidney stones, surgical timing, and staging surgery ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The independent high-risk factors affecting bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by B-ultrasound include diabetes, stone diameter, staghorn type kidney stones, operation time, and staged surgery. According to this, effective preventive measures can effectively reduce the operation and the occurrence of postbleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1287910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334085PMC
July 2022

RNA-binding protein CELF6 modulates transcription and splicing levels of genes associated with tumorigenesis in lung cancer A549 cells.

PeerJ 2022 26;10:e13800. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Wuhan Ruixing Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

CELF6 (CUGBP Elav-Like Family Member 6), a canonical RNA binding protein (RBP), plays important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of pre-mRNAs. However, the underlying mechanism of lower expressed CELF6 in lung cancer tissues is still unclear. In this study, we increased CELF6 manually in lung cancer cell line (A549) and utilized transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and alternative splicing events (ASEs) after CELF6 over-expression (CELF6-OE). We found that CELF6-OE induced 417 up-regulated and 1,351 down-regulated DEGs. Functional analysis of down-regulated DEGs showed that they were highly enriched in immune/inflammation response- related pathways and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). We also found that CELF6 inhibited the expression of many immune-related genes, including TNFSF10, CCL5, JUNB, BIRC3, MLKL, PIK3R2, CCL20, STAT1, MYD88, and CFS1, which mainly promote tumorigenesis in lung cancer. The dysregulated DEGs were also validated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) experiment. In addition, CELF6 regulates the splicing pattern of large number of genes that are enriched in p53 signaling pathway and apoptosis, including TP53 and CD44. In summary, we made an extensive analysis of the transcriptome profile of gene expression and alternative splicing by CELF6-OE, providing a global understanding of the target genes and underlying regulation mechanisms mediated by CELF6 in the pathogenesis and development of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336609PMC
July 2022

Urinary metabolites and handwipe phthalate levels among adults and children in southern China: Implication for dermal exposure.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 19;439:129639. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Paired handwipe and urine samples were collected from adult (n = 130) and child (n = 82) residents of a typical urban community in southern China to examine relationships between external and internal exposure as well as the contribution of dermal absorption to the exposure of phthalates. The concentrations and composition profiles of phthalates were similar in handwipes from both adults and children, and contained mainly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), consistent with profiles of phthalates in air and dust. The major metabolites of these phthalates, i.e., mono-n-butyl phthalate (mnBP) from DnBP, mono-iso-butyl phthalate (miBP) from DiBP and three metabolites of DEHP (namely mEHP, mEHHP and mEOHP) were widely detected in paired urine samples. Positive correlations were found between contamination levels of DiBP and DnBP in handwipes and their corresponding urinary metabolites, whereas no significant correlation was observed for DEHP. This suggests that dermal absorption might be an important exposure pathway particularly for low molecular weight phthalates. Our study shows that dermal absorption is a non-negligible exposure pathway for phthalates, to which children are particularly sensitive since the contribution of dermal uptake to the internal exposure of phthalates was higher in children than adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129639DOI Listing
July 2022

Two-type classification system for femoral trochlear dysplasia in recurrent patellar instability based on three-dimensional morphology.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Joint Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050051, Hebei, China.

Purpose: Radiographic and two-dimensional (2D) CT/MRI analysis of femoral trochlear dysplasia play a significant role in surgical decision-making for recurrent patellar instability. However, the three-dimensional morphology of dysplastic trochlea is rarely studied due to the limitations of conventional imaging modalities. This study aimed to (1) develop a 3D morphological classification for trochlear dysplasia based on the concavity of the trochlear groove and (2) analyze the interrater reliability of the classification system.

Methods: The 3D trochleae of 132 knees with trochlear dysplasia and recurrent patellar instability were reconstructed using CT scan data and classified using the innovative classification criteria between January 2016 and June 2020. A concave trochlear sulcus with sloped medial and lateral trochlear facets was classified as Type I trochlea. The trochlear groove with no concavity is classified as Type II. Furthermore, in Type II, the trochlea with the elevated trochlear floor at the proximal part was identified as IIa and the trochlea with the hypoplastic trochlear facets as IIb. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was examined using kappa (κ) statistics.

Results: The 3D classification system showed substantial intra-rater agreement and moderate interrater agreement (0.581 ~ 0.772). The intra- and interrater agreement of Dejour's four-grade classification was fair-to-moderate (0.332 ~ 0.633). Eighty-one trochleae with concave trochlear sulcus were classified as Type I, and fifty-one without concavity as Type II. Twenty-five non-concave trochleae were classified as type IIa due to the elevated trochlear floor and 26 trochleae into IIb with the hypoplasia of trochlear facets.

Conclusion: This study developed a 3D classification system to classify trochlear dysplasia according to trochlear concavity and morphology of the trochlear facets. On CT/MRI scans or 3D reconstructions, the interpretation of features of dysplastic trochleae may vary, especially for the flat and convex trochleae. The novel system provides morphological evidence for when to consider trochleoplasty according to the different types of trochlear sulcus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-07077-1DOI Listing
July 2022
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