Publications by authors named "Federico Sacchetti"

35 Publications

Re-excision after unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcoma: A systematic review and metanalysis. The rationale of systematic re-excision.

J Orthop 2021 May-Jun;25:244-251. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy.

In Soft Tissue Sarcomas (STS) referral centre many patients have already had an incomplete tumour resection. In the majority of specimen, tumoral residual is detected and linked to a worsen prognosis. Systematic surgical re-resection of the scar tissue area is often performed. Some authors suggested to postpone re-resections until a clinically evident local recurrence is detected. A searching strategy was applied to Pubmed-Central and Ovid Medline. Odds ratio (OR) for local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis (MTS) or overall survival (OS) were calculated comparing patients who had tumour residual to people who hadn't. OR of local recurrences, distant metastasis and OS were calculated in planned vs unplanned-excisions groups. OR to develop a metastasis and OS after a local recurrences were calculated. Residual tumour led to an OR for LR of 3,56, OR of MTS was 3,42; OR of decreased OS was 3,42. Having a LR lead to a OR of 1,55 for MTS and to a OR of decreased OS of 2,32. Patients who underwent a re-excision compared to planned surgery did not have an increased OR of LR and had an OR to develop a MTS of 0,56. Our data confirm that there is a strong correlation between local recurrences, distant relapses and overall survival. Although there is a selection bias; this analysis highlights the optimal oncological outcome in patients who underwent re-resection. The rationale for systematic re-resection after unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas is very strong and this treatment remains the gold standard of care in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165293PMC
May 2021

Percutaneous Foot Surgery without Osteosynthesis in Hallux Valgus and Outcomes.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2021 Mar;9(2):211-216

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy.

Background: Several procedures and types of osteotomies have been described for hallux valgus (HV) correction. Percutaneous techniques may lead to an early regain of function reducing morbidity and recovery time. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of percutaneous hallux valgus (HV) correction.

Methods: One hundred and twenty-four feet treated with the percutaneous technique between May 2011 and December 2015 were included in our study. All patients underwent resection of the medial metatarsal exostosis, complete first metatarsal distal osteotomy, adductor hallucis tendon release and Akin osteotomy of the proximal phalanx. Pre- and postoperative X-rays were clinically assessed.

Results: The mean hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) decreased significantly from the preoperative assessment to the final follow-up. The AOFAS score improved from a mean preoperative value of 70.2 to 93.8 at the final follow-up.

Conclusion: Percutaneous complete distal osteotomy in hallux valgus correction is a safe, reliable and effective procedure for the correction of symptomatic mild hallux valgus. Nevertheless, it requires appropriate surgical experience and patient aftercare in order to achieve the best result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/abjs.2020.47336.2319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121039PMC
March 2021

Platelet Function Monitoring Performed after Carotid Stenting during Endovascular Stroke Treatment Predicts Outcome.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 5;30(7):105800. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ospedale Civile, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Modena, Via Giardini 1355, Modena, Emilia Romagna 41126, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Many studies showed that platelet reactivity testing can predict ischemic events after carotid stenting or ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to assess the role of early platelet function monitoring in predicting 90-days functional outcome, stent thrombosis and hemorrhagic transformation in patients with ischemic stroke treated with endovascular procedures requiring emergent extracranial stenting.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation stroke admitted to our hospital between January 2015 and March 2020, in whom platelet reactivity testing was performed within 10 days from stenting. Patients were divided according to validated cutoffs in acetylsalicylic acid and Clopidogrel responders and not responders. Group comparison and regression analyses were performed to identify differences between groups and outcome predictors.

Results: We included in the final analysis 54 patients. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was an independent predictor of poor 90 days outcome (OR for modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤ 2: 0.10 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.69) whereas Clopidogrel resistance was an independent predictor of good outcome (OR for mRS ≤ 2: 7.09 95%CI: 1.33 - 37.72). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was also associated with increased 90-days mortality (OR: 18.42; 95% CI: 1.67 - 203.14).

Conclusion: We found a significant association between resistance to acetylsalicylic acid and poor 90-days functional outcome and between resistance to Clopidogrel and good 90-days functional outcome. If confirmed, our results might improve pharmacological management after acute carotid stenting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105800DOI Listing
July 2021

Arthroscopic labral repair with all-suture anchors: a magnetic resonance imaging retrospective study with a 2.5-year follow-up.

Med Glas (Zenica) 2021 02;18(1):192-195

Section of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Aim To evaluate radiological and clinical outcomes of a case series of patients affected by glenohumeral instability (Bankart lesion) or superior labrum tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions treated by arthroscopic repair using all-suture anchors. Methods Patients were operated by a single surgeon at a single Institution. Exclusion criteria were chondral lesions of the glenoid, rotator cuff lesions, previous surgery at the index shoulder, or a bony Bankart lesion. Position and numbers of anchors used depended on the dimension and type of lesion. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and Constant scores were used for subjective and clinical evaluation at follow-ups (FUs); also, at 1-year FU, MRI scan was obtained to evaluate bone reaction to the implanted devices. Results Fifty-four patients were included. A mean of 2.7 devices per patient (145 in total) were implanted. Mean FU was 30 (range 12 - 48) months. No patient reported recurrent instability, nor hardware-related complications were registered. MRI analyses showed that 119 (82%) implants did not alter surrounding bone (grade 0), 26 (18%) implants were surrounded by bone oedema (grade 1), while no bone tunnel enlargement nor a bone cyst (grade 2 or 3, respectively) were registered. Conclusion This study confirmed the efficacy and safety of a specific all-suture anchor system in the arthroscopic repair of the glenoid labrum for glenohumeral instability or a SLAP lesion. In the short- and mid-term period, these devices were associated with good clinical and radiological outcomes without clinical failures or reaction at bone-device interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17392/1320-21DOI Listing
February 2021

Medial pivot vs posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty designs: a gait analysis study.

Med Glas (Zenica) 2021 02;18(1):252-259

Section of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Department of Medicine Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Aim To compare a medial pivot (MP) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with posterior stabilized (PS) TKA designs from a subjective, clinical and biomechanical point of view, in a single-centre, single-surgeon, case-control non-randomized trial. Methods Sixteen patients were randomly picked up from case series into each group. Subjective outcome was assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score Questionnaire (FJSQ). Clinical evaluation included range of motion (ROM). All patients underwent gait analysis by a treadmill with force-measuring plaques and videorecording device; data were recorded for 30 seconds and included cadence, step length, stance time and walking speed. A blinded qualitative analysis of the pattern of gait was defined as biphasic or non-biphasic. Descriptive statistics for the continuous study variables and statistical significance were calculated for all parameters with independent-samples t-test and χ2 test to analyse difference in pattern of gait between groups. Results Mean FJSQ in the MP group was 91.87 (CI 95%: 88.12- 95.46) and 75.31 (CI 95%: 67.97-81.56) in the PS group (p=0.029). Mean post-operative ROM was 117° (CI 95%: 113°-122°) in the MP group and 112° (CI 95%: 108°-117°) in the PS group (p=0.14). No statistical difference was found between groups regarding all gait analysis parameters which have been recorded. Conclusion MP TKA design showed better subjective results using the FJSQ, but it did not improve significantly clinical and functional outcomes compared to PS TKA design, at a short-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17392/1312-21DOI Listing
February 2021

Re-excision after unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas: Long-term results.

Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 27;34:212-217. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Oncology and Reconstructive Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, Italy‬. Electronic address:

Background: Unplanned excisions of soft tissue sarcomas are still not infrequent events with patients presenting to referral Centers after having received an inadequate surgical treatment. In literature, both the wait-and-see policy and the "aggressive" management with a re-excision have been advocated. The purposes of this study were to analyze the incidence of detectable residual tumor in surgical specimens following a re-excision and to verify the long-term results of patients treated with a re-excision after previous unplanned excision.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 131 patients affected by localized soft tissue sarcoma (95 high grade; 36 low grade) of the limbs or the superficial trunk treated at our Institution, from 2000 to 2013, with a re-excision after a previous unplanned inadequate excision. Site, size, depth, histotype, grade, adjuvant therapies, time from unplanned surgery to re-excision were recorded and evaluated in association with clinical results. We specifically evaluated the disease-specific survival, local recurrence free survival, distant metastases free survival and the event free survival.

Results: Mean follow-up for living patients was 10.9 years (median 11.2 years), with a follow-up ranging from 14 to 227 months. 34% of patients underwent a re-excision within the first 2 months after unplanned surgery, while 66% of patients at more than 2 months. Residual detectable tumor cells were found on histological examination in 54% of re-excisions. A wide margin was obtained in 123 cases, a persisting positive margin in 8 patients. Disease-specific survival was 93.5%, 91.6% and 89.6% at 5, 10 and 15 years for whole series and 90.9%, 88.2% and 85.7% for high grade tumors. Event-free survival in patients affected by high grade tumors rated 75.0% at 5 years, 72.4% at 10 years and 72.4% at 15 years. Local recurrence free survival in high grade tumors was 87.6%, 86.2% and 86.2% at 5, 10 and 15 years. The grade of the tumor (high grade) and the initial dimension of the tumor (≥5 cm) were associated with worst survival. High grade tumor impacted negatively also on local recurrence free survival and event free survival. Instead, the initial size of the tumor significantly affected the event free survival but not the local recurrence free survival. No significant differences of outcome were found analyzing tumor depth, time interval to re-excision, presence of residual tumor or margins.

Conclusion: Based on our results and literature findings, we believe that surgeons should offer a re-excision procedure in those patients presenting with an inadequate excision of a high grade soft-tissue tumor, in particular with tumors larger than 5 cm before excision. Indeed, if an adequate second treatment is performed with surgery ± radiotherapy, the long-term results of patients receiving a re-excision after unplanned excision of a high grade soft tissue sarcoma seem to be comparable to the results generally reported for wide primary excisions. More debatable is whether to perform a re-excision or not in patients with low-grade tumors. Perhaps, in this latter group a wait and see policy can eventually be offered as well as in high grade tumors when a re-excision procedure could involve major surgery or significantly affect postoperative function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.04.026DOI Listing
September 2020

Qualitative versus automatic evaluation of CT perfusion parameters in acute posterior circulation ischaemic stroke.

Neuroradiology 2021 Mar 19;63(3):317-330. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Department of Neurology and Stroke Center, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy (ACC) in the detection of acute posterior circulation strokes between qualitative evaluation of software-generated colour maps and automatic assessment of CT perfusion (CTP) parameters.

Methods: Were retrospectively collected 50 patients suspected of acute posterior circulation stroke who underwent to CTP (GE "Lightspeed", 64 slices) within 24 h after symptom onset between January 2016 and December 2018. The Posterior circulation-Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) was used for quantifying the extent of ischaemic areas on non-contrast (NC)CT and colour-coded maps generated by CTP4 (GE) and RAPID (iSchemia View) software. Final pc-ASPECTS was calculated on follow-up NCCT and/or MRI (Philips Intera 3.0 T or Philips Achieva Ingenia 1.5 T). RAPID software also elaborated automatic quantitative mismatch maps.

Results: By qualitative evaluation of colour-coded maps, MTT-CTP4D and Tmax-RAPID showed the highest sensitivity (SE) (88.6% and 90.9%, respectively) and ACC (84% and 88%, respectively) compared with the other perfusion parameters (CBV, CBF). Baseline NCCT and CBF provided by RAPID quantitative perfusion mismatch maps had the lowest SE (29.6% and 6.8%, respectively) and ACC (38% and 18%, respectively). CBF and Tmax assessment provided by quantitative RAPID perfusion mismatch maps showed significant lower SE and ACC than qualitative evaluation. No significant differences were found between the pc-ASPECTSs assessed on colour-coded MTT and Tmax maps neither between the scores assessed on colour-coded CBV-CTP4D and CBF-RAPID maps.

Conclusion: Qualitative analysis of colour-coded maps resulted more sensitive and accurate in the detection of ischaemic changes than automatic quantitative analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02517-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880970PMC
March 2021

One-Step Reconstruction with Custom-made 3D-printed Scapular Prosthesis After Partial or Total Scapulectomy.

Surg Technol Int 2020 May;36:341-346

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

En bloc scapulectomy with covering muscles was historically considered the only procedure available for surgical treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors of the scapula. When possible, reconstruction with scapular allograft is the gold standard, and gives satisfactory functional, cosmetic, and oncological outcomes. While good results have recently been reported with 3D-printed prostheses for reconstruction of bone loss, there is little information available in the medical literature regarding scapula reconstruction with a 3D-printed prosthesis. Between 2016 and 2018, we performed four scapular resections (two total and two involving the superior 1/3) followed by reconstruction with a 3D-printed prosthesis made of a porous titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, diameter between 100 and 400 mm), using computer-aided design (CAD) and patient-specific implants (PSI) with previously acquired CT-MR fusion images. At 2 years follow-up, the patients with partial scapulectomy had an MSTS score of 76%, no local or systemic recurrence, good clinical results and no pain. At 1 year 6 months follow-up, the patients with total scapulectomy had an MSTS score of 46%, no local or systemic recurrence, fair clinical results and no pain. Thus, custom-made 3D-printed prostheses appear to be valuable in orthopedic surgery. However, a larger cohort and longer-term analysis are needed to evaluate the scapular 3D-printed prosthesis as a reliable reconstruction technique.
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May 2020

Carbon/PEEK nails: a case-control study of 22 cases.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2020 May 21;30(4):643-651. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa, 2., 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Interest around carbon/PEEK plates and nails has been raising. The elastic modulus close to the bone, the high load-carrying capacity and radiolucency make CFR/PEEK materials a potential breakthrough. In the literature, there are abundant data about CFR/PEEK plates in the treatment of proximal humerus, distal radius and distal fibula fractures. In patients affected by bone metastasis, CFR/PEEK nails were proved effective and safe with 12 months of follow-up. Very little is known about performances of CFR/PEEK nails in patients affected by other pathologies.

Purposes: The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of CFR/PEEK nails in the treatment of various pathological conditions. It was also investigated whatever radiolucency of this nails could lead to a more objective evaluation of bone callus or disease site.

Patients And Methods: In the study group were included 20 patients (22 bone segments) who underwent CFR/PEEK nail implantation (eight humerus, one tibia, nine femur and four knee arthrodesis). They were affected by pathological fractures, and in four cases, they required an arthrodesis of the knee. They were retrospectively evaluated considering nail failures and bone callus or disease progression (RUSH scores). Mean follow-up time was 11 months (min 6.8-max 20.3). In the control group were included patients treated with titanium nails in the same institution for the same pathologies. An interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed in both groups considering RUSH scores by two expert surgeon from two institution to assess whether radiolucency could lead to a more objective evaluation of disease or bone callus site.

Results: The ICC of mean values between RUSH scores was 0.882 (IC 95%: 0.702-0.953) in the CFR/PEEK group, while it was 0.778 (IC 95%: 0.41-0.91) in the titanium group. Observers' evaluation showed a significantly higher obscuration by titanium nails than by CFR/PEEK nails. No osteosynthesis failures were reported in both groups.

Conclusions: Our results confirm the safety of CFR/PEEK nails in the short-medium term. The radiolucency of these materials led our observers to perform more objective evaluations of bone callus formation or disease progression compared to the titanium group given the higher ICC.

Level Of Evidence: III Case-control therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-019-02602-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Hereditary Multiple Exostoses: Current Insights.

Orthop Res Rev 2019 13;11:199-211. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Translational Research on New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), also called hereditary multiple osteochondromas, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas that grow near the growth plates of bones such as the ribs, pelvis, vertebrae and especially long bones. The disease presents with various clinical manifestations including chronic pain syndromes, restricted range of motion, limb deformity, short stature, scoliosis and neurovascular alteration. Malignant transformation of exostosis is rarely seen. The disease has no medical treatment and surgery is only recommended in symptomatic exostoses or in cases where a malignant transformation is suspected. HME is mainly caused by mutations and functional loss of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes which encode glycosyltransferases, an enzyme family involved in heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. However, the peculiar molecular mechanism that leads to the structural changes of the cartilage and to osteochondroma formation is still being studied. Basic science studies have recently shown new insights about altering the molecular and cellular mechanism caused by HS deficiency. Pediatricians, geneticists and orthopedic surgeons play an important role in the study and treatment of this severe pathology. Despite the recent significant advances, we still need novel insights to better specify the role of HS in signal transduction. The purpose of this review was to analyze the most relevant aspects of HME from the literature review, give readers an important tool to understand its clinical features and metabolic-pathogenetic mechanism, and to identify an effective treatment method. We focused on the aspects of the disease related to clinical management and surgical treatment in order to give up-to-date information that could be useful for following best clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S183979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916679PMC
December 2019

An exceptional case of malignant glomus tumor and a review of the literature.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2019 Jul 31;53(4):313-317. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy.

Malignant glomus tumors (MGTs) are exceptional but pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Wide resection is the recommended treatment method, however, no data are available concerning adjuvant therapies. We present an exceptional case of extradigital deep-seated MGT of the forearm, with an exceptional bone infiltration. Despite being treated with wide resection, the patient had an optimal functional outcome, no functional loss, no motor or sensitive deficits and has returned to his full daily activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aott.2019.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739266PMC
July 2019

LARS versus hamstring tendon autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a single-centre, single surgeon retrospective study with 8 years of follow-up.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019 Feb 19;29(2):447-453. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Purpose: The choice of graft type in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes in ACL reconstructions performed using a four-strand hamstring tendon graft (4SHG) or a LARS ligament comparing the effectiveness of the two grafts at a medium follow-up of 8 years.

Methods: This retrospective, single-centre, single surgeon study evaluated the clinical, functional and radiographic outcomes in 50 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (25 4SHG and 25 LARS). Patients who underwent surgery after more than 6 months from injury and showed radiographically visible degenerative changes at time of surgery were excluded from the study.

Results: None of the patients underwent re-surgery in the same knee. The range of motion of the operated knee, compared to the contralateral, was good for both groups. The anterior drawer test resulted negative in 21 patients (84%) in the LARS group and eight patients (32%) in the 4SHG group (P = 0.039). The Lachman test was negative in 19 patients (76%) in the LARS group and in 11 patients (44%) in the 4SHG group (P = 0.045). Although other results of ACL reconstruction measured by Lysholm scores, IKDC evaluation, Tegner scores and radiographic images showed using a LARS graft tended to be superior to using a 4SHG, there were no statistically significant differences calculated.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that 4 years after ACL reconstruction using a LARS ligament or 4SHG dramatically improves the function outcome, while the patients in the LARS group displayed a higher knee stability than those in the 4SHG group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-018-2304-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Complex Fibular Head Avulsion Fracture: Surgical Management of a Case.

Surg Technol Int 2018 06;32:257-260

Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Fibular head avulsion fractures are rare injuries determined by traction of the fibular attachment of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Surgical treatment is often recommended with different techniques such as tension band fixation or lag screws stabilization. In this article, we describe a fixation technique of fibular head fractures obtained through the use of anchors. A 45-year-old athletic patient came to our attention in our traumatologic service after a motorcycle accident. He reported a complex injury of the posterolateral corner with an avulsion fracture of the left fibular head. We performed a clinical evaluation at the final follow-up visit (six months). We demonstrated that the use of suture anchors may be an effective technique of fixation in avulsion fracture of the fibular head associated with combined posterolateral corner injuries.
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June 2018

Percutaneous Hallux Valgus Correction: Modified Reverdin-Isham Osteotomy, Preliminary Results.

Surg Technol Int 2017 Dec;31:263-266

S.D. Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is a metatarsophalangeal joint deformity that can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Treatment is recommended for pain or severe deformities. Recently, operative percutaneous correction techniques have been performed to treat mild deformities.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective, single-surgeon, single-center study of 49 HV percutaneous correction using a modified Reverdin-Isham osteotomy was conducted. HV, intermetatarsal angle (IM), proximal articular set angles (PASA), and American foot and ankle functional score (AOFAS) were assessed pre- and postoperatively by a single operator. Statistical analysis was performed using a Wilcoxon rank test. Medium time of follow-up was 34 months.

Results: HV mean value decreased from a preoperative medium value of 35.18° to 14.3° postoperatively, IM mean value decreased from 15.5° to 8.7°, and PASA from 7.2° to 5.25°(p<0.001 for HV and IM, p<0.125 for PASA reduction). Postoperatively AOFAS medium score was 95.

Discussion: In our series, functional and clinical results of percutaneous osteotomy without osteosynthesis were comparable to other percutaneous and conventional techniques, both in clinical and radiological findings. High level of patient's satisfaction and improvement on pain-related symptoms are even better referred to traditional techniques. Modified Reverdin-Isham osteotomy technique differs from the others for translation of metatarsal head after osteotomy; we do not correct PASA angles, but we can obtain more HV and IM correction and include some severe HV. Our results suggest that translation of metatarsal head could give higher HV angle correction.
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December 2017

GM-CSF Inhibits c-Kit and SCF Expression by Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.

Front Immunol 2017 16;8:147. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, National Research Council (CNR), c/o Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Rome "Sapienza" , Rome , Italy.

Stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand of c-kit, is a key cytokine for hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic precursors express c-kit, whereas differentiated cells of hematopoietic lineage are negative for this receptor, with the exception of NK cells, mast cells, and a few others. While it has long been recognized that dendritic cells (DCs) can express c-kit, several questions remain concerning the SCF/c-kit axis in DCs. This is particularly relevant for DCs found in those organs wherein SCF is highly expressed, including the bone marrow (BM). We characterized c-kit expression by conventional DCs (cDCs) from BM and demonstrated a higher proportion of c-kit cells among type 1 cDC subsets (cDC1s) than type 2 cDC subsets (cDC2s) in both humans and mice, whereas similar levels of c-kit expression were observed in cDC1s and cDC2s from mouse spleen. To further study c-kit regulation, DCs were generated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from mouse BM, a widely used protocol. CD11c cells were purified from pooled non-adherent and slightly adherent cells collected after 7 days of culture, thus obtaining highly purified BM-derived DCs (BMdDCs). BMdDCs contained a small fraction of c-kit cells, and by replating them for 2 days with GM-CSF, we obtained a homogeneous population of c-kit CD40 MHCII cells. Not only did BMdDCs express c-kit but they also produced SCF, and both were striking upregulated if GM-CSF was omitted after replating. Furthermore, a small but significant reduction in BMdDC survival was observed upon SCF silencing. Incubation of BMdDCs with SCF did not modulate antigen presentation ability of these cells, nor it did regulate their membrane expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. We conclude that the SCF/c-kit-mediated prosurvival circuit may have been overlooked because of the prominent use of GM-CSF in DC cultures , including those human DC cultures destined for the clinics. We speculate that DCs more prominently rely on SCF in some microenvironments, with potential implications for graft-versus-host disease and antitumor immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5311071PMC
February 2017

Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated with Allograft: A Case Report.

Surg Technol Int 2017 Feb;30:321-324

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, S.O.D Ortopedia e Traumatologia AOUP, Pisa, Italy.

In clinical practice, chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. Usually, these lesions are discovered four to six weeks after injuries. More frequently, Achilles tendon ruptures are acute and treated with tendon sutures.1 Many surgical techniques are available to treat chronic lesions such as sutures or V-Y elongation with or without augments.2-3 Our case is about a chronic Achilles tendon rupture discovered two years after injury. Our patient came to our attention with a 6 cm tendon gap. We performed tendon repair with cadaver allograft. After four years of follow-up, our patient has a complete functional recovery and he can normally perform daily and working tasks without pain.
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February 2017

A singular case of cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm in patient with cavernous sinus syndrome and bacterial meningitis.

Radiol Case Rep 2016 Sep 11;11(3):227-33. Epub 2016 Jun 11.

Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

We report the uncommon case of an acute cavernous sinus syndrome in a patient who was consequently discovered to have both a cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm and bacterial meningitis. Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Which of the two, the aneurysm or the meningitis, gave rise to the patient's symptoms? We briefly reviewed the literature of similar cases and tried to analyze the possible pathophysiological relationship between these findings. Moreover, this case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary management of these patients to better decide between a medical and a surgical and/or endovascular treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2016.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996927PMC
September 2016

Fractures in bone tumour prosthesis.

Int Orthop 2015 Oct 26;39(10):1981-7. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of the present narrative review is to report the different aspects related to the fractures around tumour prosthetic implants in terms of technical and medical issues.

Methods: A non systematic literature review on the topic was performed.

Results: Given the increased rate of limb salvage procedures and megaprostheses implanted for bone tumours, the increased number of osteoporotic periprosthetic fractures, and the burden of revision arthroplasty, the number of surgeries using endoprosthetic implants is likely to increase in the near future. Surgeons will face more frequently the complications related to tumour endoprosthetic implant. Endoprosthetic reconstruction has a higher risk of intra-operative and post-operative complications compared to conventional prosthetic replacement.

Conclusions: Very rare reports and recommendations are available in literature regarding the treatment of periprosthetic fractures after megaprosthesis, and there is currently no consensus about which should be the standard management for periprosthetic fractures in this population of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-015-2956-7DOI Listing
October 2015

Critical time period for recovery of functional range of motion after surgical treatment of complex elbow instability: prospective study on 76 patients.

Injury 2014 Mar 10;45(3):540-5. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Introduction And Aim: Complex elbow instability (CEI) is one of the most troublesome pathologies that orthopaedic surgeons have to face. One of the key requirements regarding the CEI surgical treatment is an early rehabilitation programme to avoid the elbow stiffness caused by a long period of immobilisation. Although this is well known, no study has ever examined how, and to what extent, the functional range of motion (ROM) is recovered during the various stages of a prompt rehabilitation. Our aims were: (1) to prospectively analyse the pattern of ROM recovery in a series of patients with CEI who underwent early rehabilitation and (2) to identify the period of time during rehabilitation in which the greatest degree of motion recovery is obtained.

Materials And Methods: A total of 76 patients (78 elbows) with CEI were followed up for 2 years. All the patients underwent anatomical and stable ostheosynthesis of all the fractures, radial head replacement in Mason III fractures, ligament injuries reconstruction and early rehabilitation that started 2 days after surgery. Two surgeons evaluated the ROM with a hand-held goniometer every 3 weeks for the first 3 months, then at 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery.

Results: At the 3-week follow-up, the mean flexion (F), extension (E), pronation (P) and supination (S) were 113°, 29°, 60° and 62°, respectively. At the 6-week and 9-week follow-up, F, E, P and S were 119°, 23°, 70° and 69° and 123°, 24°, 72° and 71°, respectively. At the 3-month follow-up, these values were 131°, 18°, 76° and 72°, while at the 6-month follow-up they were 136°, 15°, 79° and 77°, respectively. Thereafter, the ROM improvement was not significant.

Discussion: This study shows that the first 6 months represent the critical rehabilitation period to obtain a functional elbow; indeed, 70% of the patients recovered functional ROM between the third and sixth month, though the recovery of flexion proved to be slower than that of the other elbow movements. Thereafter, improvement continued, though at a lower rate, until the end of the first year, when approximately 80% of the patients had recovered the functional ROM.

Conclusions: Following CEI surgical treatment, a rehabilitation programme needs to be started promptly and continued for at least 6 months because a significant improvement of ROM occurs prevalently in this period, which should be considered the critical time period to obtain a functional elbow in a majority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2013.11.033DOI Listing
March 2014

Clinical usefulness of proximal ulnar and radial fracture-dislocation comprehensive classification system (PURCCS): prospective study of 39 cases.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2013 Dec 12;22(12):1729-36. Epub 2013 Oct 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius represent a challenge even for expert orthopaedic surgeons. A new comprehensive classification, the proximal ulnar and radial fracture-dislocation comprehensive classification system (PURCCS), was recently proposed. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical usefulness of this classification in a large series of patients.

Materials And Methods: We studied 38 patients (39 elbows) with a mean age of 56 years. All patients were classified with the PURCCS by use of standard radiography, computed tomography, and intraoperative fluoroscopy. Surgical treatment was performed according to the PURCCS therapeutic algorithm. Patients were followed up for a mean of 23 months. The clinical evaluation was performed with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Index (MEPS and MEPI); the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score; and the modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (m-ASES) score.

Results: Each pattern of fracture-dislocation in our series finds its position within the PURCCS. At the last follow-up, the mean MEPS, DASH score, and m-ASES score were 91.2, 14.9, and 83.9, respectively. The mean extension, flexion, pronation, and supination were 19°, 136°, 81°, and 79°, respectively. According to the MEPI, 72%, 20%, and 8% of cases were rated excellent, good, and fair, respectively. Two patients with elbow stiffness underwent a reoperation, with final satisfactory results.

Conclusion: The PURCCS helps identify the main lesions of each injury pattern; the associated therapeutic algorithm helps select correct surgical strategies. This study showed that the clinical results were satisfactory in the majority of cases, with few major complications and reinterventions. The PURCCS is a comprehensive classification that may contribute to the surgical management of these difficult fracture-dislocations.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series, treatment study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.07.050DOI Listing
December 2013

Radial head, radiocapitellar and total elbow arthroplasties: a review of recent literature.

Injury 2014 Feb 19;45(2):428-36. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedics Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome - Policlinico Umberto I, Piazzale Aldo Moro 3, Rome, Italy.

The outcome of prosthetic elbow surgery is continually evolving. We thoroughly reviewed the literature on this issue to analyse the indications, outcomes and complications of the numerous types of implants currently in use. Radial head replacement is recommended in comminuted fractures of the radial head and in post-traumatic conditions. Medium- and long-term results prove to be satisfactory in the majority of cases, with no evidence to indicate that some prostheses (monopolar vs. bipolar; cemented vs. press-fit) are more effective than others; nonetheless, the bipolar-cemented implant was found to be associated with a lower revision rate than other prostheses. Unicompartmental arthroplasty has recently been used for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis when the lateral compartment is prevalently involved; the results reported to date have been encouraging, although further studies are warranted to confirm the validity of these implants. Total elbow arthroplasty is performed in a range of conditions, including distal humerus fractures in the elderly and elbow arthritis. In the former condition, linked elbow replacement yields excellent results with few complications and a low revision rate. In elbow arthritis, total elbow arthroplasty is indicated when patients suffer from disabling pain, stiffness and/or instability that prevent them from performing daily activities. Unlinked elbow arthroplasty, which is used above all in rheumatoid arthritis, also yields satisfactory results, although the risk of instability persists. The use of linked elbow arthroplasty, which yields similar results but lower revision rates, has consequently increased. Lastly, the results yielded by linked elbow prosthesis in post-traumatic conditions are good, although not quite as good as those obtained in rheumatoid arthritis. Early mechanical failure may occur in younger and more active patients after elbow arthroplasty. However, the careful selection of patients who are prepared to accept functional limitations imposed by elbow implants will enable indications for elbow arthroplasty to be extended to young subjects, particularly when no other therapeutic options are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2013.09.019DOI Listing
February 2014

Change in quality of life and cost/utility analysis in open stage-related surgical treatment of elbow stiffness.

Orthopedics 2013 Jul;36(7):e923-30

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Rome La Sapienza, Emilio Repossi 15 00158, Roma, Italy.

The goals of this study were to examine the improvement in quality of life achieved after open surgical treatment of elbow stiffness and to verify the cost/utility ratio of surgery. Thirty-three patients (22 men and 11 women) underwent surgery. The etiologies of elbow stiffness were posttraumatic conditions (n=26), primary osteoarthritis (n=5), and rheumatoid arthritis (n=2). Surgery included 14 ulnohumeral arthroplasties, 6 ulnohumeral arthroplasties associated with radiocapitellar replacement, 5 ulnohumeral arthroplasties associated with radial head replacement, and 8 total elbow arthroplasties. All patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, the modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, and the Short Form 36 after a mean follow-up of 26 months. Possible variables affecting clinical outcome and quality of life improvement were assessed. The cost/utility ratio was evaluated as diagnosis-related group reimbursement per quality-adjusted life year. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores and modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores increased, on average, by 43 and 41 points, respectively (P<.0001). Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores decreased, on average, by 44 points (P<.0001). The improvement in the SF-36 physical and mental component summary score was 7.6 and 7, respectively (P=.0001 and .0018). The cost/utility ratio ranged between 670 and 817 Euro/quality-adjusted life year. A significant correlation was found between pain score and quality of life improvement. An inverse correlation emerged between pre- and postoperative quality of life score. The current study shows that open surgery significantly improves quality of life and elbow function. Selecting the surgical procedure that most effectively reduces pain appears to be the most relevant variable responsible for quality of life improvement. Surgery shows a satisfactory cost/utility ratio, justifying a health spending increase to reduce the social costs resulting from lingering elbow stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20130624-24DOI Listing
July 2013

Soft tissue constraint injuries in complex elbow instability: surgical techniques and clinical outcomes.

Orthopedics 2012 Dec;35(12):e1746-53

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The surgical procedures for and outcomes of soft tissue constraint reconstruction in complex elbow instability have been rarely investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcomes in a series of patients with complex elbow instability in whom the associated soft tissue constraint injures were identified and treated based on the pathoanatomic changes found intraoperatively. Forty-five patients (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 54 years) with complex elbow instability were followed prospectively. Surgical treatment included the anatomic reduction and internal fixation of any fracture and radial head replacement in Mason type III injuries. Soft tissue constraint lesions were then repaired based on the type of lesion (eg, proximal or distal ligament avulsion, middle-zone lesion, or presence of detached bony fragments). Posterolateral capsular lesions and common extensor and flexor origin injuries were also repaired. Patients were followed clinically and radiographically after a mean of 25 months. Functional range of motion was achieved in 39 (86%) patients. Average Mayo Elbow Performance Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score; and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score were 94, 5.6, and 89, respectively. At last follow-up, 42 (93%) patients showed no evidence of elbow instability, 2 (4%) patients had mild varus instability, and 1 (2%) patient had moderate posterolateral instability. The accurate identification of pathoanatomic changes of elbow soft tissue constraint lesions associated with complex elbow instability is an essential prerequisite to planning proper surgical treatment. The results of this study show that, in patients with complex elbow instability, once the fracture has been treated and each type of soft tissue constraint lesion adequately repaired, a high percentage of satisfactory functional outcomes may be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20121120-19DOI Listing
December 2012

Soft tissue constraint injuries in complex elbow instability: prevalence, pathoanatomy, and classification.

Orthopedics 2012 Dec;35(12):e1738-45

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedics Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The types and prevalence of soft tissue constraint injuries associated with complex elbow instability have been rarely investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intraoperative findings of soft tissue constraint injuries in complex elbow instability and provide a comprehensive classification of these lesions. Forty-seven patients undergoing surgery for complex elbow instability were prospectively analyzed. Ligament injuries were classified as simple or complex lesions, depending on whether the ligament was damaged at a single zone or 2 to 3 zones, including its proximal, middle, and distal portions. Posterolateral capsule injuries were classified as small or large in the presence of capsular avulsions smaller than or larger than 1 cm, respectively. The presence of lesions of the common extensor and flexor-pronator muscles were also recorded. Ligament injuries were found in 96% of patients. The lateral collateral ligament showed a simple lesion, including a proximal and distal avulsion, in 19% and 2% of patients, respectively, and a middle-zone tear in 13%. Complex lesions, including the association of a middle-zone tear with a proximal or distal avulsion, were found in 47% and 6% of patients, respectively, and a combination of proximal, distal, and middle-zone injuries in 4%. Small and large posterolateral capsule lesions were found in 49% and 17% of patients, respectively. A medial collateral ligament injury was present in 45% of patients. A high prevalence of soft tissue constraint lesions was found to be associated with complex elbow instability. Soft tissue constraint status should be carefully evaluated pre- and intraoperatively in patients with complex elbow instability. The classification reported herein may be helpful in planning the proper treatment of these complex injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20121120-18DOI Listing
December 2012

Prognostic criteria for postoperative mortality in 170 patients undergoing major right hepatectomy.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2012 Oct;11(5):507-12

General Surgery and Transplant Unit, Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Background: Postoperative hepatic failure is a dreadful complication after major hepatectomy and carries high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of the 50/50 criteria (bilirubin >2.9 mg/dL and international normalized ratio >1.7 on postoperative day 5) and the Mullen criteria (bilirubin peak >7 mg/dL on postoperative days 1-7) in predicting death from hepatic failure in patients undergoing right hepatectomy only. In addition, we identified prognostic factors linked to intra-hospital morbidity and mortality in these patients.

Methods: One hundred seventy consecutive patients underwent major right hepatectomy at a tertiary medical center from 2000 to 2008. Nineteen (11.2%) patients suffered from liver cirrhosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of intra-hospital mortality, morbidity and death from hepatic failure.

Results: The intra-hospital mortality was 6.5% (11/170). Of the six patients who died from hepatic failure, one was positive for the 50/50 criteria, but all six patients were positive for the Mullen criteria. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatocellular carcinoma, postoperative bilirubin >7 mg/dL and ALT<188 U/L on postoperative day 1 were predictive of death from hepatic failure in the postoperative period. Age >65 years, HCV, reoperation, and renal failure were significant predictors of overall intra-hospital mortality on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The Mullen criteria were more accurate than the 50/50 criteria in predicting death from hepatic failure in patients undergoing right hepatectomy. A bilirubin peak >7 mg/dL in the postoperative period, HCV positivity, hepatocellular carcinoma, and an ALT level <188 U/L on postoperative day 1 were associated with death from hepatic failure in our patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1499-3872(12)60215-xDOI Listing
October 2012

Anatomical variations of the proximal radius and their effects on osteosynthesis.

J Hand Surg Am 2012 May 28;37(5):1015-23. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: In fractures of the radial head and neck requiring open reduction and internal fixation, osteosynthesis may be safely applied in a limited zone. We conducted a morphometric study of the proximal radius at the level of the safe zone to identify different morphologic types of this anatomical region.

Methods: We analyzed 44 dried cadaveric radii. We measured the whole length of the radius, the length of the neck and head, and the minimum and maximum diameter of the radial head. The morphologic aspect of the neck-head curvature of the safe zone was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

Results: The proximal radius at the level of the safe zone exhibited different radii of bending. In particular, we identified a morphologic type A, which showed a flat profile (25% of cases), morphologic types B and C, which showed a low concave curvature (64%), and a marked concave curvature (11%), respectively, of the safe zone.

Conclusions: The profile of the proximal radius in the safe zone shows substantial morphologic variations that should be taken into account when operating on fractures of the proximal radius, to avoid malunions, pain, and stiffness of the elbow joint. A preoperative radiograph of the contralateral uninjured radius may be helpful in selecting the most appropriate internal fixation device to reconstruct the proximal radius after comminuted fractures.

Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of the proper bending radius of the safe zone allows the surgeon to select the most appropriate plate, and to achieve good fracture reduction and anatomical restoration of the proximal radius.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.02.005DOI Listing
May 2012

Open debridement and radiocapitellar replacement in primary and post-traumatic arthritis of the elbow: a multicenter study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2012 Apr 11;21(4):456-63. Epub 2011 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Postmortem and clinical studies have shown an early and prevalent involvement of the radiohumeral joint in primary and secondary arthritis of the elbow. The lateral resurfacing elbow (LRE) prosthesis has recently been developed for the treatment of lateral elbow arthritis. However, few data have been published on LRE results.

Materials And Methods: A prospective multicenter study was designed to assess LRE preliminary results. There were 20 patients (average age, 55 years). Preoperative diagnosis were primary osteoarthritis in 11 and post-traumatic osteoarthritis in 9. All patients underwent open debridement and LRE prosthesis. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), modified American Shoulder Elbow Surgeons (m-ASES) elbow assessment, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH). Mean follow-up was 22.6 months.

Results: At the last follow-up, the mean improvement of MEPS and m-ASES was 35 (P = .001) and 34 (P = .001) respectively; the average Quick DASH decreased by 29 (P = .001). Average range of motion was improved by 35° (P = .001). MEPI results were excellent in 12 patients, good in 2, and fair and poor in 3 each. Mild overstuffing was observed in 5 patients, and an implant malpositioning in 3. The implant survival rate was 100%.

Conclusion: LRE showed promising results in this prospective investigation. Most patients had an uneventful postoperative course and have shown a painless elbow joint, with satisfactory functional recovery at short-term follow-up. Further studies with longer follow-up are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.08.071DOI Listing
April 2012

Complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius in adults: a comprehensive classification.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011 Dec 1;20(8):1289-99. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Background: Complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius include multiple anatomic lesions, the management of which is known to be demanding. Although several classifications have been proposed, none appear to be exhaustive, and most of them have neither therapeutic nor prognostic value. The purpose of this study was to design a comprehensive classification that may provide a guide for the operative management of these injuries.

Materials And Methods: The classification is aimed at identifying definite anatomic lesions, called the "main lesions," the presence of which can affect the prognosis and require peculiar treatments. The main lesions include (1) ulnar fracture (including its location with respect to the insertion of collateral ligaments and coronoid fracture), (2) radiohumeral dislocation, (3) proximal radioulnar dislocation, (4) radial fracture, (5) distal radioulnar joint and interosseous membrane lesion, and (6) humeral-ulnar dislocation. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed in 25 complex fracture-dislocations. Standard radiographs and computed tomography scans were analyzed by 3 independent observers.

Results: The main lesions were labeled by an alphanumeric system. Numbers 1 through 6 identified the type of ulnar fracture, and letters A through E indicated the dislocated joint or presence of a radial fracture. The direction of dislocation and the type of radial fracture were identified by Roman numerals, from I to III, placed after the letter. A κ value of 0.873 or greater resulted from intraobserver and interobserver evaluation.

Conclusion: We created a comprehensive classification of complex fracture-dislocations of the elbow. The classification appeared to be reproducible and may represent a useful tool for the management of such difficult injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.06.003DOI Listing
December 2011

The applicability of the Mayo Clinic congruent radial head plate: cadaveric study.

Musculoskelet Surg 2011 Jul;95 Suppl 1:S1-5

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 3, 00185 Roma, Italy.

In the last few years, several anatomical plates have been introduced to improve the results of ORIF in Mason Type II and III radial head fractures. However, no study analyzed whether currently used plates match adequately the profile of the proximal radius in the "safe zone". In the present investigation, we evaluate the congruence between the proximal radius and a currently used plate. Forty-four radial dried cadaveric bones were analyzed. The plate congruence was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The congruence of the tested plate with the proximal radius was good in 27.3% of specimens, while it was moderate or poor in the remaining 43.2% and 29.5% of cases, respectively. The profile of the proximal radius in the "safe zone" shows substantial morphologic variations which should be taken into account to avoid a malunion of the proximal radius. A preoperative radiograph of the contralateral uninjured radius may be helpful in order to select the most appropriate plate profile in comminuted radial head and neck fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12306-011-0120-0DOI Listing
July 2011

Management of complex elbow instability.

Musculoskelet Surg 2010 May;94 Suppl 1:S25-36

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Complex elbow instability is a challenging injury even for expert elbow surgeons. The preoperative radiographs should be carefully evaluated to recognize all lesions that may occur in complex elbow instabilities. Recognizing all the possible lesions is critical to achieve an optimal outcome. The most common types of injuries are as follows: (1) radial head fractures associated with lateral and medial collateral ligaments lesions (with or without elbow dislocation); (2) Coronoid fractures and lateral collateral ligament lesion (with or without elbow dislocation); (3) Terrible Triad; (4) Transolecranon fracture-dislocation; (5) Monteggia-like-lesions; and (6) Humeral Shear fractures associated with lateral and medial collateral ligaments lesions (with or without elbow dislocation). A correct evaluation includes X-rays, CT scan with 2D and 3D reconstruction and stability test under fluoroscopy. The treatment is always surgical and is challenging, and outcomes are not predictable. The goals of treatment are (1) to perform a stable osteosynthesis of all fractures, (2) to obtain concentric and stable reduction of the elbow and (3) to allow early motion. The proximal ulna must be anatomically reduced and fixed; the radial head must be repaired or replaced, and the coronoid fractures must be repaired or reconstructed. With respect of soft tissue lesions, the LUCL must be reattached with suture anchors or trans-osseous suture. The next critical step is the intra-operative assessment of elbow stability. If the elbow remains unstable, MCL repair and/or application of hinged external fixator must be considered. The most recent clinical and experimental studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of elbow instability and its management. Definite treatment protocols may improve the clinical results of such complex injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12306-010-0065-8DOI Listing
May 2010