Publications by authors named "Federico Bocci"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Coupled Feedback Loops Involving PAGE4, EMT and Notch Signaling Can Give Rise to Non-genetic Heterogeneity in Prostate Cancer Cells.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Feb 26;23(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre for BioSystems Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

Non-genetic heterogeneity is emerging as a crucial factor underlying therapy resistance in multiple cancers. However, the design principles of regulatory networks underlying non-genetic heterogeneity in cancer remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the coupled dynamics of feedback loops involving (a) oscillations in androgen receptor (AR) signaling mediated through an intrinsically disordered protein PAGE4, (b) multistability in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and c) Notch-Delta-Jagged signaling mediated cell-cell communication, each of which can generate non-genetic heterogeneity through multistability and/or oscillations. Our results show how different coupling strengths between AR and EMT signaling can lead to monostability, bistability, or oscillations in the levels of AR, as well as propagation of oscillations to EMT dynamics. These results reveal the emergent dynamics of coupled oscillatory and multi-stable systems and unravel mechanisms by which non-genetic heterogeneity in AR levels can be generated, which can act as a barrier to most existing therapies for prostate cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23030288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996788PMC
February 2021

Inference of Intercellular Communications and Multilayer Gene-Regulations of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition From Single-Cell Transcriptomic Data.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:604585. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in many biological processes during development and cancer. The advent of single-cell transcriptome sequencing techniques allows the dissection of dynamical details underlying EMT with unprecedented resolution. Despite several single-cell data analysis on EMT, how cell communicates and regulates dynamics along the EMT trajectory remains elusive. Using single-cell transcriptomic datasets, here we infer the cell-cell communications and the multilayer gene-gene regulation networks to analyze and visualize the complex cellular crosstalk and the underlying gene regulatory dynamics along EMT. Combining with trajectory analysis, our approach reveals the existence of multiple intermediate cell states (ICSs) with hybrid epithelial and mesenchymal features. Analyses on the time-series datasets from cancer cell lines with different inducing factors show that the induced EMTs are context-specific: the EMT induced by transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB1) is synchronous, whereas the EMTs induced by epidermal growth factor and tumor necrosis factor are asynchronous, and the responses of TGF-β pathway in terms of gene expression regulations are heterogeneous under different treatments or among various cell states. Meanwhile, network topology analysis suggests that the ICSs during EMT serve as the signaling in cellular communication under different conditions. Interestingly, our analysis of a mouse skin squamous cell carcinoma dataset also suggests regardless of the significant discrepancy in concrete genes between and EMT systems, the ICSs play dominant role in the TGF-β signaling crosstalk. Overall, our approach reveals the multiscale mechanisms coupling cell-cell communications and gene-gene regulations responsible for complex cell-state transitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.604585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820899PMC
January 2021

Understanding the Principles of Pattern Formation Driven by Notch Signaling by Integrating Experiments and Theoretical Models.

Front Physiol 2020 31;11:929. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Centre for BioSystems Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved cell-cell communication pathway. Besides regulating cell-fate decisions at an individual cell level, Notch signaling coordinates the emergent spatiotemporal patterning in a tissue through ligand-receptor interactions among transmembrane molecules of neighboring cells, as seen in embryonic development, angiogenesis, or wound healing. Due to its ubiquitous nature, Notch signaling is also implicated in several aspects of cancer progression, including tumor angiogenesis, stemness of cancer cells and cellular invasion. Here, we review experimental and computational models that help understand the operating principles of cell patterning driven by Notch signaling. First, we discuss the basic mechanisms of spatial patterning via canonical lateral inhibition and lateral induction mechanisms, including examples from angiogenesis, inner ear development and cancer metastasis. Next, we analyze additional layers of complexity in the Notch pathway, including the effect of varying cell sizes and shapes, ligand-receptor binding within the same cell, variable binding affinity of different ligand/receptor subtypes, and filopodia. Finally, we discuss some recent evidence of mechanosensitivity in the Notch pathway in driving collective epithelial cell migration and cardiovascular morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411240PMC
July 2020

Pericytes enable effective angiogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory signals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 11 4;116(47):23551-23561. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520;

Angiogenesis frequently occurs in the context of acute or persistent inflammation. The complex interplay of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cues is only partially understood. Using an experimental model, permitting exposure of developing blood vessel sprouts to multiple combinations of diverse biochemical stimuli and juxtacrine cell interactions, we present evidence that a proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), can have both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic effects, depending on the dose and the presence of pericytes. In particular, we find that pericytes can rescue and enhance angiogenesis in the presence of otherwise-inhibitory high TNF doses. This sharp switch from proangiogenic to antiangiogenic effect of TNF observed with an escalating dose of this cytokine, as well as the effect of pericytes, are explained by a mathematical model trained on the biochemical data. Furthermore, this model was predictive of the effects of diverse combinations of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cues, and variable pericyte coverage. The mechanism supports the effect of TNF and pericytes as modulating signaling networks impinging on Notch signaling and specification of the Tip and Stalk phenotypes. This integrative analysis elucidates the plasticity of the angiogenic morphogenesis in the presence of diverse and potentially conflicting cues, with immediate implications for many physiological and pathological settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913373116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6876202PMC
November 2019

A Biophysical Model Uncovers the Size Distribution of Migrating Cell Clusters across Cancer Types.

Cancer Res 2019 Nov 3;79(21):5527-5535. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics and Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

Migration from the primary tumor is a crucial step in the metastatic cascade. Cells with various degrees of adhesion and motility migrate and are launched into the bloodstream as single circulating tumor cells (CTC) or multicellular CTC clusters. The frequency and size distributions of these clusters have been recently measured, but the underlying mechanisms enabling these different modes of migration remain poorly understood. We present a biophysical model that couples the phenotypic plasticity enabled by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration to explain the modes of individual and collective cancer cell migration. This reduced physical model captures how cells undergo a transition from individual migration to collective cell migration and robustly recapitulates CTC cluster fractions and size distributions observed experimentally across several cancer types, thus suggesting the existence of common features in the mechanisms underlying cancer cell migration. Furthermore, we identify mechanisms that can maximize the fraction of CTC clusters in circulation. First, mechanisms that prevent a complete EMT and instead increase the population of hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) cells are required to recapitulate CTC size distributions with large clusters of 5 to 10 cells. Second, multiple intermediate E/M states give rise to larger and heterogeneous clusters formed by cells with different epithelial-mesenchymal traits. Overall, this biophysical model provides a platform to continue to bridge the gap between the molecular and biophysical regulation of cancer cell migration and highlights that a complete EMT might not be required for metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: A biophysical model of cancer cell invasion integrates phenotypic heterogeneity and cell migration to interpret experimental observations of circulating tumor cell clusters and provides new predictions. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/21/5527/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1726DOI Listing
November 2019

NRF2 activates a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition and is maximally present in a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2019 06;11(6):251-263

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process implicated in cancer metastasis and therapy resistance. Recent studies have emphasized that cells can undergo partial EMT to attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype - a cornerstone of tumour aggressiveness and poor prognosis. These cells can have enhanced tumour-initiation potential as compared to purely epithelial or mesenchymal ones and can integrate the properties of cell-cell adhesion and motility that facilitates collective cell migration leading to clusters of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) - the prevalent mode of metastasis. Thus, identifying the molecular players that can enable cells to maintain a hybrid E/M phenotype is crucial to curb the metastatic load. Using an integrated computational-experimental approach, we show that the transcription factor NRF2 can prevent a complete EMT and instead stabilize a hybrid E/M phenotype. Knockdown of NRF2 in hybrid E/M non-small cell lung cancer cells H1975 and bladder cancer cells RT4 destabilized a hybrid E/M phenotype and compromised the ability to collectively migrate to close a wound in vitro. Notably, while NRF2 knockout simultaneously downregulated E-cadherin and ZEB-1, overexpression of NRF2 enriched for a hybrid E/M phenotype by simultaneously upregulating both E-cadherin and ZEB-1 in individual RT4 cells. Further, we predict that NRF2 is maximally expressed in hybrid E/M phenotype(s) and demonstrate that this biphasic dynamic arises from the interconnections among NRF2 and the EMT regulatory circuit. Finally, clinical records from multiple datasets suggest a correlation between a hybrid E/M phenotype, high levels of NRF2 and its targets and poor survival, further strengthening the emerging notion that hybrid E/M phenotype(s) may occupy the 'metastatic sweet spot'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intbio/zyz021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686740PMC
June 2019

Quantifying Cancer Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity and its Association with Stemness and Immune Response.

J Clin Med 2019 May 22;8(5). Epub 2019 May 22.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.

Cancer cells can acquire a spectrum of stable hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) states during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells in these hybrid E/M phenotypes often combine epithelial and mesenchymal features and tend to migrate collectively commonly as small clusters. Such collectively migrating cancer cells play a pivotal role in seeding metastases and their presence in cancer patients indicates an adverse prognostic factor. Moreover, cancer cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes tend to be more associated with stemness which endows them with tumor-initiation ability and therapy resistance. Most recently, cells undergoing EMT have been shown to promote immune suppression for better survival. A systematic understanding of the emergence of hybrid E/M phenotypes and the connection of EMT with stemness and immune suppression would contribute to more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we first discuss recent efforts combining theoretical and experimental approaches to elucidate mechanisms underlying EMT multi-stability (i.e., the existence of multiple stable phenotypes during EMT) and the properties of hybrid E/M phenotypes. Following we discuss non-cell-autonomous regulation of EMT by cell cooperation and extracellular matrix. Afterwards, we discuss various metrics that can be used to quantify EMT spectrum. We further describe possible mechanisms underlying the formation of clusters of circulating tumor cells. Last but not least, we summarize recent systems biology analysis of the role of EMT in the acquisition of stemness and immune suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572429PMC
May 2019

Structural and Dynamical Order of a Disordered Protein: Molecular Insights into Conformational Switching of PAGE4 at the Systems Level.

Biomolecules 2019 02 22;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Folded proteins show a high degree of structural order and undergo (fairly constrained) collective motions related to their functions. On the other hand, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), while lacking a well-defined three-dimensional structure, do exhibit some structural and dynamical ordering, but are less constrained in their motions than folded proteins. The larger structural plasticity of IDPs emphasizes the importance of entropically driven motions. Many IDPs undergo function-related disorder-to-order transitions driven by their interaction with specific binding partners. As experimental techniques become more sensitive and become better integrated with computational simulations, we are beginning to see how the modest structural ordering and large amplitude collective motions of IDPs endow them with an ability to mediate multiple interactions with different partners in the cell. To illustrate these points, here, we use Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4), an IDP implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) as an example. We first review our previous efforts using molecular dynamics simulations based on atomistic AWSEM to study the conformational dynamics of PAGE4 and how its motions change in its different physiologically relevant phosphorylated forms. Our simulations quantitatively reproduced experimental observations and revealed how structural and dynamical ordering are encoded in the sequence of PAGE4 and can be modulated by different extents of phosphorylation by the kinases HIPK1 and CLK2. This ordering is reflected in changing populations of certain secondary structural elements as well as in the regularity of its collective motions. These ordered features are directly correlated with the functional interactions of WT-PAGE4, HIPK1-PAGE4 and CLK2-PAGE4 with the AP-1 signaling axis. These interactions give rise to repeated transitions between (high HIPK1-PAGE4, low CLK2-PAGE4) and (low HIPK1-PAGE4, high CLK2-PAGE4) cell phenotypes, which possess differing sensitivities to the standard PCa therapies, such as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). We argue that, although the structural plasticity of an IDP is important in promoting promiscuous interactions, the modulation of the structural ordering is important for sculpting its interactions so as to rewire with agility biomolecular interaction networks with significant functional consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9020077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406393PMC
February 2019

Quantitative Characteristic of ncRNA Regulation in Gene Regulatory Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1912:341-366

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

RNA is mostly known for its role in protein synthesis, where it encodes information for protein sequence in its messenger RNA (mRNA) form (translation). Yet, RNA molecules regulate several cellular processes other than translation. Here, we present an overview of several mathematical models that help understanding and characterizing the role of noncoding RNA molecules (ncRNAs) in regulating gene expression and protein synthesis. First, we discuss relatively simple models where ncRNAs can modulate protein synthesis via targeting a mRNA. Then, we consider the case of feedback interactions between ncRNAs and their target proteins, and discuss several biological applications where these feedback architectures modulate a cellular phenotype and control the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic noise. Building from these simple circuit motifs, we examine feed-forward circuit motifs involving ncRNAs that generate precise spatial and temporal patterns of protein expression. Further, we investigate the competition between ncRNAs and other endogenous RNA molecules and show that the cross talk between coding and noncoding RNAs can form large genetic circuits that involve up to hundreds of chemical species. Finally, we discuss the role of ncRNAs in modulating cell-cell signaling pathways and therefore the dynamics of spatiotemporal pattern formation in a tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8982-9_14DOI Listing
June 2019

Toward understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 01 26;116(1):148-157. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005;

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) formation are two paramount processes driving tumor progression, therapy resistance, and cancer metastasis. Recent experiments show that cells with varying EMT and CSC phenotypes are spatially segregated in the primary tumor. The underlying mechanisms generating such spatiotemporal dynamics in the tumor microenvironment, however, remain largely unexplored. Here, we show through a mechanism-based dynamical model that the diffusion of EMT-inducing signals such as TGF-β, together with noncell autonomous control of EMT and CSC decision making via the Notch signaling pathway, can explain experimentally observed disparate localization of subsets of CSCs with varying EMT phenotypes in the tumor. Our simulations show that the more mesenchymal CSCs lie at the invasive edge, while the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) CSCs reside in the tumor interior. Further, motivated by the role of Notch-Jagged signaling in mediating EMT and stemness, we investigated the microenvironmental factors that promote Notch-Jagged signaling. We show that many inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 that can promote Notch-Jagged signaling can () stabilize a hybrid E/M phenotype, () increase the likelihood of spatial proximity of hybrid E/M cells, and () expand the fraction of CSCs. To validate the predicted connection between Notch-Jagged signaling and stemness, we knocked down JAG1 in hybrid E/M SUM149 human breast cancer cells in vitro. JAG1 knockdown significantly restricted tumor organoid formation, confirming the key role that Notch-Jagged signaling can play in tumor progression. Together, our integrated computational-experimental framework reveals the underlying principles of spatiotemporal dynamics of EMT and CSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1815345116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320545PMC
January 2019

A mechanism-based computational model to capture the interconnections among epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells and Notch-Jagged signaling.

Oncotarget 2018 Jul 6;9(52):29906-29920. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSCs) formation are two fundamental and well-studied processes contributing to cancer metastasis and tumor relapse. Cells can undergo a partial EMT to attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype or a complete EMT to attain a mesenchymal one. Similarly, cells can reversibly gain or lose 'stemness'. This plasticity in cell states is modulated by signaling pathways such as Notch. However, the interconnections among the cell states enabled by EMT, CSCs and Notch signaling remain elusive. Here, we devise a computational model to investigate the coupling among the core decision-making circuits for EMT, CSCs and Notch. Our model predicts that hybrid E/M cells are most likely to associate with stem-like traits and enhanced Notch-Jagged signaling - a pathway implicated in therapeutic resistance. Further, we show that the position of the 'stemness window' on the 'EMT axis' is varied by altering the coupling strength between EMT and CSC circuits, and/or modulating Notch signaling. Finally, we analyze the gene expression profile of CSCs from several cancer types and observe a heterogeneous distribution along the 'EMT axis', suggesting that different subsets of CSCs may exist with varying phenotypes along the epithelial-mesenchymal axis. We further investigate therapeutic perturbations such as treatment with metformin, a drug associated with decreased cancer incidence and increased lifespan of patients. Our mechanism-based model explains how metformin can both inhibit EMT and blunt the aggressive potential of CSCs simultaneously, by driving the cells out of a hybrid E/M stem-like state with enhanced Notch-Jagged signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057462PMC
July 2018

PAGE4 and Conformational Switching: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Implications for Prostate Cancer.

J Mol Biol 2018 08 5;430(16):2422-2438. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States; Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States; Department of BioSciences, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States. Electronic address:

Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) is an intrinsically disordered protein implicated in prostate cancer. Thestress-response kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 (HIPK1) phosphorylates two residues in PAGE4, serine 9 and threonine 51. Phosphorylation of these two residues facilitates the interaction of PAGE4 with activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex to potentiate AP-1's activity. In contrast, hyperphosphorylation of PAGE4 by CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) attenuates this interaction with AP-1. Small-angleX-ray scattering and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements have shown that PAGE4 expands upon hyperphosphorylation and that this expansion is localized to its N-terminal half. To understand the interactions underlying this structural transition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using Atomistic AWSEM, a multi-scale molecular model that combines atomistic and coarse-grained simulation approaches. Our simulations show that electrostatic interactions drive transient formation of an N-terminal loop, the destabilization of which accounts for the dramatic change in size upon hyperphosphorylation. Phosphorylation also changes the preference of secondary structure formation of the PAGE4 ensemble, which leads to a transition between states that display different degrees of disorder. Finally, we construct a mechanism-based mathematical model that allows us to capture the interactions ofdifferent phosphoforms of PAGE4 with AP-1 and its downstream target, the androgen receptor (AR)-a key therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Our model predicts intracellular oscillatory dynamics of HIPK1-PAGE4, CLK2-PAGE4, and AR activity, indicating phenotypic heterogeneity in an isogenic cell population. Thus, conformational switching of PAGE4 may potentially affect the efficiency of therapeutically targeting AR activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2018.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045464PMC
August 2018

Role of metabolic spatiotemporal dynamics in regulating biofilm colony expansion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 04 2;115(16):4288-4293. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1827;

Cell fate determination is typically regulated by biological networks, yet increasing evidences suggest that cell-cell communication and environmental stresses play crucial roles in the behavior of a cell population. A recent microfluidic experiment showed that the metabolic codependence of two cell populations generates a collective oscillatory dynamic during the expansion of a biofilm. We develop a modeling framework for the spatiotemporal dynamics of the associated metabolic circuit for cells in a colony. We elucidate the role of metabolite diffusion and the need of two distinct cell populations to observe oscillations. Uniquely, this description captures the onset and thereafter stable oscillatory dynamics during expansion and predicts the existence of damping oscillations under various environmental conditions. This modeling scheme provides insights to understand how cells integrate the information from external signaling and cell-cell communication to determine the optimal survival strategy and/or maximize cell fitness in a multicellular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706920115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910808PMC
April 2018

Numb prevents a complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating Notch signalling.

J R Soc Interface 2017 11;14(136)

Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays key roles during embryonic development, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Cells in a partial EMT or hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype exhibit collective cell migration, forming clusters of circulating tumour cells-the primary drivers of metastasis. Activation of cell-cell signalling pathways such as Notch fosters a partial or complete EMT, yet the mechanisms enabling cluster formation remain poorly understood. Using an integrated computational-experimental approach, we examine the role of Numb-an inhibitor of Notch intercellular signalling-in mediating EMT and clusters formation. We show via an mathematical model that Numb inhibits a full EMT by stabilizing a hybrid E/M phenotype. Consistent with this observation, knockdown of Numb in stable hybrid E/M cells H1975 results in a full EMT, thereby showing that Numb acts as a brake for a full EMT and thus behaves as a 'phenotypic stability factor' by modulating Notch-driven EMT. By generalizing the mathematical model to a multi-cell level, Numb is predicted to alter the balance of hybrid E/M versus mesenchymal cells in clusters, potentially resulting in a higher tumour-initiation ability. Finally, Numb correlates with a worse survival in multiple independent lung and ovarian cancer datasets, hence confirming its relationship with increased cancer aggressiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721160PMC
November 2017