Publications by authors named "Fawad Ali"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanistic elucidation of germination potential and growth of Sesbania sesban seedlings with Bacillus anthracis PM21 under heavy metals stress: An in vitro study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;208:111769. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Soils contaminated with heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) severely impede plant growth. Several rhizospheric microorganisms support plant growth under heavy metal stress. In this study, Cr and Cd stress was applied to in vitro germinating seedlings of a Legume plant species, Sesbania sesban, and investigated the plant growth potential in presence and absence of Bacillus anthracis PM21 bacterial strain under heavy metal stress. The seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of Cr (25-75 mg/L) and Cd (100-200 mg/L) in Petri plates. Growth curve analysis of B. anthracis PM21 revealed its potential to adapt Cr and Cd stress. The bacteria supported plant growth by exhibiting ACC-deaminase activity (1.57-1.75 μM of α-ketobutyrate/h/mg protein), producing Indole-3-acetic acid (99-119 μM/mL) and exopolysaccharides (2.74-2.98 mg/mL), under heavy metal stress condition. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in growth parameters between the seedlings with and without bacterial inoculation in metal stress condition. The combined Cr+Cd stress (75 + 200 mg/L) significantly reduced root length (70%), shoot length (24%), dry weight (54%) and fresh weight (57%) as compared to control. Conversely, B. anthracis PM21 inoculation to seedlings significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) seed germination percentage (5%), root length (31%), shoot length (23%) and photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a: 20%; Chlorophyll b: 16% and total chlorophyll: 18%), as compared to control seedlings without B. anthracis PM21 inoculation. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculation also enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (52%), peroxidase (66%), and catalase (21%), and decreased proline content (56%), electrolyte leakage (50%), and malondialdehyde concentration (46%) in seedlings. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculated seedlings of S. sesban exhibited significantly high (p ≤ 0.05) tissue deposition of Cr (17%) and Cd (16%) as compared to their control counterparts. Findings of the study suggested that B. anthracis PM21 endured metal stress through homeostasis of antioxidant activities, and positively impacted S. sesban growth and biomass. Further experiments in controlled conditions are necessary for investigating phytoremediation potential of S. sesban in metal-contaminated soils in presence of B. anthracis PM21 bacterial strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111769DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19: mobilising CT as a frontline management tool.

Br J Radiol 2020 Dec 29;93(1116):20200522. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Older People Medicine, Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Basildon Hospital, Basildon, UK.

As the COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the globe, questions have arisen about the approach healthcare systems should adopt in order to optimally manage patient influx. With a focus on the impact of COVID-19 on the NHS, we describe the frontline experience of a severely affected hospital in close proximity to London. We highlight a protocol-driven approach, incorporating the use of CT in the rapid triage, assessment and cohorting of patients, in an environment where there was a lack of readily available, onsite RT-PCR testing facilities. Furthermore, the effects of the protocol on the effective streamlining of patient flow within the hospital are discussed, as are the resultant improvements in clinical management decisions within the acute care service. This model may help other healthcare systems in managing this pandemic whilst assessing their own needs and resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716014PMC
December 2020

Phytotherapeutic options for the treatment of COVID-19: A concise viewpoint.

Phytother Res 2020 10 20;34(10):2431-2437. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461328PMC
October 2020

Vaccine Design from the Ensemble of Surface Glycoprotein Epitopes of SARS-CoV-2: An Immunoinformatics Approach.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 28;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan 23200, Pakistan.

The present study aimed to work out a peptide-based multi-epitope vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We predicted different B-cell and T-cell epitopes by using the Immune Epitopes Database (IEDB). Homology modeling of the construct was done using SWISS-MODEL and then docked with different toll-like-receptors (TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8) using PatchDock, HADDOCK, and FireDock, respectively. From the overlapped epitopes, we designed five vaccine constructs C1-C5. Based on antigenicity, allergenicity, solubility, different physiochemical properties, and molecular docking scores, we selected the vaccine construct 1 (C1) for further processing. Docking of C1 with TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8 showed striking interactions with global binding energy of -43.48, -65.88, and -60.24 Kcal/mol, respectively. The docked complex was further simulated, which revealed that both molecules remain stable with minimum RMSF. Activation of TLRs induces downstream pathways to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines against viruses and immune system simulation shows enhanced antibody production after the booster dose. In conclusion, C1 was the best vaccine candidate among all designed constructs to elicit an immune response SARS-CoV-2 and combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565012PMC
July 2020

Core proteome mediated therapeutic target mining and multi-epitope vaccine design for Helicobacter pylori.

Genomics 2020 09 17;112(5):3473-3483. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy.

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that infects half of the human population worldwide and causes chronic inflammation. In the present study, we used the art of computational biology for therapeutic drug targets identification and a multi-epitope vaccine against multi-strains of H. pylori. For drug target identification, we used different tools and softwares to identify human non-homologous but pathogen essential proteins, with virulent properties and involved in unique metabolic pathways of H. pylori. For this purpose, the core proteome of 84 strains of H. pylori was retrieved from EDGAR 2.3 database. There were 59,808 proteins sequences in these strains. Duplicates and paralogous protein sequence removal was followed by human non-homologous protein miningPathogen essential and virulent proteins were subjected to pathway analysis Subcellular localization of the virulent proteins was predicted and druggability was also checked, leading to 30 druggable targets based on their similarity with the approved drug targets in Drugbank. For immunoinformatics analysis, we selected two outer membrane proteins (HPAKL86_RS06305 and HPSNT_RS00950) and subjected to determined immunogenic B and T-Cell epitopes. The B and T-Cell overlapped epitopes were selected to design 9 different vaccine constructs by using linkers and adjuvants. Least allergenic and most antigenic construct (C-8) was selected as a promiscuous vaccine to elicit host immune response. Cloning and in silico expression of the constructed vaccine (C-8) was done to produce a clone having the desired (gene) vaccine construct. In conclusion, the prioritized therapeutic targets for 84 strains of H.pylori will be useful for future therapy design. Vaccine design may also prove useful in the quest for targeting multi-strains of H. pylori in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.06.026DOI Listing
September 2020

Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Marker-Trait Association for 100-Seed Weight in International Safflower Panel Using SilicoDArT Marker Information.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14030 Bolu, Turkey.

Safflower is an important oilseed crop mainly grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The aim of this study was to explore phenotypic and genetic diversity, population structure, and marker-trait association for 100-seed weight in 94 safflower accessions originating from 26 countries using silicoDArT markers. Analysis of variance revealed statistically significant genotypic effects ( < 0.01), while Turkey samples resulted in higher 100-seed weight compared to Pakistan samples. A Constellation plot divided the studied germplasm into two populations on the basis of their 100-seed weight. Various mean genetic diversity parameters including observed number of alleles (1.99), effective number of alleles (1.54), Shannon's information index (0.48), expected heterozygosity (0.32), and unbiased expected heterozygosity (0.32) for the entire population exhibited sufficient genetic diversity using 12232 silicoDArT markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the variations (91%) in world safflower panel are due to differences within country groups. A model-based structure grouped the 94 safflower accessions into populations A, B, C and an admixture population upon membership coefficient. Neighbor joining analysis grouped the safflower accessions into two populations (A and B). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also clustered the safflower accessions on the basis of geographical origin. Three accessions; Egypt-5, Egypt-2, and India-2 revealed the highest genetic distance and hence might be recommended as candidate parental lines for safflower breeding programs. The mixed linear model i.e., the Q + K model, demonstrated that two DArTseq markers (DArT-45483051 and DArT-15672391) had significant association ( < 0.01) for 100-seed weight. We envisage that identified DArTseq markers associated with 100-seed weight will be helpful to develop high-yielding cultivars of safflower through marker-assisted breeding in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9050652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284372PMC
May 2020

Characterization of a Dibenzofuran-degrading strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, FA-HZ1.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jul 8;250:262-273. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Dibenzofuran (DBF) derivatives have caused serious environmental problems, especially those produced by paper pulp bleaching and incineration processes. Prominent for its resilient mutagenicity and toxicity, DBF poses a major challenge to human health. In the present study, a new strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, FA-HZ1, with high DBF-degrading activity was isolated and identified. The determined optimum conditions for cell growth of strain FA-HZ1 were a temperature of 30 °C, pH 5.0, rotation rate of 200 rpm and 0.1 mM DBF as a carbon source. The biochemical and physiological features as well as usage of different carbon sources by FA-HZ1 were studied. The new strain was positive for arginine double hydrolase, gelatinase and citric acid, while it was negative for urease and lysine decarboxylase. It could utilize citric acid as its sole carbon source, but was negative for indole and HS production. Intermediates of DBF 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrodibenzofuran, 1,2-dihydroxydibenzofuran, 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxo-3'H-benzofuran-2'-yliden)but-2-enoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzofuran, 2-oxo-2-(2'-hydrophenyl)lactic acid, and 2-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid were detected and identified through liquid chromatography-mass analyses. FA-HZ1 metabolizes DBF by both the angular and lateral dioxygenation pathways. The genomic study identified 158 genes that were involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds. To identify the key genes responsible for DBF degradation, a proteomic study was performed. A total of 1459 proteins were identified in strain FA-HZ1, of which 100 were up-regulated and 104 were down-regulated. A novel enzyme "HZ6359 dioxygenase", was amplified and expressed in pET-28a in E. coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed, and was used for further experiments to verify its function. In addition, the strain FA-HZ1 can also degrade halogenated analogues such as 2, 8-dibromo dibenzofuran and 4-(4-bromophenyl) dibenzofuran. Undoubtedly, the isolation and characterization of new strain and the designed pathways is significant, as it could lead to the development of cost-effective and alternative remediation strategies. The degradation pathway of DBF by P. aeruginosa FA-HZ1 is a promising tool of biotechnological and environmental significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.026DOI Listing
July 2019

Mobile genomic element diversity in world collection of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) panel using iPBS-retrotransposon markers.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(2):e0211985. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Science, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a multipurpose crop of dry land yielding very high quality of edible oil. Present study was aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of 131 safflower accessions originating from 28 different countries using 13 iPBS-retrotransposon markers. A total of 295 iPBS bands were observed among which 275 (93.22%) were found polymorphic. Mean Polymorphism information content (0.48) and diversity parameters including mean effective number of alleles (1.33), mean Shannon's information index (0.33), overall gene diversity (0.19), Fstatistic (0.21), and inbreeding coefficient (1.00) reflected the presence of sufficient amount of genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more than 40% of genetic variation was derived from populations. Model-based structure, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) algorithms clustered the 131 safflower accessions into four main populations A, B, C, D and an unclassified population, with no meaningful geographical origin. Most diverse accessions originated from Asian countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Turkey, and India. Four accessions, Turkey3, Afghanistan4, Afghanistan2, and Pakistan24 were found most genetically distant and might be recommended as a candidate parents for breeding purposes. The findings of this study are most probably supported by the seven similarity centers hypothesis of safflower. This is a first study to explore the genetic diversity and population structure in safflower accessions using the iPBS-retrotransposon markers. The information provided in this work will therefore be helpful for scientists interested in safflower breeding.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211985PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391045PMC
November 2019

Optimization of Mo/Cr bilayer back contacts for thin-film solar cells.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2018 18;9:2700-2707. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

School of Chemistry, Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia.

Molybdenum (Mo) is the most commonly used material as back contact in thin-film solar cells. Adhesion of Mo film to soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate is crucial to the performance of solar cells. In this study, an optimized bilayer structure made of a thin layer of Mo on an ultra-thin chromium (Cr) adhesion layer is used as the back contact for a copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin-film solar cell on a SLG substrate. DC magnetron sputtering is used for deposition of Mo and Cr films. The conductivity of Mo/Cr bilayer films, their microstructure and surface morphology are studied at different deposition powers and working pressures. Good adhesion to the SLG substrate has been achieved by means of an ultra-thin Cr layer under the Mo layer. By optimizing the deposition conditions we achieved low surface roughness, high optical reflectance and low sheet resistivity while we could decrease the back contact thickness to 600 nm. That is two thirds to half of the thickness that is currently being used for bilayer and single layer back contact for thin-film solar cells. We demonstrate the excellent properties of Mo/Cr bilayer as back contact of a CZTS solar cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.9.252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204819PMC
October 2018

Characterization of genetic diversity in Turkish common bean gene pool using phenotypic and whole-genome DArTseq-generated silicoDArT marker information.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(10):e0205363. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of field crops, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Science, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Turkey presents a great diversity of common bean landraces in farmers' fields. We collected 183 common bean accessions from 19 different Turkish geographic regions and 5 scarlet runner bean accessions to investigate their genetic diversity and population structure using phenotypic information (growth habit, and seed weight, flower color, bracteole shape and size, pod shape and leaf shape and color), geographic provenance and 12,557 silicoDArT markers. A total of 24.14% markers were found novel. For the entire population (188 accessions), the expected heterozygosity was 0.078 and overall gene diversity, Fst and Fis were 0.14, 0.55 and 1, respectively. Using marker information, model-based structure, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) algorithms clustered the 188 accessions into two main populations A (predominant) and B, and 5 unclassified genotypes, representing 3 meaningful heterotic groups for breeding purposes. Phenotypic information clearly distinguished these populations; population A and B, respectively, were bigger (>40g/100 seeds) and smaller (<40g/100 seeds) seed-sized. The unclassified population was pure and only contained climbing genotypes with 100 seed weight 2-3 times greater than populations A and B. Clustering was mainly based on A: seed weight, B: growth habit, C: geographical provinces and D: flower color. Mean kinship was generally low, but population B was more diverse than population A. Overall, a useful level of gene and genotypic diversity was observed in this work and can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205363PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181364PMC
March 2019

Tuning the Amount of Oxygen Vacancies in Sputter-Deposited SnO films for Enhancing the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

ChemSusChem 2018 Sep 4;11(18):3096-3103. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, 4000, QLD, Australia.

This work demonstrates the effect of oxygen vacancies in SnO thin films on the performance of perovskite solar cells. Various SnO films with different amounts of oxygen vacancies were deposited by sputtering at different substrate temperatures (25-300 °C). The transmittance of the films decreased from 82 to 66 % with increasing deposition temperature from 25 to 300 °C. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron-spin resonance spectroscopy confirmed that a higher density of oxygen vacancies was created within the SnO film at a high substrate temperature, which caused narrowing of the SnO bandgap from 4.1 (25 °C) to 3.74 eV (250 °C). Combined ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy showed an excellent conduction band position alignment between the methylammonium lead iodide perovskite layer (3.90 eV) and the SnO electron transport layer deposited at 250 °C (3.92 eV). As a result, a significant enhancement of the open-circuit voltage from 0.82 to 1.0 V was achieved, resulting in an increase of the power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells from 11 to 14 %. This research demonstrated a facile approach for controlling the amount of oxygen vacancies in SnO thin films to achieve a desirable energy alignment with the perovskite absorber layer for enhanced device performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201801541DOI Listing
September 2018

Complete genome sequence of sp. HBCD-sjtu, an efficient HBCD-degrading bacterium.

3 Biotech 2018 Jul 25;8(7):291. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 People's Republic of China.

Environmental pollution caused by the release of industrial chemicals is currently one of the most important environmental harms. Manufacturing chemicals can be biodegraded, and valuable intermediates can be used as pharmacophores in drug targeting and have several other useful purposes. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a non-aromatic brominated flame retardant, is a toxic compound that consists of a cycloaliphatic ring of 12 carbon atoms to which six bromine atoms are attached. It is formed by bromination of -1,5,9-cyclododecatriene, but its use is now restricted in several countries, because it is an environmental pollutant. Little is known about whether bacteria can degrade HBCD. A bacterial strain that degrades HBCD was recently isolated using enrichment culture techniques. Based on morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analysis this isolate was categorized as and named strain HBCD-sjtu. Maximum growth and HBCD-degrading activity were observed when this strain was grown at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and 200 RPM in mineral salt medium containing 0.5 mm HBCD. The genome of strain HBCD-sjtu, which consists of only one circular chromosome, was sequenced. This whole genome sequence will be crucial for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of HBCD degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1326-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020098PMC
July 2018

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome: An Unusual Cause of Status Epilepticus and Refractory Seizures.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Jun;28(6):S99-S101

Department of Radiology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar.

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is a rare neurological condition characterised by drug-resistance seizures, hemiparesis, mental retardation, facial asymmetry, and intellectual disabilities. On brain imaging, the disease is characterised by cerebral hemiatrophy with ipsilateral calvarial thickening and hyperpneumotisation of paranasal sinuses or mastoid air cells. Although more common in men and on the left side of the brain, the disease can affect both genders and cerebral hemispheres. It mainly presents in childhood. The adult presentation is unusual but has been reported in medical literature. Most of the patients need more than one antiepileptic agent for optimal control of seizures. Hemispherectomy is reserved for patients who have drug-resistant and disabling seizures. The good prognostic factors are disease onset before age of two and better seizure control. We report two cases of DDMS occurring in teenage boys who presented with status epilepticus. The clinical histories, radiological findings, and treatment of both patients are discussed below.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2018.06.S99DOI Listing
June 2018

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus SCAL1, an Endophytic Heat-Tolerant Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium.

Genome Announc 2018 May 3;6(18). Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

strain SCAL1 is an endophytic, thermophilic plant that was isolated from the leaf of a plant, L., in Sindh, Pakistan. strain SCAL1 has usually exhibited high resistance to environmental stresses, with a growth temperature ranging from 30 to 60°C. An approximately 3.75-Mb draft genome was assembled into 68 contigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00306-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940947PMC
May 2018

Assessment of the risk factors of hypertension among adult & elderly group in twin cities of Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Nov;67(11):1664-1669

Shifa Tameer e Millat University, Islamabad.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to explore the risk factors associated with it.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a population based survey was conducted on inhabitants of Rawalpindi-Islamabad region, 219 individuals; aged 18 years or above were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured along with information about individual's demographic and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using a standard questionnaire..

Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension was 29.22% (males: 21.9% and females: 78.1%) in individuals residing in Rawalpindi-Islamabad. High blood pressure is more associated with obesity (59.4%) and a progressive increase in hypertension was observed with increasing age. Bivariate analysis revealed that hypertension has a significant correlation (p-value<0.05) with age, gender, family status, weight and physical health.

Conclusions: The study concludes that our generation is well aware about the risks and consequences of hypertension, but they still continue to make no or little effort in managing or preventing it. The factors contributing to hypertension are low physical activity, diet and lack of interest to maintain their health.
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November 2017

Role of Molecular Biology in Cancer Treatment: A Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Nov;46(11):1475-1485

Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Cancer is a genetic disease and mainly arises due to a number of reasons include activation of onco-genes, malfunction of tumor suppressor genes or mutagenesis due to external factors.

Methods: This article was written from the data collected from PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer and Elsevier groups of journals.

Results: Oncogenes are deregulated form of normal proto-oncogenes required for cell division, differentiation and regulation. The conversion of proto-oncogene to oncogene is caused due to translocation, rearrangement of chromosomes or mutation in gene due to addition, deletion, duplication or viral infection. These oncogenes are targeted by drugs or RNAi system to prevent proliferation of cancerous cells. There have been developed different techniques of molecular biology used to diagnose and treat cancer, including retroviral therapy, silencing of oncogenes and mutations in tumor suppressor genes.

Conclusion: Among all the techniques used, RNAi, zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR hold a brighter future towards creating a Cancer Free World.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696686PMC
November 2017

Synthesis, characterization, anti-ulcer action and molecular docking evaluation of novel benzimidazole-pyrazole hybrids.

Chem Cent J 2017 Sep 2;11(1):85. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

A series of six novel benzimidazole-pyrazole hybrid molecules was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis (CHN) and spectroscopic methods (HNMR, FT-IR). All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vivo anti ulcerogenic activity using Albino rats (weighing 180-220 g). The interactions between the compounds and active site residues of H/K ATPase were investigated by molecular docking studies using autodock vina 4.0. SCH28080 was used to validate the docking results. Also the drug likeliness of these compounds was predicted using Molinspiration server in light of Lipinski's rule of five. All the six synthesized compounds exhibited higher anti-ulcer activity as compared to omeprazole. These novel hybrid compounds showed comparable anti-ulcer potential of 72-83% at dose level of 500 µg/kg, whereas omeprazole showed 83% anti-ulcer activity at dose level of 30 mg/kg. The results clearly indicate that these novel benzimidazole-pyrazole hybrids can present a new class of potential anti ulcer agents and can serve as new anti-ulcer drugs after further investigation. Graphical abstract An overveiw of synthesis, in silico and in vivo antiulcer screening of benzimidazole pyrazole hybrids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-017-0314-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5581743PMC
September 2017

Phenotypic Stability of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits under Drought Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2017 22;8:1397. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabad, Pakistan.

Phenotypic stability under stress environment facilitate the fitness of genotype and opens new horizons to explore the cryptic genetic variation. Variation in tolerance to drought stress, a major grain yield constraint to global maize production, was identified, at the phenotypic and genotypic level. Here we found a prominent hybrid H that showed fitness over four growing seasons for grain yield under water stress conditions. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of yield attributing traits over four seasons demonstrated that cobs per plant, 100 seed weight, number of grains rows per cob, total dry matter, cob diameter had positive association ( = 0.3-0.9) to grain yield. The perturbation was found for chlorophyll content as it showed moderate to strong association ( < 0.01) over four seasons, might be due to environment or genotype dependent. Highest heritability (95%) and genetic advance (79%) for grain yield was found in H over four consecutive crop growing seasons. Combined analysis over four seasons showed that studied variables together explained 85% of total variation in dependent structure (grain yield) obtained by Principal component analysis. This significant finding is the best example of phenotypic stability of grain yield in H and made it best fitted for grain yield under drought stress scenario. Detailed genetic analysis of H will help us to identify significant loci and alleles that made H the best fitted and it could serve as a potential source to generate novel transgressive levels of tolerance for drought stress in arid/semiarid regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572255PMC
August 2017

Complete Genome Sequence of FA-HZ1, an Efficient Dibenzofuran-Degrading Bacterium.

Genome Announc 2017 Feb 16;5(7). Epub 2017 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

sp. FA-HZ1, an efficient dibenzofuran-degrading bacterium, was isolated from landfill leachate. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain FA-HZ1, which contains only one circular chromosome. The complete genome sequence will be essential for revealing the molecular mechanisms of dibenzofuran degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01634-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313622PMC
February 2017

Corrigendum to "Extraction of HCV-RNA from Plasma Samples: Development towards Semiautomation".

Int J Anal Chem 2016 29;2016:3278363. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), Faisalabad 2019, Pakistan.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/367801.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3278363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5153486PMC
November 2016

Metallic Nanomesh with Disordered Dual-Size Apertures As Wide-Viewing-Angle Transparent Conductive Electrode.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Sep 23;8(35):22768-73. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia.

With the rapid development of display-related markets, transparent conductive films (TCFs) with wide viewing angles, high transmittance and low sheet resistance are in high demand. However, as a promising TCF material, metallic membranes with a submicrometer-sized periodicity pattern fabricated by currently available techniques always reveal the angle-dependent structure color which can be a major issue in the development of wide-angle viewing display-related applications. In this work, we demonstrate an Au nanomesh with disordered dual-size apertures as a novel TCF with wide viewing angles which is made via a modified nanosphere lithography technique. The as-prepared Au nanomesh film shows good optoelectronic properties (Rs = 160 Ω sq(-1), T = 80%; Rs = 8 Ω sq(-1), T = 57%) that are similar to the Au nanomesh with single size apertures, while the former exhibits excellent wide-angle viewing performance. There is no obvious change in the film when the viewing angle, the light incidence angle or the orientation of substrate vary in the range of 0-90°. In contrast, a rainbow color is observed with the film with ordered single-size apertures. Electrochromic devices based on the novel metallic film show more uniform color distribution than the devices based on metallic film with ordered single-size apertures under indoor natural light irradiation. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the Au nanomesh film with dual-size apertures in enhancing display quality of high-performance optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b08173DOI Listing
September 2016

Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2015 20;2015:563869. Epub 2015 Dec 20.

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P < 0.05) with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/563869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699226PMC
January 2016

Arsenic(V) biosorption by charred orange peel in aqueous environments.

Int J Phytoremediation 2016 ;18(5):442-9

a Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad , Faisalabad , Pakistan.

Biosorption efficiency of natural orange peel (NOP) and charred orange peel (COP) was examined for the immobilization of arsenate (As(V)) in aqueous environments using batch sorption experiments. Sorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, time, initial As(V) concentration and biosorbent dose, using NOP and COP (pretreated with sulfuric acid). Arsenate sorption was found to be maximum at pH 6.5, with higher As(V) removal percentage (98%) by COP than NOP (68%) at 4 g L(-1) optimum biosorbent dose. Sorption isotherm data exhibited a higher As(V) sorption (60.9 mg g(-1)) for COP than NOP (32.7 mg g(-1)). Langmuir model provided the best fit to describe As(V) sorption. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that the -OH, -COOH, and -N-H surface functional groups were involved in As(V) biosorption and the meso- to micro-porous structure of COP sequestered significantly (2-times) higher As(V) than NOP, respectively. Arsenate desorption from COP was found to be lower (10%) than NOP (26%) up to the third regeneration cycle. The results highlight that this method has a great potential to produce unique 'charred' materials from the widely available biowastes, with enhanced As(V) sorption properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2015.1109604DOI Listing
October 2016

Hematological profile and risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Quetta, Pakistan.

Pak J Med Sci 2014 Jan;30(1):36-40

Fawad Ali, Balochistan University of Information Technology & Management Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan.

Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic debilitating infectious disease affecting more than one third of the global population. This study was designed to investigate different peripheral blood parameters and risk factors in TB patients.

Methods: A total of 600 (Male, 238 and Female, 362) aging 20-80 Years patients with clinical signs of prolonged cough, chest pain and fever, were evaluated for peripheral blood parameters using hematology analyzer. All the informations related to the disease were collected from the patients and recorded using predesigned questionnaire.

Results: Erythrocytic Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Hemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes were markedly changed in both sexes. Hemoglobin was recorded lower than normal value in 55% and 53% of male and female population respectively. Total leukocyte count was also lower than normal values in 8% and 6% of male and female respectively. Similarly neutropenia was observed in 5% and 8% cases, while neutrophilia was recorded as 60% and 64% in male and female patients respectively. Lymphocytopenia was also observed in 59% and 43% patients in male and female respectively. Illiteracy, smoking habits, overcrowding and living in shared houses were the main associated risk factors contributing in the enhancement of the disease.

Conclusion: The disease was present significantly more in females and was relatively higher in older patients. Different hematological parameters like Erythrocytic sedimentation Rate (ESR), platelets and leukocytes work as hallmark and help the clinicians in early diagnosis of the disease. Malnutrition, smoking tobacco, living in shared houses, illiteracy and poverty were the common risk factors contributing to the dissemination of the tuberculosis in the target area population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.301.4129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955538PMC
January 2014

Neonatal outcome in obstetric cholestasis patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):76-8

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Background: Obstetric cholestasis is a liver disease specific to pregnancy characterised by pruritus affecting the whole body but particularly the palms and soles and abnormal liver function tests. Objective of this cross sectional study was to evaluate obstetric cholestasis as a potential risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome. The study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit 'B', Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008.

Methods: All patients presenting with obstetric cholestasis irrespective of their age and parity were included in the study. Patients presenting with other causes of pruritus during pregnancy like Hepatitis (A, B, C), eczema, pruritus gravidarum and herpes gestationes were excluded from the study. Patients with liver involvement due to pre-eclampsia were also excluded. Baseline investigations, liver chemistries, viral screening, liver autoimmune screen, liver and obstetrical ultrasound were all done before the diagnosis was confirmed. Patients were treated symptomatically. Neonatal outcome was calculated in terms of increased incidence of passage of meconium, preterm delivery and foetal distress requiring delivery by Caesarean-Section.

Results: Thirty patients were selected. Babies of 10 patients did well after delivery, 8 required NICU care within first 24 hours of birth and rest were delivered with low APGAR score. Two babies were delivered stillborn.

Conclusion: Pruritus is quite common in pregnancy with obstetric cholestasis being one of them and earlier detection of the disease allows better identification of foetuses at risk.
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January 2011