Publications by authors named "Fatima Maqoud"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Oxtr/TRPV1 expression and acclimation of skeletal muscle to cold-stress in male mice.

J Endocrinol 2021 May;249(2):135-148

Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

We explored the involvement of oxytocin receptor (Oxtr)/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) genes and oxytocin (Oxt) on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to cold stress challenge in mice. Oxtr expression in hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic nuclei (SON), and hippocampus (HIPP) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in parallel with the measurement of circulating Oxt. The Oxtr and TRPV1 gene expressions in soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were investigated by RT-PCR. Histological studies of the cardiac muscle after cold stress were also performed. Male mice (n = 15) were divided into controls maintained at room temperature (RT = 24°C), exposed to cold stress (CS) at T = 4°C for 6 h , and 5 days. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Oxtr protein expression increased by two-fold (P = 0.01) in PVN and by 1.5-fold (P = 0.0001) in HIPP after 6 h- and 5 days of CS but decreased by 2-fold (P = 0.026) in SON in 5 days. Both Oxtr and TRPV1 gene expression increased after 6 h and 5 days of CS in SOL and TA muscles. Oxtr vs TRPV1 gene expression in SOL and TA muscles evaluated by regression analysis was linearly correlated following CS at 6 h and 5 days but not at control temperature of 24 ± 1°C, supporting the hypothesis of coupling between these genes. The circulating levels of Oxt are unaffected after 6 h of CS but decreased by 0.2-fold (P = 0.0141) after 5 days-CS. This is the first report that Oxtr and TRPV1 expressions are upregulated in response to cold acclimation in skeletal muscle. The up-regulation of Oxtr in PVN and HIPP balances the decrease of circulating Oxt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-20-0346DOI Listing
May 2021

ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits in the neuroinflammation: novel drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, via Orabona 4, 70125-I. Italy.

Arachidonic acids and its metabolites modulate plenty of ligand-gated, voltage-dependent ion channels, and metabolically regulated potassium channels including ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). KATP channels are hetero-multimeric complexes of sulfonylureas receptors (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B) and the pore-forming subunits (Kir6.1 and Kir6.2) likewise expressed in the pre-post synapsis of neurons and inflammatory cells, thereby affecting their proliferation and activity. KATP channels are involved in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced pathology, therefore emerging as therapeutic targets against Alzheimer's and related diseases. The modulation of these channels can represent an innovative strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; nevertheless, the currently available drugs are not selective for brain KATP channels and show contrasting effects. This phenomenon can be a consequence of the multiple physiological roles of the different varieties of KATP channels. Openings of cardiac and muscular KATP channel subunits, is protective against caspase-dependent atrophy in these tissues and some neurodegenerative disorders, whereas in some neuroinflammatory diseases benefits can be obtained through the inhibition of neuronal KATP channel subunits. For example, glibenclamide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in respiratory, digestive, urological, and central nervous system (CNS) diseases, as well as in ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with abnormal SUR1-Trpm4/TNF-α or SUR1-Trpm4/ Nos2/ROS signaling. Despite this strategy is promising, glibenclamide may have limited clinical efficacy due to its unselective blocking action of SUR2A/B subunits also expressed in cardiovascular apparatus with pro-arrhythmic effects and SUR1 expressed in pancreatic beta cells with hypoglycemic risk. Alternatively, neuronal selective dual modulators showing agonist/antagonist actions on KATP channels can be an option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527320666210119095626DOI Listing
January 2021

Pathophysiological Consequences of KATP Channel Overactivity and Pharmacological Response to Glibenclamide in Skeletal Muscle of a Murine Model of Cantù Syndrome.

Front Pharmacol 2020 30;11:604885. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Cantù syndrome (CS) arises from mutations in and genes that lead to gain of function (GOF) of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels containing SUR2A and Kir6.1 subunits, respectively, of KATP channels. Pathological consequences of CS have been reported for cardiac and smooth muscle cells but consequences in skeletal muscle are unknown. Children with CS show muscle hypotonia and adult manifest fatigability. We analyzed muscle properties of Kir6.1[V65M] CS mice, by measurements of forelimb strength and ultrasonography of hind-limb muscles, as well as assessing KATP channel properties in native (FDB) and (SOL) fibers by the patch-clamp technique in parallel with histopathological, immunohistochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. Forelimb strength was lower in Kir6.1 mice than in WT mice. Also, a significant enhancement of echodensity was observed in hind-limb muscles of Kir6.1 mice relative to WT, suggesting the presence of fibrous tissue. There was a higher KATP channel current amplitude in Kir6.1 FDB fibers relative to WT and a reduced response to glibenclamide. The IC of glibenclamide to block KATP channels in FDB fibers was 1.3 ± 0.2 × 10 M in WT and 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10 M in Kir6.1 mice, respectively; and it was 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10 M in SOL WT fibers but not measurable in Kir6.1 fibers. The sensitivity of the KATP channel to MgATP was not modified in Kir6.1 fibers. Histopathological/immunohistochemical analysis of SOL revealed degeneration plus regressive-necrotic lesions with regeneration, and up-regulation of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, and BNIP3 mRNA/proteins in Kir6.1 mice. Kir6.1 mutation in skeletal muscle leads to changes of the KATP channel response to glibenclamide in FDB and SOL fibers, and it is associated with histopathological and gene expression changes in slow-twitch muscle, suggesting marked atrophy and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.604885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734337PMC
November 2020

The hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-minoxidil inclusion complex improves the cardiovascular and proliferative adverse effects of minoxidil in male rats: Implications in the treatment of alopecia.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 06;8(3):e00585

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy - Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

The efficacy of minoxidil (MXD) ethanolic solutions (1%-5% w/v) in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is limited by adverse reactions. The toxicological effects of repeated topical applications of escalating dose (0.035%-3.5% w/v) and of single and twice daily doses (3.5% w/v) of a novel hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin MXD GEL formulation (MXD/HP-β-CD) and a MXD solution were investigated in male rats. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated by telemetric monitoring of ECG and arterial pressure in free-moving rats. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cardiac morphology and function, and histopathological and biochemical analysis of the tissues, were performed. A pharmacovigilance investigation was undertaken using the EudraVigilance database for the evaluation of the potential cancer-related effects of topical MXD. Following the application of repeated escalating doses of MXD solution, cardiac hypertrophy, hypotension, enhanced serum natriuretic peptides and K -ion levels, serum liver biomarkers, and histological lesions including renal cancer were observed. In addition, the administration of a twice daily dose of MXD solution, at SF rat vs human = 311, caused reductions in the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of the rats (-30.76 ± 3%, -28.84 ± 4%, and -30.66 ± 5%, respectively, vs the baseline; t test P < .05). These effects were not reversible following washout of the MXD solution. Retrospective investigation showed 32 cases of cancer associated with the use of topical MXD in humans. The rats treated with MXD HP-β-CD were less severely affected. MXD causes proliferative adverse effects. The MXD HP-β-CD inclusion complex reduces these adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203570PMC
June 2020

Bridging repair of the abdominal wall in a rat experimental model. Comparison between uncoated and polyethylene oxide-coated equine pericardium meshes.

Sci Rep 2020 04 24;10(1):6959. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

University of Bari "A. Moro", Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Unit of Academic General Surgery "V. Bonomo", Bari, Italy.

Biological meshes improve the outcome of incisional hernia repairs in infected fields but often lead to recurrence after bridging techniques. Sixty male Wistar rats undergoing the excision of an abdominal wall portion and bridging mesh repair were randomised in two groups: Group A (N = 30) using the uncoated equine pericardium mesh; Group B (N = 30) using the polyethylene oxide (PEO)-coated one. No deaths were observed during treatment. Shrinkage was significantly less common in A than in B (3% vs 53%, P < 0.001). Adhesions were the most common complication and resulted significantly higher after 90 days in B than in A (90% vs 30%, P < 0.01). Microscopic examination revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher mesh integrity, fibrosis and calcification in B compared to A. The enzymatic degradation, as assessed with Raman spectroscopy and enzyme stability test, affected A more than B. The PEO-coated equine pericardium mesh showed higher resistance to biodegradation compared to the uncoated one. Understanding the changes of these prostheses in a surgical setting may help to optimize the PEO-coating in designing new biomaterials for the bridging repair of the abdominal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63886-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181852PMC
April 2020

Thymidine Phosphorylase Expression and Microvascular Density Correlation Analysis in Canine Mammary Tumor: Possible Prognostic Factor in Breast Cancer.

Front Vet Sci 2019 25;6:368. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Interventional and Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Pathology National Cancer Research Centre, IRCCS Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy.

The thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of pyrimidines. Inhibition or downregulation of this enzyme causes accumulation of metabolites with consequences in DNA replication. TP regulates angiogenesis and chemotactic activity of endothelial cells. Different studies showed the presence of TP upregulation in human cancer but the correlation between TP expression and the microvascular density (MVD) in canine mammary tumors is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between the MVD and TP expression in tumor cells of canine mammary tumors of different degree of severity (G1-G3) by immunohistochemical analysis. Sixty-eight samples of spontaneous mammary neoplasia of 5-12 cm in diameter were collected from purebred and mixed-breed dogs (mean aged = 9.5 ± 7), not subject to chemotherapy treatments in veterinary clinics. Histopathological analysis and immunostaining were performed. Carcinoma simple samples have been classified as 72.06% of tubule-papillary, 20.59% cysto-papillary, and 7.35% tubular carcinomas. Immunostainings revealed a marked cytoplasmic expression of TP in 30.88% of samples, mild in 32.35%, weaker in 22.07%, and negative in 14.70%. The correlation analysis and two-way ANOVA showed a linear correlation between MVD and TP with a coefficient of correlation () > 0.5 ( < 0.05) in G2 and G3. No correlation between variables was found in G1. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic TP overexpression is correlated with microvascular density in canine mammary tumors, in severe grade, and it can be a potential prognostic factor in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823610PMC
October 2019

Zoledronic Acid Modulation of TRPV1 Channel Currents in Osteoblast Cell Line and Native Rat and Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoblasts: Cell Proliferation and Mineralization Effect.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.

Bisphosphonates (BPs) reduce bone pain and fractures by balancing the osteoblast/osteoclast ratio. The behavior of ion channels in the presence of BPs is not known. To investigate this, the effect of zoledronic acid BP (ZOL) (3 × 10 to 5 × 10 M) treatment, on ion channels, cell proliferation, and mineralization, has been investigated on preosteoclast-like cells, RAW264.7, preosteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1, and rat/mouse native bone marrow-derived osteoblasts. In whole-cell patch clamp on cell line- and bone marrow-derived osteoblasts, ZOL potentiated outward currents. On RAW264.7, ZOL (10 M)-evoked current was reduced by the Kv channel blocker tetraethylammonium hydrochloride (TEA), but not by the selective TRPV1-channel antagonist capsazepine. On MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow-derived osteoblasts, ZOL-evoked current (5 × 10 to 10 M) was reduced by capsazepine, whereas the selective TRPV1-channel agonist capsaicin potentiated the control current. In the cell proliferation assay, 72 h incubation of RAW264.7 and MC3T3-E1 cells with ZOL reduced proliferation, with IC values of 2.62 × 10 M and 2.02 × 10 M, respectively. Mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow-derived osteoblasts was observed in the presence of capsaicin and ZOL (5 × 10⁻10 M); ZOL effects were antagonized by capsazepine. In summary, the ZOL-induced activation of TRPV1 channel mediates the mineralization of osteoblasts and counterbalances the antiproliferative effects, increasing the IC. This mechanism is not operative in osteoclasts lacking the TRPV1 channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406412PMC
February 2019

Cell Cycle Regulation by Ca-Activated K⁺ (BK) Channels Modulators in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 18;19(8). Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy.

The effects of Ca-activated K⁺ (BK) channel modulation by Paxilline (PAX) (10⁻10 M), Iberiotoxin (IbTX) (0.1⁻1 × 10 M) and Resveratrol (RESV) (1⁻2 × 10 M) on cell cycle and proliferation, AKT1p phosphorylation, cell diameter, and BK currents were investigated in SH-SY5Y cells using Operetta-high-content-Imaging-System, ELISA-assay, impedentiometric counting method and patch-clamp technique, respectively. IbTX (4 × 10 M), PAX (5 × 10 M) and RESV (10 M) caused a maximal decrease of the outward K⁺ current at +30 mV (Vm) of -38.3 ± 10%, -31.9 ± 9% and -43 ± 8%, respectively, which was not reversible following washout and cell depolarization. After 6h of incubation, the drugs concentration dependently reduced proliferation. A maximal reduction of cell proliferation, respectively of -60 ± 8% for RESV (2 × 10 M) (IC50 = 1.50 × 10 M), -65 ± 6% for IbTX (10 M) (IC50 = 5 × 10 M), -97 ± 6% for PAX (1 × 10 M) (IC50 = 1.06 × 10 M) and AKT1p dephosphorylation was observed. PAX induced a G1/G2 accumulation and contraction of the S-phase, reducing the nuclear area and cell diameter. IbTX induced G1 contraction and G2 accumulation reducing diameter. RESV induced G2 accumulation and S contraction reducing diameter. These drugs share common actions leading to a block of the surface membrane BK channels with cell depolarization and calcium influx, AKT1p dephosphorylation by calcium-dependent phosphatase, accumulation in the G2 phase, and a reduction of diameter and proliferation. In addition, the PAX action against nuclear membrane BK channels potentiates its antiproliferative effects with early apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121591PMC
August 2018

Alginate-Based Hydrogel Containing Minoxidil/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex for Topical Alopecia Treatment.

J Pharm Sci 2018 04 26;107(4):1046-1054. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Cutaneous minoxidil (MXD) formulations were developed with the intent to reduce the side effects of the cosolvents propylene glycol and ethanol, frequently used in commercial MXD solutions. Completely aqueous alginate-based hydrogels were investigated and MXD aqueous solubility was improved using inclusion complexes with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) at 2 different molar substitution degree (MS), namely 0.65 and 0.85. HP-β-CD MS 0.65 was selected for its improved solubilizing ability toward MXD. At concentration of 39% w/v, this cyclodextrin increased the intrinsic aqueous solubility of MXD of about 22-fold. The calculated complexation constant was 2309 ± 20 M, and the inclusion process was spontaneous and enthalpically driven. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies (Job plot, H, 2D correlations spectroscopy, nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, and rotating-frame overhauser enhancement spectroscopy) confirmed the stoichiometry 1:1 between MXD and HP-β-CD providing information about the exact geometry of the inclusion complex. Rheological and in vitro release studies performed on the formulation loaded with MXD 3.5% w/w proved that the inclusion complex increased the viscosity of the hydrogel modulating the release of the free drug. Furthermore, the hydrogel formulation facilitate MXD to permeate into the skin and did not damage epidermis, suggesting that these completely aqueous MXD delivery systems can be proposed as alternative formulations to commercial solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2017.11.016DOI Listing
April 2018

Characterization of minoxidil/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in aqueous alginate gel useful for alopecia management: Efficacy evaluation in male rat.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2018 Jan 24;122:146-157. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy - Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari, Italy.

Solid inclusion complex between hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and minoxidil (MXD) was prepared by freeze-drying and characterized by yield, drug loading and dissolution rate. Moreover, the complex was formulated as alginate gel (GEL HP-β-CD)/MXD 3.5% w/w). The efficacy of the novel GEL HP-β-CD)/MXD 3.5% w/w and of MXD 3.5% w/w ethanolic/propylene-glycol solution (MXD solution) were evaluated by monitoring the hair growth of dorsal skin 1-4 weeks after depilation followed by histological analysis and gene expression in skin biopsies in male rat. Patch-clamp experiments and cell-dehydrogenase activity (CDA) were performed to evaluate the capability of the formulations to activate "in vitro" the ATP-sensitive K-channels (KATP) and their effects on cell viability in skin fibroblasts. After 3 weeks, the MXD solution and MXD/HP-β-CD GEL enhanced the hair growth, respectively, of 80.1 ± 2% and 84.3 ± 4% vs controls. After 4 weeks, the MXD/HP-β-CD GEL significantly enhanced the hair length and bulb diameter vs others groups. The MXD/HP-β-CD GEL significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of the SUR2 and Kir6.1 subunits of the KATP channels and AKT2 vs other groups. The AR gene was down-regulated vs controls following the treatment with either MXD formulations. Either MXD (10 M) formulations were effective in potentiating the KATP currents. The MXD solution and its vehicle after 9 h of incubation time, but not MXD/HP-β-CD, reduced CDA in fibroblasts. In sum, the MXD/HP-β-CD GEL shows a favorable profile following topical long-term use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.10.015DOI Listing
January 2018

Molecular structure and function of big calcium-activated potassium channels in skeletal muscle: pharmacological perspectives.

Physiol Genomics 2017 Jun 28;49(6):306-317. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Science, University of Bari, Bari, Italy;

The large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channel is broadly expressed in various mammalian cells and tissues such as neurons, skeletal muscles (sarco-BK), and smooth muscles. These channels are activated by changes in membrane electrical potential and by increases in the concentration of intracellular calcium ion (Ca). The BK channel is subjected to many mechanisms that add diversity to the BK channel α-subunit gene. These channels are indeed subject to alternative splicing, auxiliary subunits modulation, posttranslational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. BK channels can be modulated by diverse molecules that may induce either an increase or decrease in channel activity. The linkage of these channels to many intracellular metabolites and pathways, as well as their modulation by extracellular natural agents, have been found to be relevant in many physiological processes. BK channel diversity is obtained by means of alternative splicing and modulatory β- and γ-subunits. The association of the α-subunit with β- or with γ-subunits can change the BK channel phenotype, functional diversity, and pharmacological properties in different tissues. In the case of the skeletal muscle BK channel (sarco-BK channel), we established that the main mechanism regulating BK channel diversity is the alternative splicing of the gene encoding for the α-subunit generating different splicing isoform in the muscle phenotypes. This finding helps to design molecules selectively targeting the skeletal muscle subtypes. The use of drugs selectively targeting the skeletal muscle BK channels is a promising strategy in the treatment of familial disorders affecting muscular skeletal apparatus including hyperkalemia and hypokalemia periodic paralysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00121.2016DOI Listing
June 2017

A novel injectable formulation of 6-fluoro-l-DOPA imaging agent for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and Parkinson's disease.

Int J Pharm 2017 Mar 21;519(1-2):304-313. Epub 2017 Jan 21.

Dipartimento di Farmacia - Scienze del Farmaco-Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", Via E. Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy, Italy. Electronic address:

Two [19F]F-l-DOPA (F-DOPA) new β-cyclodextrin (CD)-based dosage forms (FA and FB, respectively) have been studied and their physico-chemical and pharmacological features determined to overcome the administration site reactions showed by the currently used [18F]F-l-DOPA formulation (IASOdopa) to perform PET-CT diagnosis in oncology (neuroendocrine tumors) and neurological (Parkinson's disease) field. Chemical stability of FA and FB was found to be longer than IASOdopa by adding the thiol-antioxidant agent, L-Cysteine. H and F NMR investigations suggest the formation of an inclusion complex of F-DOPA with β-CD. In vitro experiments on the effects of FA and FB on mouse skeletal muscle fibers and on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and embryonal kidney tsA201 cell lines viability showed that FA was the most performant formulation compared to F-DOPA solutions. In vivo tolerability tests of FA on adult male rat showed no significant effects on body weight and no change in their dried organs weight. In addition, their metabolic and physiological parameters were not affected. In conclusion, [18F]F-l-DOPA, formulated as FA, constitutes a promising dosage form for PET-CT diagnosis of both neuroendocrine tumors and Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.01.038DOI Listing
March 2017

From Morocco to Italy: How Women's Bodies Reflect their Change of Residence.

Coll Antropol 2016 Apr;40(1):9-15

The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles. Among groups recently migrated to Italy, the Moroccan-community is an appropriate reference to highlight these effects. The choice to examine women as the focus of this survey allows extension of observations of their nutritional behavior to the whole family group. According to the bio-indicators examined here, groups of immigrant women are quite different from those remaining at home. The former show a considerable increase in weight, as assessed by both anthropometric and impedentiometric parameters. More than one-third of Moroccan immigrant women are obese, to an extent well beyond that of women in Morocco. The cause of this difference is ascribed to quantitative and qualitative changes induced after migration. Migrant women tend to adopt a mixed diet, which includes both traditional food and that typical of the host country. However, there is a considerable increase in the use of prepared foods, such as pasta, among farinaceous products, and meat, although vegetables and fruit are also consumed. Moroccan women consider both their socio-economic status and alimentary behavior as very private matters--an attitude which makes it difficult to recruit them for this kind of research. Future interventions require their preliminary acceptance and involvement in research aims, to demonstrate its great importance in improving the health status of present and future immigrants.
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April 2016

ATP Sensitive Potassium Channels in the Skeletal Muscle Function: Involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2) Gene in the Determination of Mechanical Warner Bratzer Shear Force.

Front Physiol 2016 10;7:167. Epub 2016 May 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro Bari, Italy.

The ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K(+) ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibers is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical, and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862255PMC
May 2016