Publications by authors named "Fathinul Fikri Ahmad Saad"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analytical GC-FID Method for the Determination of Organic Solvents in Radiopharmaceutical.

Curr Radiopharm 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor,. Malaysia.

Background: Organic solvents play an indispensable role in most of the radiopharmaceutical production stages. It is almost impossible to remove them entirely in the final formulation of the product.

Objective: In this presented work, an analytical method by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) has been developed to determine organic solvents in radiopharmaceutical samples. The effect of injection hold time, temperature variation in the injection port, and the column temperature on the analysis time and resolution (R ≥ 1.5) of ethanol and acetonitrile were studied extensively.

Methods: The experimental conditions were optimized with the aid of further statistical analysis; thence, the proposed method was validated following the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline.

Results: The proposed analytical method surpassed the acceptance criteria for the linearity > 0.990 (correlation coefficient of R2), precision < 2%, LOD, and LOQ, accuracy > 90% for all solvents. The separation between ethanol and acetonitrile was acceptable with a resolution, R > 1.5. Further statistical analysis of Oneway ANOVA revealed that the increment of injection holds time and variation of temperature at the injection port did not significantly affect the analysis time. Nevertheless, the variation of injection port temperature substantially influences the resolution of ethanol and acetonitrile peaks (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The proposed analytical method has been successfully implemented to determine the organic solvent in the [18F]fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine ([18F]FET), [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO), and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874471013999201027215704DOI Listing
October 2020

Preparation, Characterization, and Radiolabeling of [Ga]Ga-NODAGA-Pamidronic Acid: A Potential PET Bone Imaging Agent.

Molecules 2020 Jun 9;25(11). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Surfactants Research Chair, Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Early diagnosis of bone metastases is crucial to prevent skeletal-related events, and for that, the non-invasive techniques to diagnose bone metastases that make use of image-guided radiopharmaceuticals are being employed as an alternative to traditional biopsies. Hence, in the present work, we tested the efficacy of a gallium-68 (Ga)-based compound as a radiopharmaceutical agent towards the bone imaging in positron emitting tomography (PET). For that, we prepared, thoroughly characterized, and radiolabeled [Ga]Ga-NODAGA-pamidronic acid radiopharmaceutical, a Ga precursor for PET bone cancer imaging applications. The preparation of NODAGA-pamidronic acid was performed via the -Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester strategy and was characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The unreacted NODAGA chelator was separated using the ion-suppression reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method, and the freeze-dried NODAGA-pamidronic acid was radiolabeled with Ga. The radiolabeling condition was found to be most optimum at a pH ranging from 4 to 4.5 and a temperature of above 60 °C. From previous work, we found that the pamidronic acid itself has a good bone binding affinity. Moreover, from the analysis of the results, the ionic structure of radiolabeled [Ga]Ga-NODAGA-pamidronic acid has the ability to improve the blood clearance and may exert good renal excretion, enhance the bone-to-background ratio, and consequently the final image quality. This was reflected by both the in vitro bone binding assay and in vivo animal biodistribution presented in this research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321328PMC
June 2020

F[AlF]-radiolabelled Peptides on the Automated Synthesis Platform: Translating the Laboratory Bench Work to Bedside.

Malays J Med Sci 2019 Jul 29;26(4):122-126. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Using radiolabelled peptides that bind, with high affinity and specificity, to receptors on tumour cells is one of the most promising fields in modern molecular imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy (1). In the emergence of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine diagnosis and therapy, albeit theranostic, radiolabelled peptides have become vital tools for in vivo visualisation and monitoring physiological and biochemical processes on molecular and cellular levels (2). This approach may benefit patients in the era of personalised medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719887PMC
July 2019

A bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system based on [graphene oxide-chlorogenic acid-gadolinium/gold] nanoparticles.

PLoS One 2018 25;13(7):e0200760. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Centre for Diagnostic and Nuclear Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

We have synthesized a bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system (BIT) that is based on graphene oxide (GO) and composed of a natural chemotherapeutic agent, chlorogenic acid (CA) used as the anticancer agent, while gadolinium (Gd) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality. The CA and Gd guest agents were simultaneously loaded on the GO nanolayers using chemical interactions, such as hydrogen bonding and π-π non-covalent interactions to form GOGCA nanocomposite. Subsequently, the AuNPs were doped on the surface of the GOGCA by means of electrostatic interactions, which resulted in the BIT. The physico-chemical studies of the BIT affirmed its successful development. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) collected of the various stages of BIT synthesis showed the successive development of the hybrid system, while 90% of the chlorogenic acid was released in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 4.8. This was further reaffirmed by the in vitro evaluations, which showed stunted HepG2 cancer cells growth against the above 90% cell growth in the control cells. A reverse case was recorded for the 3T3 normal cells. Further, the acquired T1-weighted image of the BIT doped samples obtained from the MRI indicated contrast enhancement in comparison with the plain Gd and water references. The abovementioned results portray our BIT as a promising future chemotherapeutic for anticancer treatment with diagnostic modalities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200760PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059483PMC
January 2019

PET/CT analysis of 21 patients with breast cancer: physiological distribution of F-choline and diagnostic pitfalls.

J Int Med Res 2018 Aug 20;46(8):3138-3148. Epub 2018 May 20.

2 Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objectives F-choline is a useful tracer for detecting tumours with high lipogenesis. Knowledge of its biodistribution pattern is essential to recognise physiological variants. The aim of this study was to describe the physiologic distribution of F-choline and pitfalls in patients with breast cancer. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with breast cancer (10 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women; mean age, 52.82 ± 10.71 years) underwent F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired after 40 minutes of F-choline uptake. Acquired PET images were measured semiquantitatively. Results All patients showed pitfalls unrelated to breast cancer. These findings were predominantly caused by physiological glandular uptake in the liver, spleen, pancreas, bowels, axial skeleton (85%-100%), inflammation and benign changes (4.76%), appendicular skeleton (4.76%-19.049%), and site contamination (61.9%). In <1%, a concomitant metastatic neoplasm was found. The breast showed higher physiological uptake in premenopausal compared with postmenopausal woman (F-choline maximum standardised uptake values [g/dL] of the right breast = 2.04 ± 0.404 vs 1.59 ± 0.97 and left breast = 2.00 ± 0.56 vs 1.93 ± 1.28, respectively). Conclusion F-choline uptake was higher in premenopausal women. Physiological F-choline uptake was observed in many sites, representing possible pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060518773019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134679PMC
August 2018

Graphene Oxide as a Nanocarrier for a Theranostics Delivery System of Protocatechuic Acid and Gadolinium/Gold Nanoparticles.

Molecules 2018 Feb 24;23(2). Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Centre for Diagnostic and Nuclear Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

We have synthesized a graphene oxide (GO)-based theranostic nanodelivery system (GOTS) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using naturally occurring protocatechuic acid (PA) as an anticancer agent and gadolinium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Gd) as the starting material for a contrast agent,. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were subsequently used as second diagnostic agent. The GO nanosheets were first prepared from graphite via the improved Hummer's protocol. The conjugation of the GO and the PA was done via hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, followed by surface adsorption of the AuNPs through electrostatic interactions. GAGPA is the name given to the nanocomposite obtained from Gd and PA conjugation. However, after coating with AuNPs, the name was modified to GAGPAu. The physicochemical properties of the GAGPA and GAGPAu nanohybrids were studied using various characterization techniques. The results from the analyses confirmed the formation of the GOTS. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) results showed the diffractive patterns for pure GO nanolayers, which changed after subsequent conjugation of the Gd and PA. The AuNPs patterns were also recorded after surface adsorption. Cytotoxicity and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast tests were also carried out on the developed GOTS. The GAGPAu was significantly cytotoxic to the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) but nontoxic to the standard fibroblast cell line (3T3). The GAGPAu also appeared to possess higher T1 contrast compared to the pure Gd and water reference. The GOTS has good prospects of serving as future theranostic platform for cancer chemotherapy and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6017407PMC
February 2018

Gadolinium-based layered double hydroxide and graphene oxide nano-carriers for magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery.

Chem Cent J 2017 May 30;11(1):47. Epub 2017 May 30.

Centre for Diagnostic and Nuclear Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrasts remain one of the most accepted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, which is among the world most recognized noninvasive techniques employed in clinical diagnosis of patients. At ionic state, Gd is considered toxic but less toxic in chelate form. A variety of nano-carriers, including gadolinium oxide (GdO) nanoparticles have been used by researchers to improve the T1 and T2 contrasts of MR images. Even more recently, a few researchers have tried to incorporate contrast agents simultaneously with therapeutic agents using single nano-carrier for theranostic applications. The benefit of this concept is to deliver the drugs, such as anticancer drugs and at the same time to observe what happens to the cancerous cells. The delivery of both agents occurs concurrently. In addition, the toxicity of the anticancer drugs as well as the contrast agents will be significantly reduced due to the presence of the nano-carriers. The use of graphene oxide (GO) and layered double hydroxides (LDH) as candidates for this purpose is the subject of current research, due to their low toxicity and biocompatibility, which have the capacity to be used in theranostic researches. We review here, some of the key features of LDH and GO for simultaneous drugs and diagnostic agents delivery systems for use in theranostics applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-017-0275-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449353PMC
May 2017

Gadolinium-Doped Gallic Acid-Zinc/Aluminium-Layered Double Hydroxide/Gold Theranostic Nanoparticles for a Bimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Drug Delivery System.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2017 Aug 31;7(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Centre for Diagnostic and Nuclear Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

We have developed gadolinium-based theranostic nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide as the nanocarrier platform, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA) as therapeutic agent, and Gd(NO₃)₃ as diagnostic agent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were grown on the system to support the contrast for MRI imaging. The nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as Hi-TEM, XRD, ICP-ES. Kinetic release study of the GA from the nanoparticles showed about 70% of GA was released over a period of 72 h. The in vitro cell viability test for the nanoparticles showed relatively low toxicity to human cell lines (3T3) and improved toxicity on cancerous cell lines (HepG2). A preliminary contrast property test of the nanoparticles, tested on a 3 Tesla MRI machine at various concentrations of GAGZAu and water (as a reference) indicates that the nanoparticles have a promising dual diagnostic and therapeutic features to further develop a better future for clinical remedy for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano7090244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618355PMC
August 2017

Incremental Role of Fluorine 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Assessment of Computed Tomography-Inconspicuous Pancreatic Lesions.

J Pancreat Cancer 2017 1;3(1):66-70. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Pancreatic malignancies encompass a heterogenous group of disorders, with poor prognosis at diagnosis. Traditionally, conventional computed tomography (CT) has been used for diagnosis, staging, and follow up. However, this technique lacks functional information; and is limited in diagnosis of occult pancreatic disease. Hybrid imaging in the form of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT provides a potential avenue for early detection and subsequent appropriate therapy. A 60-year-old male, with a history of abdominal aortic aneurysm which was repaired, came with a complaint of 2 months history of back pain, radiating to the front. The pain was relieved on leaning forward, and aggravated by lying on his back. CT angiography of the abdomen was done, which revealed a concealed aortic aneurysm and a significant atrophy of the pancreatic tail. The serum cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 was elevated (50.0 U/mL, reference range 0.0-37.0 U/mL). At this juncture, the PET scan done revealed no discernible abnormalities. Patient was put on close follow-up in view of the rising trend of CA 19-9 levels. Three months following the initial scans, a repeat F-FDG (fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose) PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid lesion at the neck of the pancreas on PET without perceptible changes on the correlated CT. A Whipple's procedure ensued, with histopathological examination findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This article discusses the role of PET/CT in the early diagnosis of inconspicuous pancreatic lesions; which could have averted immediate medical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pancan.2017.0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933485PMC
September 2017

Estimation of kidneys and urinary bladder doses based on the region of interest in fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination: a preliminary study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2017 Jun;7(3):310-317

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Kidneys and urinary bladder are common physiologic uptake sites of 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) causing increased exposure of low energy ionizing radiation to these organs. Accurate measurement of organ dose is vital as F-FDG is directly exposed to the organs. Organ dose from F-FDG PET is calculated according to the injected F-FDG activity with the application of dose coefficients established by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). But this dose calculation technique is not directly measured from these organs; rather it is calculated based on total injected activity of radiotracer prior to scanning. This study estimated the F-FDG dose to the kidneys and urinary bladder in whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination by comparing dose from total injected activity of F-FDG (calculated dose) and dose from organs activity based on the region of interest (ROI) (measured dose).

Methods: Nine subjects were injected intravenously with the mean F-FDG dose of 292.42 MBq prior to whole body PET/CT scanning. Kidneys and urinary bladder doses were estimated by using two approaches which are the total injected activity of F-FDG and organs activity concentration of F-FDG based on drawn ROI with the application of recommended dose coefficients for F-FDG described in the ICRP 80 and ICRP 106.

Results: The mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose ranged from 98.95% to 99.29% for the kidneys based on ICRP 80 and 98.96% to 99.32% based on ICRP 106. Whilst, the mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose was 97.08% and 97.27% for urinary bladder based on ICRP 80 while 96.99% and 97.28% based on ICRP 106. Whereas, the range of mean percentage difference between calculated and measured organ doses derived from ICRP 106 and ICRP 80 for kidney doses were from 17.00% to 40.00% and for urinary bladder dose was 18.46% to 18.75%.

Conclusions: There is a significant difference between calculated dose and measured dose. The use of organ activity estimation based on drawn ROI and the latest version of ICRP 106 dose coefficient should be explored deeper to obtain accurate radiation dose to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2017.05.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537126PMC
June 2017

Systematic Review on the Accuracy of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management of Ovarian Cancer: Is Functional Information Really Needed?

World J Nucl Med 2017 Jul-Sep;16(3):176-185

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals, NHS Trusts, Liverpool, UK.

Ovarian cancer (OC) often presents at an advanced stage with frequent relapses despite optimal treatment; thus, accurate staging and restaging are required for improving treatment outcomes and prognostication. Conventionally, staging of OC is performed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of hybrid imaging have made positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) as emerging potential noninvasive imaging tools for improved management of OC. Several studies have championed the role of PET/CT for the detection of recurrence and prognostication of OC. We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the latest publications regarding the role of molecular imaging in the management of OC. We retrieved 57 original research articles with one article having overlap in both diagnosis and staging; 10 articles (734 patients) regarding the role of PET/CT in diagnosis of OC; 12 articles (604 patients) regarding staging of OC; 22 studies (1429 patients) for detection of recurrence; and 13 articles for prognostication and assessment of treatment response. We calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT performance in various aspects of imaging of OC. We also discussed the emerging role of PET/MRI in the management of OC. We aim to give the readers and objective overview on the role of molecular imaging in the management of OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_31_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460299PMC
July 2017

Erratum to: Diagnostic Performance of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (131)I-MIBG Scintigraphy in Mapping Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 Mar 23;50(1):98. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Department of Radiology, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, University Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang Malaysia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s13139-015-0339-z.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13139-015-0351-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762867PMC
March 2016

Impacts of biological and procedural factors on semiquantification uptake value of liver in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2015 Oct;5(5):700-7

1 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2 Centre for Diagnostic Nuclear Imaging, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia ; 3 Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia ; 4 Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Increased metabolic activity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in tissue is not only resulting of pathological uptake, but due to physiological uptake as well. This study aimed to determine the impacts of biological and procedural factors on FDG uptake of liver in whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging.

Methods: Whole body fluorine-18 ((18)F) FDG PET/CT scans of 51 oncology patients have been reviewed. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lesion-free liver was quantified in each patient. Pearson correlation was performed to determine the association between the factors of age, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose level, FDG dose and incubation period and liver SUVmax. Multivariate regression analysis was established to determine the significant factors that best predicted the liver SUVmax. Then the subjects were dichotomised into four BMI groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was established for mean difference of SUVmax of liver between those BMI groups.

Results: BMI and incubation period were significantly associated with liver SUVmax. These factors were accounted for 29.6% of the liver SUVmax variance. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean SUVmax of liver among those BMI groups (P<0.05).

Conclusions: BMI and incubation period are significant factors affecting physiological FDG uptake of liver. It would be recommended to employ different cut-off value for physiological liver SUVmax as a reference standard for different BMI of patients in PET/CT interpretation and use a standard protocol for incubation period of patient to reduce variation in physiological FDG uptake of liver in PET/CT study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2015.05.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671971PMC
October 2015

Improving the (18)F-fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) radiochemical yield via optimising the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-fluorine.

J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 2015 Sep-Oct;58(11-12):458-9. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Centre for Diagnostic Nuclear Imaging, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

(18)F-Fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in PET/CT examination. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged the major problem with (18)F-FCH is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this technical note presents improved (18)F-FCH radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-Fluorine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3347DOI Listing
August 2016

Optimising the Azeotropic Drying of 18F-Fluorine Wayto Improve the 18F-Fluorocholine Radiochemical Yield.

Curr Radiopharm 2016 ;9(2):121-7

Centre for Diagnostic Nuclear Imaging, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia.

Background And Objective: 18F-Fluorocholine has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography (PET/CT) modality. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged that the major problem with 18F-Fluorocholine is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this article presents improved 18FFluorocholine radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of 18F-Fluorine.

Methods: In the previous study, the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine in the reactor was conducted at atmospheric pressure (0 atm) and shorter duration time. In this study, however, the azeotropic drying of non-carried-added (n.c.a) 18FFluorine was made at a high vacuum pressure (- 0.65 to - 0.85 bar) with an additional time of 30 seconds. At the end of the synthesis, the mean radiochemical yield was statistically compared between the two azeotropic drying conditions so as to observe whether the improvement made was significant to the radiochemical yield.

Results: From the paired sample t-test analysis, the improvement done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine was statistically significant (p < 0.05). With the improvement made, the 18F-Fluorcholine radiochemical yield was found to have increase by one fold.

Conclusion: Improved 18F-Fluorocholine radiochemical yields were obtained after the improvement had been done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine. It was also observed that improvement made to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine did not affect the 18F-Fluorocholine quality control analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874471008666150804110923DOI Listing
February 2017

Erratum to: Diagnostic Performance of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (131)I-MIBG Scintigraphy in Mapping Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2015 Jun;49(2):152

Department of Radiology, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, University Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang Malaysia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s13139-015-0331-7.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13139-015-0339-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463878PMC
June 2015

Diagnostic Performance of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (131)I-MIBG Scintigraphy in Mapping Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2015 Jun 8;49(2):143-51. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Radiology, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, University Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang Malaysia.

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of (68)Ga-DOTATATE (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (131)I-MIBG scintigraphy in the mapping of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen patients (male = 8, female = 9; age range, 13-68 years) with clinically proven or suspicious metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma were included in this prospective study. Twelve patients underwent all three modalities, whereas five patients underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (131)I-MIBG without (18)F-FDG. A composite reference standard derived from anatomical and functional imaging findings, along with histopathological information, was used to validate the findings. Results were analysed on a per-patient and on per-lesion basis. Sensitivity and accuracy were assessed using McNemar's test.

Results: On a per-patient basis, 14/17 patients were detected in (68)Ga-DOTATATE, 7/17 patients in (131)I-MIBG, and 10/12 patients in (18)F-FDG. The sensitivity and accuracy of (68)Ga-DOTATATE, (131)I-MIBG and (18)F-FDG were (93.3 %, 94.1 %), (46.7 %, 52.9 %) and (90.9 %, 91.7 %) respectively. On a per-lesion basis, an overall of 472 positive lesions were detected; of which 432/472 were identified by (68)Ga-DOTATATE, 74/472 by (131)I-MIBG, and 154/300 (patient, n = 12) by (18)F-FDG. The sensitivity and accuracy of (68)Ga-DOTATATE, (131)I-MIBG and (18)F-FDG were (91.5 %, 92.6 % p < 0.0001), (15.7 %, 26.0 % p < 0.0001) and (51.3 %, 57.8 % p < 0.0001) respectively. Discordant lesions were demonstrated on (68)Ga-DOTATATE, (131)I-MIBG and (18)F-FDG.

Conclusions: Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT shows high diagnostic accuracy than (131)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET/ CT in mapping metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13139-015-0331-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463879PMC
June 2015

Imaging of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism: biological materials, nonbiological materials, and foreign bodies.

Eur J Radiol 2013 Mar 24;82(3):e120-41. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.

Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism is defined as embolization to the pulmonary circulation caused by a wide range of substances of endogenous and exogenous biological and nonbiological origin and foreign bodies. It is an underestimated cause of acute and chronic embolism. Symptoms cover the entire spectrum from asymptomatic patients to sudden death. In addition to obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature there may be an inflammatory cascade that deteriorates vascular, pulmonary and cardiac function. In most cases the patient history and radiological imaging reveals the true nature of the patient's condition. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a survey on pathophysiology, typical clinical and radiological findings in different forms of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. The spectrum of forms presented here includes pulmonary embolism with biological materials (amniotic fluid, trophoblast material, endogenous tissue like bone and brain, fat, Echinococcus granulosus, septic emboli and tumor cells); nonbiological materials (cement, gas, iodinated oil, glue, metallic mercury, radiotracer, silicone, talc, cotton, and hyaluronic acid); and foreign bodies (lost intravascular objects, bullets, catheter fragments, intraoperative material, radioactive seeds, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.09.019DOI Listing
March 2013