Publications by authors named "Fatemeh Yari"

35 Publications

Potential of Drug Interactions as a Cause of Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients with Kidney Diseases.

J Res Pharm Pract 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):121-124. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the major causes of mortality. One of the major causes of ADR is drug-drug interactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of ADRs caused by the drug interactions in the nephrology departments.

Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was carried out in the nephrology department on 117 patients who received at least two medicines. Drug interactions were determined, and the patients were evaluated for the presence of a drug complication.

Findings: A total of fifty ADRs were observed in 39 patients, whereas 26% of total ADRs (13 drug complications) were due to drug interactions. About 69% and 31% of complications were classified in terms of severity, in the category of "severe" and "moderate" complications, respectively. Warfarin had the highest contribution to major interactions (33.33%).

Conclusion: ADRs, which specially occurred due to drug interactions, are particularly important for patients taking multiple medications (e.g., patient with renal insufficiency). Therefore, special attention should be paid to preventing and reducing ADRs in these patients' population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_20_38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547740PMC
June 2020

Association between maternal serum uric acid and preeclampsia.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Jun 10:1-4. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

The aim of this study is to compare the changes in serum uric acid levels among preeclamptic pregnant women and healthy pregnant women. Two hundred and twenty-four (224) pregnant women were enrolled. Serum uric acid levels were analysed in the two groups at the time of referral and prior to the delivery. The mean uric acid in all pregnant women was 5.61 mg/dL. The mean uric acid in women with preeclampsia was 6.51 ± 1.53 and in normotensive women was 4.72 ± 1.58, which was seen significant. The mean age of the mother, gestational age and BMI were not significant with the levels of uric acid. The elevation in serum levels of uric acid increased the risk of preeclampsia by 1.98 folds. There is a significant increase in the serum levels of uric acid in pregnant women with preeclampsia as compared to normotensive women. This can be one of a significant indicator of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1773863DOI Listing
June 2020

The comparison of side effects of methyldopa, amlodipine, and metoprolol in pregnant women with chronic hypertension.

Hypertens Pregnancy 2020 Aug 18;39(3):314-318. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Medicine, University of Debrecen , Hungary.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the complication of Antihypertensive drug; in pregnant women with chronic hypertension.

Method: This retrospective cohort study was performed on 300 pregnant women  with chronic hypertension. Results:  a relative risk of preeclampsia among methyldopa group was 3.45 times higher than the metoprolol, the relative risk of preterm labor was not significantly between methyldopa and metoprolol group, LBW, and IUGR in methyldopa and amlodipine groups .

Conclusion: Methyldopa and amlodipine are associated with the least side effects in pregnant women treated for chronic hypertension.the incidence of preeclampsia was greater in methyldopa group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641955.2020.1766489DOI Listing
August 2020

The Effect of Composol Medium on miR-16 Expression during Platelet Storage up to Day 7 at Room Temperature.

Cell J 2021 Jan 22;22(4):542-547. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that play vital roles in gene regulation. It has been shown that storage has an effect on platelet miRNAs. MiR-16 is highly expressed in platelets and it appears to target the genes involved in cell death. It has been shown that platelets could be stored in Composol for a longer period of time. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the expression pattern of miR-16 in platelet concentrates (PCs) in plasma and Composol media.

Materials And Methods: In an experimental study, ten PC bags were collected and each bag was divided into two separate bags, one with the 70% Composol and the other with only plasma. Both bags were stored for 7 days at 22˚C and tested on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of storage. For each sample, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) test was used to assess platelet viability in all of the samples. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS and REST software. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: miR-16 was significantly elevated during the storage days, with fold changes of 3.47 (plasma) and 2.77 (Composol). The Composol group had significantly decreased miR-16 expression compared with the plasma group. Results of the WST-1 test showed less decrease in optical density (OD) in the Composol group (0.93 ± 0.4) during the storage days compared with the plasma group (0.75 ± 0.3).

Conclusion: Our finding supported results from previous studies that reported an increase in miR-16 expression during platelet storage. In addition, miR-16 down-regulation in Composol medium implied that Composol might be a good solution for long-term platelet storage because it has the potential to elevate the shelf-life of platelets stored at 22˚C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2021.6790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211276PMC
January 2021

Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) and Maternal KIR Genes: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 05 1;24(2):197-213. Epub 2020 May 1.

Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Natural killer cells (NKs) are the most important cells in the fetomaternal immune tolerance induced through interaction of maternal killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and fetal human leucocyte antigens (HLA). Hence, we intend to perform a meta-analysis on the role of maternal KIR genes diversity in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The present paper is a meta-analysis of previous genetic association studies and our previous original study. The results showed that KIR3DL1 was a significantly protecting factor for RSA (p=0.044; OR=0.833 [0.698-0.995]; fixed effect model). KIR2DS2 (p=0.034; OR=1.195 [1.013-1.408]; fixed effect model) and KIR2DS3 (p=0.013; OR=1.246 [1.047-1.483]; fixed effect model) were significantly risk factors for RSA. For KIR2DS1 there was a high heterogeneity and publication bias. Briefly, the inhibitory gene KIR3DL1 was a protecting factor, and the activating genes KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 were risk factors for RSA. However, the effect sizes were not suitable. We suggest further studies on different causes of pregnancy loss, to find the role of KIR2DS1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20190067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169921PMC
May 2020

Predictors of mammography based on Health Belief Model in Khorramabad women.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 30;8:180. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Lorestan, Iran.

Background: Health beliefs play an important role in people's willingness to participate in health-promoting behaviors. Given the role of beliefs in women's function and the importance of the benefits of mammogram, and because the predictors of a behavior are a major prerequisite to codification of an effective prevention program, the present study was conducted with the aim of predicting mammography based on Health Belief Model (HBM) in women in Khorramabad.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 262 women referring to health centers in Khorramabad, Lorestan province, in 2018, were selected by randomly sampling. The data collection tool was a four-part questionnaire including demographic information, knowledge on breast cancer and mammography, Champion's Health Belief Model, and Champion's Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Mammography. Validity and reliability of the tool were investigated and confirmed. Data were analyzed by version 16 of SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test, and multiple logistic regression.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 49.26 (±7.79) years. Seventy-nine (30.85%) of the 262 participants reported mammography. Constructs' sensitivity, benefits, barriers, and perceived self-efficacy were significantly different in terms of performing mammography ( < 0.05). Participants with a history of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 11.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [3.73-33.46]) had lower perceived barriers (OR = 3.54, 95% CI= [1.77-7.09]), were more likely to undergo mammography than women with no family history of breast cancer, and had moderate-to-high perceived barriers ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that health managers are required to pay more attention to training and promoting screening methods. Understanding the barriers to mammography in women by managers can help design and implement effective programs that enhance mammography in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_63_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796297PMC
September 2019

Platelets Apoptosis and Clearance in The Presence of Sodium Octanoate during Storage of Platelet Concentrate at 4˚C.

Cell J 2020 Jul 14;22(2):212-217. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Platelet (PLT) storage at 4˚C has several benefits, however, it is accompanied by increased clearance of PLTs after transfusion. In this study, we evaluated the potential of sodium octanoate (SO) for reducing apoptosis and clearance rate of PLTs after long-term storage in cold.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, PLT concentrates (PCs) were stored for 5 days under the following three conditions: 20-24˚C, 4˚C, and 4˚C in the presence of SO. To measure the viability of PLTs, the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay was performed. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure was determined on PLTs using flow cytometry technique. The amount of human active caspase-3 was determined in PLTs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, the amount of PLT ingestion or clearance was determined by using HepG2 cell line.

Results: The viability was higher in the SO-treated PLTs compared to the other groups. The level of PS exposure on PLTs was lower in the SO-treated PLTs compared to the other groups. The amount of active caspase-3 increased in all groups during 5-day storage. The highest increase in the amount of caspase-3 levels was observed at cold temperature. However, PLTs kept at 4˚C in the presence of SO had a lower amount of active caspase-3 compared to PLTs kept at 4˚C. The amount of PLTs removal by HepG2 cells was increased for 4˚C-kept PLTs but it was lower for PLTs kept at 4˚C in the presence of SO but, the differences were not significant (P>0.05).

Conclusion: SO could partially moderate the effects of cold temperature on apoptosis and viability of platelets. It also decreases the ingestion rate of long-time refrigerated PLTs in vitro. Further studies using higher numbers of samples are required to demonstrate the effect of SO on reducing the clearance rate of PLTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2020.6697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874783PMC
July 2020

Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in the first six months of life and its determinants in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2019 10 27;19(1):384. Epub 2019 Oct 27.

School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life is the best and most complete option for an infant, in that supplies the vitamins and minerals the baby needs. Several studies in Iran have been conducted concerning the prevalence of EBF. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EBF in the first 6 months of life and associated factors in Iran synthesizing published studies.

Methods: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Directory of Open Access Journals Directory (DOAJ) and Google Scholar as well as Iranian databases (Barakathns, MagIran and the Scientific Information Database or SID) up to November 2018. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of studies. Analyses were performed by pooling together studies using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with 95% confidence interval. To test for heterogeneity, I test was used. The Egger's regression test and funnel plot were used to evaluate the publication bias. The strength of EBF determinants was assessed computing the Odds-ratios (OR) using the Mantel-Haenszel method.

Results: In the initial search 725 records were found. Finally, 32 studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The sample size of studies varied between 50 and 63,071 subjects. The overall prevalence of EBF in Iran was 53% (CI 95%; 44-62). The OR for breastfeeding education received before pregnancy was 1.13 (0.94-1.36), for mother's job 1.01 (0.81-1.27), for education level 1.12 (0.89-1.42), for type of delivery 1.16 (0.98-1.37), and for gender of child 1.03 (0.83-1.28).

Conclusion: In Iran health policy- and decision-makers should try to take interventions that encourage mothers to use their milk to breastfeed the infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1776-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815441PMC
October 2019

Role of platelet-derived microparticles in transfer of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to CXCR4-negative cells.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 13;33:55. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Membrane-derived microparticles (PMPs) are produced from platelets during activation, storage, and apoptosis. PMP can transfer some adhesion molecules such as CXCR4 to CXCR4-negative cells. In this study, the ability of PMPs to deliver CXCR4 molecule to CXCR4-null targets (Daudi, K562 and U937 cell line) was evaluated and the different concentrations of PMPs were examined to transfer CXCR4. In this experimental study, PMPs were prepared using serial centrifugations. After confirmation of PMP with flow cytometry, PMP concentration was evaluated using the Bradford method. CXCR4-negative cell lines (1×105 cells/ml) were cultured in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS and 1% antibiotic. PMPs in 7 different concentrations were added to cell culture plates and incubated for 1 hour at 37ºc and 5% CO2. The presence of CXCR4 on cells was analyzed by flowcytometry. In this study, characterization of PMPs and cell lines were done by flow cytometry. Then, the PMPs' ability to transfer CXCR4 to null cells (Daudi, K562 and U937 cell lines) was evaluated in 7 concentrations (10, 20, 50,125, 250, 500, 1000 μg/mL); incubation lasted for 1 hour. The best result of transferring CXCR4 by PMP was done in the concentration of 250µg/mL. PMPs in different concentrations can transfer CXCR4 to target cells. Also, the increase of PMPs concentration up to 250µg/mL can increase the CXCR4 presence on null cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708106PMC
June 2019

Induction of Apoptosis in Cancer Cells of pre-B ALL Patients after Exposure to Platelets, Platelet-Derived Microparticles and Soluble CD40 Ligand.

Cell J 2018 Apr 1;20(1):120-126. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Mahak Pediatric Cancer Research and Hospital Center, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The in vitro treatment of tumor cells with platelet (Plt) causes inhibition of tumor cell growth, although mechanism of this effect is not clear yet. Induction of apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism of Plt effects on tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of Plts and Plt-derived components in the induction of apoptosis in the blood mononuclear cells of patients with leukemia.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood of five patients with childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) and encountered with Plts, Plt-derived microparticles (Plt-MPs) as well as purified soluble CD40L (sCD40L). After 48 hours of co-culture, the anti-cancer activity of the aforementioned factors was surveyed using examination of apoptosis markers of the cells including active caspase-3 and CD95 using ELISA and flow cytometer techniques, respectively. Additionally, staining of the cells with 7-Aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) was evaluated by flow cytometer technique. Trypan blue exclusion test and WST-1 method were also used to compare the death/survival status of the cells.

Results: Levels of CD95 and caspase-3 were significantly increased in the all treated groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, trypan blue, 7-AAD and WST-1 methods showed significantly lower number of the live cells in the treated groups (P<0.05).

Conclusions: This study can show the ability of Plts, Plt-MPs and sCD40L for the induction of apoptosis in PBMCs of pre-B-ALL patients. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the different effects of platelets on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2018.5032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759674PMC
April 2018

Cellular immune response in MDR-TB patients to different protein expression of MDR and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Rv0147, a novel MDR-TB biomarker.

Immunol Res 2018 02;66(1):59-66

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a crucial public health problem with prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) rising. An accurate TB biomarker is urgently needed to monitor the response to treatment in patients with MDR tuberculosis. To analyze interaction between selected MDR-TB purified protein and immune cells, dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients and healthy subjects were stimulated by 55KDa protein fractions (Rv0147). The purified proteins identified by proteomic techniques (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry) and peptide sequences are known to bind a MHC class I alleles which are extracted from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource database ( www.iedb.org ). T cells were isolated from PBMC by negative selection and cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 at 37 °C and 5% CO. Cell culture was assayed for cytokine IL-10 and INF-γ by ELISA. We found that INF-γ production was significantly (335 ± 35.5 pg/ml, P ˂ 0.05) upregulated after protein candidate (Rv0147) stimulation by dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients, whereas IL-10 production was greatly reduced compared with production in healthy subjects (212 ± 9.94 pg/ml, P ˂ 0.05). In fact, the purified protein, Rv0147, stimulated dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients, failed to produce IL-10 and directly stimulates INF-γ production by T cells. These results suggest that the purified protein, Rv0147, may stimulate Th1 type protective cytokine response in MDR-TB patients but not in normal subjects. The production of INF-γ but not IL-10 in the presence of purified protein, Rv0147, may be shifted to Th1 responses in MDR-TB patients and supports its potential as protein vaccine candidates against TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-017-8971-6DOI Listing
February 2018

Proteome-scale MDR-TB-antibody responses for identification of putative biomarkers for the diagnosis of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 27;5 Suppl 1:S134-S135. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Tuberculosis Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective first-line anti-TB drugs. Here, we designed and produced antibodies based on biomarkers that exist only in MDR-TB.

Methods: Bacilli were cultured for 4weeks at 37°C, and protein extraction was performed by sequential extraction. Bacterial cells were sonicated, centrifuged at 5000rpm for 45min, and the supernatant was collected and subjected to multiple rounds of treatment to prior to protein isolation. Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford method, and extracted proteins (50μg) from each strain (drug-sensitive- and MDR-TB isolates) were visualized on polyacrylamide gels (5-15%) with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 staining. Three extracts were mixed and dialyzed against 0.1M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), followed by mass spectrometry. Specific polyclonal antibodies against purified MDR-TB proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and prepared in rabbits using three booster injections. The ELIZA test was performed for evaluation the antibody production. The antibody was treated with normal oral flora to remove any non specificity and cross reactivity. Analyses of different protein patterns (drug-sensitive- and MDR-TB) were performed by western blot.

Results: Our revealed that the MDR-TB strains contained specific antigens, and that the protein profiles of drug-sensitive TB strains differed from those of the MDR-TB isolates. Five bands from the MDR-TB fractions were detected as diagnostic antigens and were not observed in drug-sensitive-TB fractions. Western blot results showed that the MDR-TB antigenic fractions showed immunogenic bands at 50.0kDa and 70.0kDa, with the five antigenic MDR-TB-specific bands were identified as Rv3248c, Rv0350, Rv0440, Rv0475, and Rv3588c.

Conclusion: Western blot data revealed dynamic properties of antibody responses that led to actionable findings for further research. Moreover, specific anti-mycobacterial antibodies, such as MDR-TB antibodies, can be essential tools in the identification of species-restricted antigens, such as drug-resistant TB antigens. The MDR-TB antibodies described here might promote identification of mycobacterial antigens during the course of infection, which could be helpful for the development of newer TB-vaccine candidates or therapeutic agents for improved TB treatment or diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.10.011DOI Listing
December 2016

Microvesicles preparation from mesenchymal stem cells.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 16;30:398. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Associate Professor of Immunology, Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Extracellular vesicles are particles ranged from 30 nm to 5μm and subcategorized into three groups; exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, each of which have different biological impact. Lack of a standard method for the detection and isolation of MVs has led to a challenging issue that is a worth considering. In this study, we isolated MVs from the conditioned medium of UC-MSCs by four different schemes of ultracentrifugation.

Methods: We examined the efficacy of differential centrifugation ranging from 10,000×g to 60,000×g on UCMSCs- derived microvesicles yield and purity. The fractions were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method, total protein quantification and flow cytometry.

Results: UC-MSCs were spindle cells that adhered to plastic culture flasks. These cells expressed MSC markers such as CD44 and CD73, whereas were negative for hematopoietic markers CD45 and CD34. UC-MSCparticles were successfully isolated. Particles were heterogeneous vesicles of approximately 50 to 1250 nm in diameter that bear the surface-expressed molecules UC-MSCs such as; CD90, CD106, CD166 and CD44, and negative for CD34, CD63, and CD9. According to the results of DLS method, centrifugation at 10,000, 20,000, 40,000 and 60,000 ×g, all gave MVs of less than 1000 nm. It is of notion that only at the centrifugation rates of 40,000 and 60,000×g, particles of less than 100 nm in diameter were also obtained.

Conclusion: The choice of exact speed greatly influences the purity of MVs and their yield. Our findings indicate that centrifugation at 20,000×g is appropriate for the purification of UC-MSC-MVs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004526PMC
August 2016

Proteomic analysis of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and charge chromatography.

Arch Microbiol 2017 Jan 14;199(1):9-15. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Tuberculosis Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) that do not respond to, at least, isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful, first-line (or standard) anti-TB drugs. Novel intervention strategies for eliminating this disease were based on finding proteins that can be used for designing new drugs or new and reliable kits for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the protein profiles of MDR-TB with sensitive isolates. Proteomic analysis of M. tuberculosis MDR-TB and sensitive isolates was obtained with ion exchange chromatography coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) in order to identify individual proteins that have different expression in MDR-TB to be used as a drug target or diagnostic marker for designing valuable TB vaccines or TB rapid tests. We identified eight proteins in MDR-TB isolates, and analyses showed that these proteins are absent in M. tuberculosis-sensitive isolates: (Rv2140c, Rv0009, Rv1932, Rv0251c, Rv2558, Rv1284, Rv3699 and MMP major membrane proteins). These data will provide valuable clues in further investigation for suitable TB rapid tests or drug targets against drug-resistant and sensitive M. tuberculosis isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-016-1267-8DOI Listing
January 2017

Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

APMIS 2016 Mar 23;124(3):201-7. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Tuberculosis Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12490DOI Listing
March 2016

Postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting among pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing cystocele and rectocele repair surgery.

Korean J Anesthesiol 2015 Dec 25;68(6):581-5. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Lorestan University of Medical Science, Khoramabad, Iran.

Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain are among the most common side-effects of surgery. Many factors, such as a change in the level of sex hormones, are reported to affect these complications. This study aimed to evaluate the probable effects of the menopause on PONV and postoperative pain.

Methods: Prospective study, in which a total number of 144 female patients undergoing cystocele or rectocele repair surgery under standardized spinal anesthesia were included. Patients were divided into two equally sized sample groups of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 72). The occurrence of PONV, the severity of pain as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and the quantity of morphine and metoclopramide required were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after surgery.

Results: The mean VAS pain score and the mean quantity of morphine required was higher among premenopausal women (P = 0.006). Moreover, these patients required more morphine for their pain management during the first 24 h after surgery compared to postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of PONV (P = 0.09 and P = 1.00 for nausea and vomiting, respectively) and the mean amount of metoclopramide required (P = 0.38).

Conclusions: Premenopausal women are more likely to suffer from postoperative pain after cystocele and rectocele repair surgery. Further studies regarding the measurement of hormonal changes among surgical patients in both pre- and postmenopausal women are recommended to evaluate the effects on PONV and postoperative pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2015.68.6.581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4667144PMC
December 2015

Association of HLA-G*01:01:02:01/G*01:04:01 polymorphism with gastric adenocarcinoma.

Hum Immunol 2016 Feb 14;77(2):153-7. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) plays an important role in tumor cell escape from immune surveillance and HLA-G polymorphisms might service as a potential risk factor for clinical outcomes in GAC (gastric adenocarcinoma). We investigated the association between HLA-G polymorphisms as well as soluble HLA-G level and accordance of GAC. This case-control study included 100 GAC patients and 102 unrelated Iranian individual's samples as control. The clinical stages ranged from I to IV. PCR-RFLP method was carried out in order to specify the genotypes of the HLA-G gene. Concentrations of sHLA-G in serum were determined with the sHLA-G-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The G*01:04:01 and G*01:01:02:01 alleles were the predominant alleles in GAC patients and healthy controls. The G*01:01:03:01 and G*01:01:08 allele distributions are significantly higher among controls comparing to cases and seem to have protective effect (P value=0.026 and 0.007 respectively). There is a substantial differences in G*01:01:02:01/G*01:04:01 genotype frequencies between cases and controls (OR=2.8, P value<0.001). The G*01:01:03:01/G*01:04:01 and G*01:01:02:01/G*01:01:08 genotypes frequency are higher among controls in comparison to patients (P value=0.028 and 0.007 respectively). The polymorphisms in HLA-G could affect GAC induction and its outcome. Also, increased sHLA-G levels in serum might be a useful biomarker for diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2015.11.005DOI Listing
February 2016

The Immunosuppressive Activity of Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Lymphocytes.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2015 Jul-Sep;7(3):90-6

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are isolated from different sources like placenta. The placenta and its membranes like Amniotic Membrane (AM) are readily available and easy to work with. There is only limited knowledge on the immunomodulatory properties of human Amniotic Membrane-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to survey the suppressive activity of hAM-MSCs on T lymphocytes in vitro.

Methods: Human AMs were obtained after caesarean section births from healthy women. After enzymatic digestion, cells were cultured and hAM-MSCs were obtained. In addition, human T lymphocytes were isolated and co-cultured with hAM-MSCs for 72 hr in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Subsequently, proliferation of T cells was analyzed using BrdU and subsequently flow cytometry technique. Besides, the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ was examined by ELISA method. Additionally, the expression of activation markers (CD38, HLA-DR) was studied on T lymphocytes by flow cytometry technique.

Results: It was revealed that hAM-MSCs could significantly suppress the proliferation of T lymphocytes (p≤0.01) and significantly decrease the production of IFN-γ by T cells (p<0.05). hAM-MSCs also down regulated the expression of activation markers on the surface of T lymphocytes, CD38 and HLA-DR. The difference was significant between the case and control samples (p<0.05). All the comparisons were carried out between the case (Tcell+PHA+hAM-MSCs) and control (Tcell+PHA) groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, hAM-MSCs could inhibit the (mitogen-activated) T cells even in the absence of blood monocytes. Besides, hAM-MSCs-mediated inhibition of T lymphocytes was combined with down regulation of activation markers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4508338PMC
August 2015

The effect of sexual health education program on women sexual function in Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2015 ;15(2):124-8

Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Sexual dysfunction is the most common disorder in women. According to the WHO, sexual education programs are considered as a need. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of educational program on sexual function in women with sexual dysfunction.

Methods: This randomized trial, was conducted in 2013 on 90 married women by convenient sampling in Qazvin, central Iran. The demographic, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires were completed during structured interviews. After completing the sample size, subjects were divided randomly into two groups by using the table of random numbers (educational and control groups), then respectively received an educational intervention in the four sessions with one week interval and routine program offered by the center and following-up was done with refilling questionnaires 8 weeks after intervention.

Results: Sexual function improved after sex educational programs in all dimensions (sexual desire (P=0.006), sexual exciting (P=0.006), vaginal moisture (P=0.002), sexual satisfaction (P=0.011), and total score of sexual function (P=0.001).

Conclusions: Considering the importance role of sexual function in family strength, health, and development, it can be claimed that educational sex programs can help practitioners to improve sexual function of married women with sexual dysfunction.
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April 2016

The Effects of Ultraviolet Light and Riboflavin on Inactivation of Viruses and the Quality of Platelet Concentrates at Laboratory Scale.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):57-63

Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study investigated the effects of Riboflavin (RB) combined with different doses of UV on Platelet Concentrate (PC) which was infected by three models of virus. Platelet quality after treatment was also assessed.

Methods: Three models of virus used in this study were Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), and Polio virus, which were added to PC. After photochemical treatment with RB and UV light, residual viral infectivity was titrated using 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50)/ml. This treatment was done with concentration of 50 μM of RB and different doses of UV light (0.24, 0.48, 0.97, 1.29 J/cm (2)). Platelet quality was assessed by measuring pH, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), MTT assay and cell count after treatments and during 4 days of storage against control groups.

Results: Concentration of 50 μM RB with combination of 1.29 J/cm (2) dose of UV resulted in the highest titer reduction of VSV (4 log 10) and HSV (4.26 log10) and lowest titer reduction of Polio virus (2.6 log10). No significant difference was observed between different doses in comparison with control groups. In all treatment groups, the storage stability of platelets in PC was in the acceptable range in comparison with control group.

Conclusion: This study indicated that RB/UV treatment was a promising pathogen reduction technique in PC and had limited effects on platelet quality. However, further optimization of this method is necessary to deal with blood-borne viruses like non-enveloped viruses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483315PMC
July 2015

Sexual and reproductive health problems of female university students in Iran: a qualitative study.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Jan 14;7(4):278-85. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Department of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran..

Objective: Youth is defined as the time of transition into adulthood and an important period in a person's life. During this period new behavior is learned easier than adulthood. Therefore, special attention has to be necessarily paid to this period in order to promote the health. Addressing adolescent reproductive health issues is also a critical factor

Methods: This research was a qualitative study conducted from January 2014 to July 2014. Data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 25 female students and 10 key members of the university (including university authorities, consultants, reproductive health professionals and university officials) was collected and all interviews were recorded, formulated and classified.

Results: The mean age of participants was 22.43 years. A total of 8 students majored in geology, 5 majored in chemistry, 3 in statistics, 3 in mathematics, and 6 in biology. 17 had a bachelor's degree, 3 master's degree and 5 doctorate degree. Majority of students (82.4%) were never married and 23 of them lived in dormitories. The following three main themes were extracted from the interviews: Reproduction thought as pregnancy; the taboo of sex; and inappropriate relation between parents and children.

Conclusion: Most participants stressed the need to provide reproductive health services for young girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802106PMC
January 2015

L-carnitine effectively improves the metabolism and quality of platelet concentrates during storage.

Ann Hematol 2015 Apr 18;94(4):671-80. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-331, 14117-13116, Tehran, Iran.

Human platelets undergo structural and biochemical alternations during storage which are collectively called platelet storage lesion (PSL). PSL is characterized as metabolic and functionally changes. It causes decrease in platelet recovery and survival. Here, we evaluated the effect of L-carnitine (LC) on the metabolism, function, and mitochondrial metabolic activity of platelet during storage. Platelet-rich plasma was used to prepare platelet concentrate (PC) in Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. For this purpose, ten PC bags from healthy donors were stored at 22 °C with gentle agitation in the presence or absence of LC. The effects of LC (15 mM) on the platelet quality were assessed by analyzing the levels of glucose, lactate, ATP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Platelet aggregations induced by arachidonate and ristocetin were analyzed by aggregometer. Platelet mitochondrial melablolic activity was measured by tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; platelet count and mean platelet volume were also determined by a hematology analyzer during 5 days of PC storage. The results indicated that LC could significantly decrease lactate concentration and glucose consumption accompanied with the increased oxygen consumption in stored PC. LDH activity also less significantly increased in LC-treated PC on days 2 and 5 of storage. Platelet aggregation in response to the ristocetin and arachidonate was significantly higher in LC-treated PC than that in untreated PC on day 5 of storage. Finally, platelet mitochondrial metabolic activity less significantly decreased in LC-treated PC compared to the control group on days 2 and 5 of storage. It seems that LC would be a good additive to reduce PSL and improve the platelet metabolism and quality of the stored PC for platelet transfusion therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-014-2243-5DOI Listing
April 2015

Platelet storage media change the expression characteristics of the platelet-derived microparticles.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep 24;30(3):169-74. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, IBTO Bldg., Hemmat. Exp. Way, Next to the Milad Tower, P.O. Box 14665-1157, Tehran, Iran.

Activated platelets shed microparticles in vivo and definitely in vitro upon aging under storage. Studies about the platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) produced in different storage media of PC were very limited. The aim of this research was to compare some surface molecules of these microvesicles in dissimilar microenvironments; plasma and the candidate medium for the platelet concentrate, Composol. Thirty units of PCs were prepared from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. Each unit was divided into two portions. In one of the portions, plasma was replaced with Composol using a connecting device instrument. MPs were isolated from PC and the levels of PS exposure (the annexin-binding capacity) and binding to vWF were surveyed on their surface using ELISA and flow cytometry techniques. The levels of PS exposure were increased on MPs during 7 days storage in the both media but the differences were not significant (P value >0.05). In addition, binding of PMP to vWF was declined during storage. The binding capabilities of PMP were significantly higher in Composol than that of plasma at the day 4 or 7 of storage (P value = 001). It seemed that the binding of PMPs to vWF was affected from the storage media of PC (plasma and Composol) but PS exposure was not affected from the type of storage media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-012-0227-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115080PMC
September 2014

The caspase-3 inhibitor (peptide Z-DEVD-FMK) affects the survival and function of platelets in platelet concentrate during storage.

Blood Res 2014 Mar 24;49(1):49-53. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Although apoptosis occurs in nucleated cells, studies show that this event also occurs in some anucleated cells such as platelets. During storage of platelets, the viability of platelets decreased, storage lesions were observed, and cells underwent apoptosis. We investigated the effects of caspase-3 inhibitor on the survival and function of platelets after different periods of storage.

Methods: Platelet concentrates were obtained from the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in plastic blood bags. Caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK) was added to the bags. These bags along with control bags to which no inhibitor was added were stored in a shaking incubator at 22℃ for 7 days. The effects of Z-DEVD-FMK on the functionality of platelets were analyzed by assessing their ability to bind to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and to aggregate in the presence of arachidonic acid and ristocetin. Cell survival was surveyed by MTT assay.

Results: At day 4 of storage, ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher in the inhibitor-treated (test) than in control samples; the difference was not significant at day 7. There was no significant difference in arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation between test and control samples. However, at day 7 of storage, the binding of platelets to vWF was significantly higher in test than in control samples. The MTT assay revealed significantly higher viability in test than in control samples at both days of study.

Conclusion: Treatment of platelets with caspase-3 inhibitor could increase their functionality and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2014.49.1.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3974957PMC
March 2014

Glycoproteins of GpIbα and GpIIbIIIa on the Synthetic or Naturally Occurred Platelet-Derived Microparticles.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2013 Sep 4;29(3):134-8. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, P.O. Box 14665-1157, Tehran, Iran.

Infusible platelet membranes (IPM) prepared from new or outdated human platelets have been developed as an alternative to standard platelet concentrates (PCs), with the additional advantage of long shelf life and increased viral safety. Lack of gpIIb/IIIa has been reported as one of the properties of the IPM microparticles. In re-examining this issue, we studied the molecules of gpIIb/IIIa and gpIbα on the surface of IPM microparticles. These molecules could better evaluate the functional efficacy of these microparticles. In comparison, we also surveyed the expression of these molecules on the surface of the naturally occurred platelet-derived microparticles during 7 days storage of PC. Unlike the previous reports, the results of this study illustrated that the produced IPM retained gpIIb/IIIa molecules. Besides, gpIbα and gpIIb/IIIa were also present on the nPMPs and their levels were significantly decreased during 7 days storage of PCs (P value = 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-012-0170-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710554PMC
September 2013

HLA Antigens Shed from the Surface of Synthetic or Naturally Occurred Platelet-Derived Microparticles During Storage of Platelet Concentrate.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2012 Sep 20;28(3):152-6. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, 14665-1157 Tehran, Iran.

The demand for standard platelet concentrates (PCs) has continued to increase in the recent years. Infusible platelet membranes (IPM) prepared from new or outdated human platelets have been developed as an alternative to standard PCs, with the additional advantage of long shelf life and increased viral safety. Reduction of HLA antigens on the IPM has been assigned as one of the probable advantages of this product. In re-examining this issue, we studied the existence of HLA class I on the surface of IPM microparticles. In comparison we also surveyed HLA expression on the surface of the naturally occurred platelet-derived microparticles (nPMPs) during 7 days storage. Intended for producing IPM, PCs obtained from Iranian blood transfusion organization were lysed; virally inactivated with wet heat in the presence of a heat stabilizer and then sonicated. IPMs were separated using centrifugation and liquid-stored in 4°C. The expression of HLA class I antigens was surveyed using flow cytometry technique. HLA molecules were present on the microparticles. Shedding of HLA antigens was demonstrated from the surface of the both liquid-stored IPM and nPMPs during storage. Storage of IPM in 4°C was accompanied with significant reduction of HLA molecules. It seemed that achievement of HLA-free IPM could be impossible unless chloroquine treated platelets were used to prepare these microvesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-011-0120-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422389PMC
September 2012

Premenstrual syndrome: a single-blind study of treatment with buspirone versus fluoxetine.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013 Mar 17;287(3):469-72. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Purpose: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which causes emotional and physical symptoms, is a common problem in many women in their reproductive age. Many approaches to PMS with controversial results are available. The present study was performed to compare fluoxetine and buspirone in the treatment of PMS.

Methods: One hundred female patients who met DSM-IV criteria for PMS were randomly divided into two groups in a single-blind study; one group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and the other group with buspirone 10 mg/day for two consecutive months. The subjects were evaluated in pretreatment, after 1 and 2 months of treatment with a valid and reliable questionnaire.

Results: Both fluoxetine and buspirone showed significant efficacy in the treatment of PMS and this efficacy was significant along the treatment period. However, no significant differences were observed between fluoxetine and buspirone in the treatment of PMS.

Conclusion: Considering efficacy and few side effects of buspirone, it can be a favorable drug in the treatment of patients with PMS. However, further studies (preferably double-blind, placebo controlled ones) with large sample sizes are recommended to investigate efficacy and side effects of buspirone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-012-2594-xDOI Listing
March 2013

Sequence analysis of the polymerase gene in hepatitis B virus infected blood donors in Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2012 Feb;15(2):88-90

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide that can be transmitted by blood transfusion. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has eight different genotypes that show different geographical distributions and clinical manifestations. This study aims to investigate the sequence of the HBV polymerase gene and the frequency of HBV genotypes among Iranian blood donors.

Methods: The sera of 223 blood donors who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as determined by the ELISA method were selected. HBV DNA was extracted from the sera of 134 blood donors by a commercial kit, and the entire polymerase gene was amplified by nested-PCR. HBV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of the HBV polymerase gene. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method.

Results: No known base mutations were found in the entire HBV polymerase gene of infected blood donors, and only genotype D was detected among HBV-infected blood donors. The sub-genotype D1 of HBV was dominant in the subjects.

Conclusion: This study shows that antiviral-resistant mutations, such as lamivudine-resistant HBV strains, do not exist naturally among Iranian blood donors. More studies on the full-length HBV genomes are required to determine genome evolution of HBV among infected Iranian blood donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/012152/AIM.008DOI Listing
February 2012

Production of mouse monoclonal antibodies against human HLA-A3 for use in microlymphocytotoxicity technique.

Hum Antibodies 2009 ;18(3):119-22

Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Monoclonal antibody production using the hybridoma technology is one of the attractive areas of research. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of monoclonal antibodies to human HLA-A3 antigen for use in microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-A3 antigen was purified from human leukocytes and injected to several mice. The spleen-derived cells of immunized animal were fused with P3-X63-Ag8 myeloma cells. Obtained hybridoma cells were grown in HAT medium and the supernatant of the cells were screened for antibodies using ELISA and microlymphocytotoxicity technique. Produced monoclonal antibody from the hybridoma clone, B1F10 showed the specificity for human HLA-A3. Furthermore, in this study, we encountered with clones of immortal hybrid cells with completely different features, they were adherent and non-producers for antibodies. This observation could imply the possible role of the antigen (HLA) and its nature in the expansion of cell types other than B cells in the spleen of mouse during immunization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-2009-0201DOI Listing
November 2009

Null allele frequencies at HLA-G locus in Iranian healthy subjects.

Iran J Immunol 2008 Dec;5(4):207-11

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: HLA-G gene contains 15 alleles including a null allele, HLA-G*0105N. Previous studies have shown that HLA-G*0105N does not encode the complete HLA-G1 or HLA-G5 isoforms but encodes a functional HLA-G protein with the ability to inhibit NK cell cytolysis. Thus, although the biological functions of HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 proteins are abrogated, other isoforms such as HLA-G2 can replace their roles. Studies on the null allele of HLA-G gene could be useful in understanding the genetic variants of HLA-G alleles in ethnic groups.

Objective: The goal of this research was to determine the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele in Iranian healthy subjects.

Methods: The frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele was evaluated in Iranian healthy subjects by PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood of 100 randomly selected, healthy, unrelated Iranian individuals using salting-out technique followed by PCR amplification of the exon 3 of HLA-G gene. PCR products were digested with PpUM-1 and the resulted fragments were analyzed using gel electrophoresis.

Results: In this study the restriction enzyme digestion confirmed homozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele for 9 % of the population. Furthermore obtained results indicated that the total frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele was 20 % in the studied population of Iran.

Conclusion: The final data analysis showed that the total frequency of this allele in Iranian people was higher than other ethnic groups that have been studied so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv5i4A3DOI Listing
December 2008