Publications by authors named "Fatemeh Norouzi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular detection of Extended-Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and biofilm formation in uropathogen in Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 5;35:72. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Uropathogenic is one of the well-kown uropathogens that have the main rule in biofilm formation. Increased prevalence of ESBL enzyme is one of the therapeutic problems. However, the aims of this study were to characterize the ability of biofilm formation and ESBL-producing isolates produced by urinary tract infection's to identify the prevalence of this type of infection in the studied area. Between the 500 nonrepetitive clinical isolates, 128 isolates were detected as . Biofilm production of these isolates was showed by Merrit and Christensen method. The standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The phenotype ESBL was confirmed by double disc synergy test (DDST). Genotypic identification of ESBLs did by molecular detection. The statistical analysis was done using software IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS Inc) and chi-square and Fisher exact tests. The result of microtiter plate was observed and it was found that 86 (67.2%) isolates had weak biofilm, 24 (18.8%) moderate biofilm, and 18 (14.1%) strong biofilm. Also, 57 (44.5%) out of 128 isolates were diagnosed as MDR. The highest frequency of resistance was identified for cefotaxime 60 (46.9%) and tetracycline 60 (46.9%), and the lowest rate was for amikacin 16 (12.5%). The results of DDST showed 55 of 128 (43%) produced ESBL enzymes. PCR detection in ESBL-producing isolates showed contained 33 of 55(63.1%), and 13 of 55 (23% ). Also, 1 of 55 (2%) had both and . Also, 5 of 13 (38.4%) isolates that had the gene were also MDR and had weak biofilm (8/13; 61.5%), intermediate biofilm (3/13; 23%), and strong biofilm (2/13; 15.4%). To decrease treatment complications and mortality rate of drug-resistant bacterial infections, rapid detection of β-lactamases genes and evaluation of these properties and infection management programs can help to prevent the transmission of drug resistant-strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47176/mjiri.35.72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285551PMC
June 2021

Significance of the coexistence of non-codon 315 katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC intergenic gene mutations among isoniazid-resistant and multidrug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a report of novel mutations.

Pathog Glob Health 2021 Jun 4:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat due to the emergence and spread of drug-resistant (MTB). Isoniazid (INH) is the main antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of TB. Evidence shows that accumulated mutations can produce INH resistant (INHR) strains, resulting in the progression of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Since point mutations in gene, gene, and region correlated with the INH resistance, in this study, we aimed to identify mutations in these three genes in INHR and MDR clinical isolates of MTB by Sanger DNA sequencing analysis. Thirty-three out of 438 isolates were resistant, including 66.7% INHR and 30.3% MDR isolates. In the gene, 68.2% INHR isolates had non-synonymous point mutations, mainly R463L (63.6%), and non-synonymous point mutation KatG L587P was seen in one of the MDR isolate. A novel silent substitution L649L was identified in the gene of the MDR isolates. The intergenic region g-88a common mutations (63.6%) in INHR and two distinct novel mutations were found at positions -76 and -77 of the intergenic region. The coexistence of non-codon 315 with intergenic region mutations was highly frequent in INHR 59.1% and MDR isolates 70%. Since mutations of all three genes 95.5% lead to the detection of INHR, they might be useful for molecular detection. Our results indicated the continuous evolution and region-specific prevalence of INH resistance. Overall, identification of new mutations in INH resistance can improve the available strategies for diagnosis and control of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2021.1928870DOI Listing
June 2021

A comprehensive review of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Feb 23;18(1):22. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

One of the most prevalent diseases worldwide without a fully-known mechanism is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as significant regulatory molecules. These RNAs have been claimed by bioinformatic research that is involved in biologic processes, including cell cycle, transcription factor regulation, fatty acids metabolism, and-so-forth. There is a body of evidence that lncRNAs have a pivotal role in triglyceride, cholesterol, and lipoprotein metabolism. Moreover, lncRNAs by up- or down-regulation of the downstream molecules in fatty acid metabolism may determine the fatty acid deposition in the liver. Therefore, lncRNAs have attracted considerable interest in NAFLD pathology and research. In this review, we provide all of the lncRNAs and their possible mechanisms which have been introduced up to now. It is hoped that this study would provide deep insight into the role of lncRNAs in NAFLD to recognize the better molecular targets for therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00552-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903707PMC
February 2021

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Captopril: Does it Improve Renal Function in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation Model in Rats.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2020 Jul-Aug;31(4):727-738

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Renin-angiotensin system as an important regulator of renal function has also a major role in inflammation. In the present study, the effects of captopril on renal dysfunction, renal cytokine levels, and renal tissue oxidative damage were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model in rats. Treatment of five groups of the rats was carried out as follows: (1) saline as a control, (2) LPS 1 mg/kg, and (3-5) 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg captopril 30 min, respectively, before LPS. The treatments were given for 12 days. Finally, the animals were deeply anesthetized, the blood samples were obtained, and the renal tissues were removed and kept for biochemical measurements. Administration of LPS increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with all doses of captopril decreased these parameters (P < 0.001). LPS also increased interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide metabolites in the renal tissues (P<0.05 - P < 0.001), which was prevented by captopril (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). The total thiol concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the kidney of the LPS group were lower than the control (P < 0.001), while they were enhanced when the animals were cotreated by captopril (P <0.01 - P < 0.001). The results of the present study showed that captopril improved renal function and attenuated tissue oxidative stress in LPS-induced inflammation model in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.292306DOI Listing
July 2021

Determination of morphine and oxymorphone in exhaled breath condensate samples: Application of microwave enhanced three-component deep eutectic solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2020 Sep 25;1152:122256. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

In this work, a microwave-enhanced air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for morphine and oxymorphone assessment in EBC samples. For this purpose, choline chloride-menthol-phenylacetic acid deep eutectic solvent (as an extraction solvent), butyl chloroformate (as a derivatization agent), and picoline (as a catalyst) are used. After performing predetermined extraction cycles in the microextraction method, the obtained cloudy solution is exposed to microwave irradiations to enhance extraction and derivatization efficiencies. The method provided low limits of detection (morphine 2.1 and oxymorphone 1.5 ng mL) and quantification (morphine 7.2 and oxymorphone 5.2 ng mL) in the EBC samples. The method had proper repeatability, accuracy, and stability expressed as relative standard deviations less than 5.1, 9, and 9%, respectively. The developed method was successfully used to determine morphine and oxymorphone concentrations in the EBC samples of addict patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122256DOI Listing
September 2020

Immunotherapy with IgY Antibodies toward Outer Membrane Protein F Protects Burned Mice against Infection.

J Immunol Res 2020 29;2020:7840631. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Burn patients with multidrug-resistant infections commonly suffer from high morbidity and mortality, which present a major challenge to healthcare systems throughout the world. Outer membrane protein F (OprF), as a main outer membrane porin, is required for full virulence expression of . The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of egg yolk-specific antibody (IgY) raised against recombinant OprF (r-OprF) protein in a murine burn model of infection. The hens were immunized with r-OprF, and anti-r-OprF IgY was purified using salt precipitation. Groups of mice were injected with different regimens of anti-OprF IgY or control IgY (C-IgY). Infections were caused by subcutaneous injection of strain PAO1 at the burn site. Mice were monitored for mortality for 5 days. The functional activity of anti-OprF IgY was determined by invasion assays. Immunotherapy with anti-OprF IgY resulted in a significant improvement in the survival of mice infected by from 25% to 87.5% compared with the C-IgY and PBS. The anti-OprF IgY decreased the invasion of PAO1 into the A549. Passive immunization with anti-OprF IgY led to an efficacious protection against burn infection in the burn model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7840631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275967PMC
May 2021

The protective effect of Nigella sativa extract on lung inflammation and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 May 6;253:112653. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Oxidative stress during inflammation can increase inflammation and damage tissue. Nigella sativa L. (NS) showed many pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, the preventive effect of NS on lung inflammation and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rats was investigated.

Materials And Methods: Male rats were assigned to: Control, LPS (1 mg/kg, i.p.), LPS + NS (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, i.p.), (10 per group). Saline (1 ml/kg) was intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injected instead of LPS in the rats of the control group. LPS dissolved in saline and injected i.p. daily for 14 days. Treatment with NS extracts started two days before LPS administration and treatment continued during LPS administration. White blood cells (WBC), total and differential as well as oxidative stress index in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and serum, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, PGE, and IL-4 levels in the BALF and lung histopathology were examined.

Results: LPS administration increased total WBC, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, and monocytes counts as well as oxidative stress markers in the BALF and serum as well as TGF-β1, IFN-γ, PGE, IL-4 levels in the BALF and pathological changes of the lung tissue. All of these effects were reduced by NS extract treatment dose-dependently.

Conclusion: These results suggested the protective effects of NS extract on lung inflammation and oxidative stress as well as its effect on lung pathology induced by LPS dose-dependently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112653DOI Listing
May 2020

The effects of captopril on lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviors in rats.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(3):199-205. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Division of Neurocognitive Sciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Neuro-immune mediators play an important role in the development of sickness behaviors. In the present study, the effect of captopril on sickness behaviors caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in the rats. The animals were randomized into the following groups: control, sham, 10 mg kg captopril - LPS (Capto 10-LPS), 50 mg kg captopril - LPS (Capto 50-LPS), and 100 mg kg captopril - LPS (Capto 100-LPS). Behavioral tests including open-field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming (FS) test were performed, and the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was assessed. In OF, the number of crossings in the central zone in Capto 10-LPS, Capto 50-LPS, and Capto 100-LPS groups was higher than that of the sham group. In EPM, the open arm entry numbers in the sham group were lower compared to the control group. Furthermore, pretreatment by captopril increased the entries to the open arms. In FS test, the immobility time of the sham group was longer than that of the control group. In Capto 10-LPS, Capto 50-LPS, and Capto 100-LPS groups, immobility was shorter compared to the sham group. In addition, the IL-6 level was higher in the sham group compared to the control group, and treatment with 50 and 100 mg kg of captopril restored the IL-6 level in comparison with the sham group. Results confirmed that pretreatment with captopril ameliorated LPS-caused sickness behaviors and attenuated IL-6 as an inflammatory marker in the rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.90760.2198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828174PMC
September 2019

Anti-PcrV IgY antibodies protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models.

Mol Immunol 2019 12 18;116:98-105. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen in burn patients, and rapidly acquires antibiotic resistance; thus, developing an effective therapeutic approach is the most promising strategy for combating infection. Type III secretion system (T3SS) translocates bacterial toxins into the cytosol of the targeted eukaryotic cells, which plays important roles in the virulence of P. aeruginosa infections in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models. The PcrV protein, a T3SS translocating protein, is required for T3SS function and is a well-validated target in animal models of immunoprophylactic strategies targeting P. aeruginosa. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) raised against recombinant PcrV (r-PcrV) in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models. R-PcrV protein was generated by expressing the pcrV gene (cloned in pET-28a vector) in E. coli BL-21. Anti-PcrV IgY was obtained by immunization of hen. Anti-PcrV IgY induced greater protection in P. aeruginosamurine acute pneumonia and burn wound models than control IgY (C-IgY) and PBS groups. Anti-PcrV IgY improved opsonophagocytic killing and inhibition of bacterial invasion of host cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that anti-PcrV IgY can be a promising therapeutic candidate for combating P. aeruginosa infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2019.10.005DOI Listing
December 2019

prevented liver and renal tissue damage in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 May-Jun;29(3):554-566

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Liver and renal dysfunction accompanying with the tissues' oxidative damage has been reported to occur during Inflammation. Nigella sativa has been well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate preventive effects of N. sativa on liver and renal tissue damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated rats. The rats were divided into five groups: (1) control; (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, IP, for 10 days), (3-5) N. sativa hydroethanolic extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) before LPS. Compared to LPS group, treatment by the extract decreased alondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, and interleukin-6 while increased thiol content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in both renal and liver tissues. N. sativa extract also decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotrans-ferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentration, while it increased serum protein and albumin compared with LPS group. In LPS group, serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were higher than control group. The extract reversed the negative effects of LPS. The results demonstrated that the N. sativa prevented liver and renal tissue damage in LPS-treated rats. It is suggested that the effects are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.235184DOI Listing
October 2019

Protective effects of on synaptic plasticity impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Vet Res Forum 2018 15;9(1):27-33. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In the present study the protective effect of () on synaptic plasticity impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats was investigated. Fifty-eight rats were grouped and treated as follows: 1) control (saline), 2) LPS, 3) LPS, and 4) In a Morris water maze test, the escape latency and traveled path to find the platform as well as time spent and the traveled distance in target quadrant (Q) were measured. Long term potentiation (LTP) from CA area of hippocampus followed by high frequency stimulation to Schafer collateral was studied and slope, slope 10-90% and amplitude of field excitatory field potential (fEPSP) were calculated. The escape latency and traveled path in LPS group were significantly higher than those in the control group while, in LPS group these parameters were significantly lower than those in LPS group. The rats in LPS group spent less time and traveled shorter distance in Q than the rats in the control group while, in LPS group the rats spent more time and traveled longer distance than the rats in LPS group. LPS significantly decreased slope, slope 10-90% and amplitude of fEPSP while, in LPS group these parameters increased compared to LPS group. The results indicated that the hydro-alcohol extract of protected against synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory impairment induced by LPS in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5913558PMC
March 2018

Memory enhancing effect of Nigella Sativa hydro-alcoholic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 May 28;42(3):270-279. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

g Department of Physiology, School of Medicine , Jiroft University of Medical Sciences , Jiroft , Iran.

In this study, the effects of Nigella Sativa (NS) hydro-alcoholic extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced learning and memory impairments, hippocampal cytokine levels, and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. The rats were grouped and treated: (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg i.p.), and (3-5) 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg NS hydro-alcoholic extract 30 min before LPS injection. The treatment was started since 6 days before the behavioral experiments and continued during the behavioral tests (LPS injection 2 h before each behavioral experiment). Finally, the brains were removed for biochemical assessments. In Morris water maze (MWM) test, LPS increased the escape latency and traveled path compared to control group, whereas all doses of NS hydro-alcoholic extract decreased them compared to LPS group. In passive avoidance (PA) test, the latency to enter the dark compartment in LPS group was shorter than control group while in all treated groups it was longer than LPS group. LPS increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, and decreased thiol content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the hippocampal tissues compared to control group while NS hydro-alcoholic extract decreased MDA and NO metabolites and increased thiol content, SOD, and CAT compared to LPS group. Findings of the current study indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS improved the LPS-induced learning and memory impairments induced by LPS in rats by improving hippocampal cytokine levels and brain tissues oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1447578DOI Listing
May 2019

Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor on Cardiac Fibrosis and Oxidative Stress Status in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation Model in Rats.

Int J Prev Med 2017 6;8:69. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Renin-angiotensin (Ang)-aldosterone system not only plays a key role in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis, but also it acts as a powerful pro-inflammatory mediator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of captopril (Cap), a known Ang-converting enzyme inhibitor, on inflammation-induced cardiac fibrosis, and heart oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in male rats.

Methods: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups control, LPS (1 mg/kg/day), LPS + Cap 10 mg/kg, LPS + Cap 50 mg/kg and LPS + Cap 100 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, blood samples were taken, and hearts were harvested for evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide metabolite in serum and tissue hemogenate, histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome) and oxidative stress status.

Results: Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentration were higher in LPS group compared to control and Cap reduced them, significantly. Heart TNF-α and IL-6 contents in LPS group were significantly higher than control ( < 0.05). The administration of Cap significantly decreased inflammatory markers level to control ( < 0.05). The higher levels of malondialdehyde and lower antioxidative markers (total thiol, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in the heart were observed in LPS group and treatment by Cap improved them, dose-dependently. Histopathological study revealed cardiac fibrosis and more collagen content in LPS group which significantly improved by Cap treatment.

Conclusions: Treatment by Cap reduced cardiac fibrosis possibly through improving oxidative stress status, and it can be considered to increase cardiac compliance in this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_322_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609356PMC
September 2017

The effect of on inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis in male rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2017 Feb;12(1):74-81

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran.

(NS) () used as a protective and therapeutic traditional medicine. This study evaluates the effect of NS on inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis, serum and tissue inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress status in male rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (1) control; (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 mg/kg/day; (3) LPS + NS (hydroalcoholic extract), 100 mg/kg/day; (4) LPS + NS, 200 mg/kg/day; (5) LPS + NS, 400 mg/kg/day (n = 10 in each group). The duration of LPS administration was two weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken and ventricles were homogenized and stained for histological evaluation. Serum nitrite levels were lower in LPS group than the control group (22.98 ± 1.03 vs 28.5 ± 0.93 μmol/L), in which they were significantly increased by NS treatment ( < 0.05). Higher levels of heart interlukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were observed in LPS group compared to the controls (IL-6: 6805 ± 656 vs 4733 ± 691 pg/mL; TNF-α: 6504 ± 501 vs 5309 ± 452 pg/mL), in which they were reduced by NS 400 mg/kg compared to LPS groups ( < 0.05). A significant increment of malondialdehyde and reduction in heart total thiol, superoxide dismutase and catalase concentrations were observed in LPS group (p < 0.05) which significantly restored with treatment by three doses of NS. Histopathological studies showed higher inflammatory cell infiltrates, cardiac fibrosis, and collagen deposition in LPS group, which were reduced by the administration of NS. Treatment by NS reduced myocardial fibrosis in inflammation-induced fibrosis, possibly through improving oxidative/anti-oxidative balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.199050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333483PMC
February 2017

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairment Is Preventable by Captopril.

Adv Med 2016 18;2016:7676512. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Neurocognitive Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline), LPS (1 mg/kg), LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS), and captopril groups (50 mg/kg) before saline. Morris water maze was done. Long-term potentiation (LTP) from CA1 area of hippocampus was assessed by 100 Hz stimulation in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral pathway. In the LPS group, the spent time and traveled path to reach the platform were longer than those in the control, while, in the LPS-Capto group, they were shorter than those in the LPS group. Moreover, the slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) decreased in the LPS group, as compared to the control group, whereas, in the LPS-Capto group, they increased compared to the LPS group. The results of the present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced memory and LTP impairments induced by LPS in rats. Further investigations are required in order to better understand the exact responsible mechanism(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7676512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5088279PMC
October 2016

The effects of captopril on lipopolysaccharide induced learning and memory impairments and the brain cytokine levels and oxidative damage in rats.

Life Sci 2016 Dec 26;167:46-56. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran.

Aim: Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also involves in learning and memory. In the present study, the effects of captopril on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced learning and memory impairments, hippocampal cytokine levels and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated.

Materials And Methods: The rats were divided and treated : [1] saline (Control), [2] LPS (1mg/kg), [3-5] 10, 50 or 100mg/kg captopril 30min before LPS. The treatment was started since six days before the behavioral experiments and continued during the behavioral tests (LPS injection two h before each behavioral experiment).

Results: Administration of LPS prolonged the escape latency and traveled path to find the platform in Morris water maze (MWM) test (P<0.01-P<0.001) while, shortened the latency to enter the dark compartment in passive avoidance (PA) test (P<0.001). Pretreatment by all doses of captopril improved performances of the rats in MWM (P<0.05-P<0.001) and also prolonged the latency to enter the dark in PA test (P<0.001). LPS also increased IL-6, TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide(NO) metabolites in the hippocampal tissues (P<0.05-P<0.001) which were prevented by captopril (P<0.05-P<0.001). The thiol, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in the hippocampus of LPS group were lower than the control (P<0.001) while, they were enhanced when the aniamls were pretraeted by captopril (P<0.01-P<0.001).

Conclusion: The results of present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced learning and memory impairments in rats which were accompanied with attenuating hippocampal cytokine levels and improving the brain tissues oxidative damage criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2016.10.026DOI Listing
December 2016

The effects of Nigella sativa on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in male Wistar rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):104-16

Neurocognitive Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: Neuroimmune factors contribute on the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. Nigella sativa (NS) has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects. In the present study, the effect of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated.

Materials And Methods: The rats were divided into five groups (n=10 in each): (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, administered two hours before behavioral tests), (3-5) LPS-Nigella sativa 100 , 200 and 400 mg/kg (LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400, respectively). Open- field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed.

Results: In OF, LPS reduced the peripheral crossing, peripheral distance, total crossing and total distance compared to control (p<0.01- p<0.001). The central crossing, central distance and central time in LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS200 and LPS-NS 400 groups were higher than LPS (p<0.01- p<0.001). In EPM, LPS decreased the open arm entries, open arm time and closed arm entries while increased the closed time compared to control (p<0.001). Pretreatment by NS extract reversed the effects of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). In FST, LPS increased the immobility time while, decreased the climbing and active times compared to control (p<0.05- p<0.001). In LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400 groups the immobility time was less while, the active and climbing times were more than those of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS reduced the LPS-induced sickness behaviors in rats. Further investigations are required for better understanding the responsible compound (s) and the underlying mechanism(s).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884223PMC
June 2016

The impact of kangaroo care and music on maternal state anxiety.

Complement Ther Med 2013 Oct 14;21(5):468-72. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Department of Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The effect of kangaroo care (KC) has not been adequately studied in mothers. This present study was undertaken to determine if music during KC has a greater effect than KC alone, on maternal state anxiety (MSA) in the early postpartum period.

Design And Setting: In a randomized controlled trial, 90 Iranian women who were scheduled for a repeat Cesarean-section, were randomized into three groups: KC, music during KC, and a control group. Mothers' pain scores were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). If the VAS score was ≤3, then MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Scale (Spielberg). Interventions were 30 min KC for mother-infant dyads, or playing music for the mothers during KC. Six hours later, in cases where the VAS was ≤3, the MSA was re-measured using Spielberg's scale for all mothers.

Results: Six hours post intervention, there was no significant difference in the overall mean scores of MSA between the groups, but the severity of MSA in the two experimental groups was less than in the control group (P=0.02), although not between the two experimental groups.

Conclusions: The findings of this study provide evidence that KC has an effect on the severity of MSA in mothers who were delivered by C-section, however, music during KC had no more effect than KC alone. More research is needed to document the effectiveness of selected or familiar music during KC on state anxiety in early postpartum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2013.07.006DOI Listing
October 2013

Two cases of bacteremia due to an unusual pathogen, Comamonas testosteroni in Iran and a review literature.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2012 Jun 15;6(6):521-5. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz 71937-11351, Iran.

Here we describe two cases of bacteremia caused by Comamonas testosteroni in two malignant patients, a 10-year-old boy with brain medulloblastoma and a 19-year-old girl with osteosarcoma admitted in the same hospital at short intervals. This is the first report in Iran on this low inherent virulence organism as a human pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.2215DOI Listing
June 2012
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