Publications by authors named "Fatemeh Ghadimi"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of COVID-19-like Symptoms among People Living with HIV, and Using Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention and Treatment.

Curr HIV Res 2020 ;18(5):373-380

Liver Transplantation Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Background: COVID-19 has spread globally with remarkable speed, and currently, there is limited data available exploring any aspect of the intersection between HIV and SARSCoV- 2 co-infection.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Tehran, Iran.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: A total of 200 PLWH were recruited through the positive club via sampling, and completed the symptom-based questionnaire for COVID-19, which was delivered by trained peers.

Results: Of 200 participants, respiratory symptoms, including cough, sputum, and shortness of breath, were the most prevalent among participants, but only one person developed symptoms collectively suggested COVID-19 and sought treatments.

Conclusion: It appears that existing infection with HIV or receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) might reduce the susceptibility to the infection with SARS-CoV-2 or decrease the severity of the infection acquired. Further research is needed to understand causal mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X18666200712175535DOI Listing
October 2020

Bone Marrow Aspiration/Biopsy in the Evaluation of Fever of Unknown Origin in Patients with AIDS.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV can interrupt the normal development of bone marrow cell lines. Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy (BMA/B) has been described as a diagnostic tool in AIDS patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). In this study, we aimed to study patients with AIDS who had undergone a BMA/B to investigate FUO and describe the pathologies diagnosed in the biopsy.

Methods: Thirty-four BMA/B samples were collected from AIDS patients admitted for workup of FUO to the infectious disease ward of a tertiary referral HIV center in Tehran, Iran, between September 2014 and September 2015. Data including age, sex, duration of disease, CD4 cell counts, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) coinfection, the primary presentation of AIDS, and the treatment history were retrieved and analyzed. Patients underwent BMA/B. An expert pathologist reviewed the BMA/B specimens.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 37.5 years (range, 26-56), and 27 (79%) were men. Twenty-seven (79%) patients contracted HIV from injection drug use, and 7 (21%) via sexual transmission. Only 3 (9%) of the BMA/B examinations were normal. Hypocellular bone marrow was diagnosed in 22 (65%) patients. Other pathologies included granulomas in 6 (18%), hematologic malignancies in 2 (6%), and leishmaniasis Aspergillosis, each in 1 (3%) patient. Six (17%) of the specimens were found to have tuberculosis infections.

Conclusion: Hypocellular bone marrow was the most common pathology on BMA/B examinations, followed by the presence of granulomas. Tuberculosis, Aspergillosis, and Leishmaniasis were the opportunistic infections diagnosed on BMA/B specimens. Our results support BMA/B as an appropriate diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of opportunistic infections and malignancies in AIDS. BMA/B is indispensable in the armament of diagnostic tools of the physicians managing AIDS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200705212903DOI Listing
July 2020

Symmetrical polyneuropathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

IDCases 2020 15;21:e00815. Epub 2020 May 15.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus that began in late December 2019 was announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization as the number of cases is increasing exponentially throughout the globe. We presented a patient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia developing symmetric polyneuropathy. To our knowledge, extrapulmonary clinical presentations of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have rarely been reported. This case highlights the possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and nervous system involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255269PMC
May 2020

Epidemiology of HIV in Iran.

Curr HIV Res 2020 ;18(4):228-236

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Iran has been one of the active countries fighting against HIV/AIDS in the Middle East during the last decades. Moreover, there is a strong push to strengthen the national health management system concerning HIV prevention and control. In Iran, HIV disease has its unique features, from changes in modes of transmission to improvement in treatment and care programs, which can make it a good case for closer scrutiny. The present review describes the HIV epidemic in Iran from the first case diagnosed until prevention among different groups at risk and co-infections. Not only we addressed the key populations and community-based attempts to overcome HIV-related issues in clinics, but we also elaborated on the efforts and trends in society and the actual behaviors related to HIV/AIDS. Being located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, given the countryspecific characteristics, and despite all the national efforts along with other countries in this region, Iran still needs to take extra measures to reduce HIV transmission, especially in health education. Although Iran is one of the pioneers in implementing applicable and appropriate policies in the MENA region, including harm reduction services to reduce HIV incidence, people with substance use disorder continue to be the majority of those living with HIV in the country. Similar to other countries in this region, the HIV prevention and control programs aim at 90-90-90 targets to eliminate HIV infection and reduce the transmission, especially the mother-to-child transmission and among other key populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X18666200605152317DOI Listing
January 2020

Lung Involvement Found on Chest CT Scan in a Pre-Symptomatic Person with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case Report.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 Apr 7;5(2). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1419733141, Iran.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection is spreading worldwide, and there are many reports of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by this infection. However, asymptomatic lung involvement has not been reported. We hereby present the case of a 44-year-old health-care worker, who was found to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus after a CT-scan performed for an unrelated condition revealed a lesion in the lung field compatible with COVID-19 infection. His condition deteriorated initially, but eventually improved with supportive treatment and the compassionate use of antivirals and antimalarials and is now in a stable condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344491PMC
April 2020

Successful pregnancy and weight loss management in a woman unknowingly pregnant at the time of bariatric surgery: a case report.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Feb 10;20(1):94. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Preventing unintended pregnancy is an important issue for women undergoing bariatric surgery, not only to avoid an adverse fetal outcome but to also ensure maximum weight loss for mother. Current guidelines strongly advise to use a reliable method of contraception following surgery and to delay pregnancy for 12-18 months after surgery.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy while she was unknowingly pregnant. She was monitored closely throughout her pregnancy for maternal-fetal wellbeing and delivered a healthy full-term girl. At her last follow-up visit 6 months post-delivery, both mother and infant were in good general condition and the mother achieved 94.4% excess weight loss.

Conclusions: In all-female patients of childbearing age planning to undergo bariatric surgery, pregnancy should be avoided by using a reliable method of contraception well before surgery. Pregnancy should also be excluded on the day of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2794-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011514PMC
February 2020

Obesity, Heart Failure, and Obesity Paradox.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2017 Jan;12(1):1-5

Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The incidence and prevalence of obesity are fast increasing worldwide. Various indices have been used to measure and assess obesity. The body mass index (BMI) is the most common and practical of these indices. Overweight and obesity exert considerable adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. These effects are mediated through various neurohormonal and cytokine pathways, most of which are inflammatory mediators. Systolic and / or diastolic heart failure is more prevalent among obese and overweight individuals than among normal weight people. The concept of the "obesity paradox" has been proposed by some previously published studies, in which the prognosis of obese patients with established cardiovascular diseases, especially heart failure, is better than that of their leaner counterparts. In this review, we discuss the obesity paradox and its possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409942PMC
January 2017

Interaction between harmane, a class of β-carboline alkaloids, and the CA1 serotonergic system in modulation of memory acquisition.

Neurosci Res 2017 Sep 2;122:17-24. Epub 2017 Apr 2.

Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study set to assess the involvement of dorsal hippocampus (CA1) serotonergic system on harmane induced memory acquisition deficit. We used one trial step-down inhibitory avoidancetask to evaluate memory retention and then, open field test to evaluate locomotor activity in adult male NMRI mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) induced impairment of memory acquisition. Pre-training intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist (CP94253; 0.5 and 5ng/mouse) and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist (α-methyl 5-HT; 50ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition. Furthermore, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist (GR127935; 0.5ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (cinancerine; 5ng/mouse) improved memory acquisition. In addition, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold dose of CP94253 (0.05ng/mouse) and α-methyl 5-HT (5ng/mouse) potentiated impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of sub-threshold dose of GR127935 (0.05ng/mouse) and cinancerine (0.5ng/mouse) with the administration of harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.) weakened impairment of memory acquisition. Moreover, all above doses of drugs did not change locomotor activity. The present findings suggest that there is an interaction between harmane and the CA1 serotonergic system in modulation of memory acquisition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2017.03.011DOI Listing
September 2017

HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere's Disease Compared to Probable Meniere's Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jul;28(87):262-6

Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, AmirAlam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Several lines of evidence support the contribution of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. The aim of this study was determining the association between HLA-Cw Alleles in patients with definite Meniere's disease and patients with probable Meniere's disease and a control group.

Materials And Methods: HLA-Cw genotyping was performed in 23 patients with definite Meniere's disease, 24 with probable Meniere's disease, and 91 healthy normal subjects, using sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analysis was performed using stata 8 software.

Results: There was a significant association between HLA-Cw*04 and HLA-Cw*16 in both definite and probable Meniere's disease compared to normal healthy controls. We observed a significant difference in HLA-Cw*12 frequencies between patients with definite Meniere's disease compared to patients with probable Meniere's disease (P=0.04). The frequency of HLA-Cw*18 is significantly higher in healthy controls (P=0.002).

Conclusion: Our findings support the rule of HLA-Cw Alleles in both definite and probable Meniere's disease. In addition, differences in HLA-Cw*12 frequency in definite and probable Meniere's disease in our study's population might indicate distinct immune and inflammatory mechanisms involved in each condition.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994985PMC
July 2016

[Not Available].

Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 May-Jun;64(3):169-72. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Departamento de Anestesiologia e Tratamento Intensivo, Hospital Dr. Ali Shariati, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Irã. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjan.2013.06.014DOI Listing
August 2015

[A randomized, double blind trial of prophylactic fibrinogen to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery].

Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 Jul-Aug;64(4):253-7. Epub 2014 Jun 3.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Irã. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Postoperative bleeding has a great clinical importance and can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate on post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery bleeding.

Methods: A total of 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the fibrinogen group received 1g of fibrinogen concentrate 30min prior to the operation, while patients in the control group received placebo. Post-operative bleeding volumes, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, INR, hemoglobin and transfused blood products in both groups were recorded. A strict red blood cell transfusion protocol was used in all patients.

Results: There were no significant differences between intra-operative packed red blood cells infusion in the studied groups (1.0±1.4 in fibrinogen group, and 1.3±1.1 in control group). Less postoperative bleeding was observed in the fibrinogen group (477±143 versus 703±179, p=0.0001). Fifteen patients in the fibrinogen group and 21 in the control group required post-op packed red blood cells infusion (p=0.094). No thrombotic event was observed through 72h after surgery.

Conclusion: Prophylactic fibrinogen reduces post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjan.2013.10.008DOI Listing
August 2014

A randomized, double blind trial of prophylactic fibrinogen to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 Jul-Aug;64(4):253-7. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Postoperative bleeding has a great clinical importance and can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate on post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery bleeding.

Methods: A total of 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the fibrinogen group received 1g of fibrinogen concentrate 30 min prior to the operation, while patients in the control group received placebo. Post-operative bleeding volumes, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, INR, hemoglobin and transfused blood products in both groups were recorded. A strict red blood cell transfusion protocol was used in all patients.

Results: There were no significant differences between intra-operative packed red blood cells infusion in the studied groups (1.0±1.4 in fibrinogen group, and 1.3±1.1 in control group). Less postoperative bleeding was observed in the fibrinogen group (477±143 versus 703±179, p=0.0001). Fifteen patients in the fibrinogen group and 21 in the control group required post-op packed red blood cells infusion (p=0.094). No thrombotic event was observed through 72 h after surgery.

Conclusion: Prophylactic fibrinogen reduces post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.10.010DOI Listing
August 2015

Ondansetron reducing pain on injection of etomidate: a controlled randomized study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 May-Jun;64(3):169-72. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Etomidate causes pain when injected intravenously. In this study we sought to determine if pretreatment by ondansetron reduces the pain on injection of etomidate.

Methods: In this randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 20 patients of both sexes aged between 18 and 50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class I or II, whom were candidates for various elective surgical procedures and need more than one intravenous access were enrolled in the study. On arrival to the operating room two 22 gauge cannulas were inserted into veins on the dorsum of both hands. Following the infusion of 100mL normal saline into both intravenous lines, using an elastic band, venous drainage of hands was occluded at midarm. The patients were administered 8 mg (2 mL) of ondansetron into one hand and 2 mL of 0.9% saline into the other hand at the same time. The elastic band was removed after 1 min and 2mg (1 mL) of etomidate was administered at the same rate simultaneously into intravenous lines. The patients were asked to give a score of pain based on a verbal analog scale (VAS) to each hand.

Results: A total number of 20 patients were studied (male = 55%, female = 45%). The mean age of the participants was 37.5 ± 13.1 years old and the mean weight was 67.7 ± 7.3 kg. The mean VAS for injection pain of etomidate after pre-administration of intravenous ondansetron was 1.5 ± 1.2 which was lower compared to pre-administration of placebo (3.2 ± 2.8, p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study illustrates that pre-treatment with intravenous ondansetron significantly reduces the pain on injection of etomidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2013.06.013DOI Listing
April 2015