Publications by authors named "Fatemeh Ebrahimi"

42 Publications

The Effect of Teaching Formulaic Expressions Through Contrastive Lexical Approach on Iranian Pre-intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Skill.

J Psycholinguist Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of the contrastive lexical approach on Iranian EFL learners' writing skills. For this study, forty pre-intermediate students from a private English language institutes in Ahvaz, Iran were selected. Then, they were randomly divided into two equal groups of 20; one experimental and one control group. To have two groups of equal numbers, we used a block randomization sampling method. All of these students were female, ranging in age from 18 to 30. Their level of English language proficiency had already been determined by the Institute to be pre-intermediate. First, they were given a pre-test to determine their writing ability. Afterward, the experimental group received writing practices through the Contrastive Lexical Approach (CLA), during 14 sessions. Each session lasted for an hour and a half. The teacher sensitized learners in the experimental group towards the presence of L2 equivalents for L1 formulaic expressions, while the control group received an ordinary, traditional instruction, during which learners read texts containing the same formulaic expressions as for the experimental group without receiving any translation and were then asked to write about the same topics. At the end of the course, a post-test was administered to the two groups. Data were analyzed through independent and paired samples t tests after ensuring the normality of the data. Finally, to discover the power of the statistical tests, the effect size was also calculated. The study showed that using a contrastive lexical approach has a significant positive effect on Iranian EFL learners' writing skills. As the findings in this study propose, the writing skill can be improved through the use of a contrastive lexical approach. Teaching through a contrastive lexical approach, hopefully, gives the learners the chance to fathom their skillful writing competence, which requires the proper use of varied forms of structures and expressions and this, in turn, may sensitize them to know more about what language features to work on to increase their writing proficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-021-09778-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism following hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019: Prospective results from a multi-center study.

Thromb Res 2021 02 11;198:135-138. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism appear to be major causes of mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, few studies have focused on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hospitalization for COVID-19.

Methods: In this multi-center study, we followed 1529 COVID-19 patients for at least 45 days after hospital discharge, who underwent routine telephone follow-up. In case of signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), they were invited for an in-hospital visit with a pulmonologist. The primary outcome was symptomatic VTE within 45 days of hospital discharge.

Results: Of 1529 COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital, a total of 228 (14.9%) reported potential signs or symptoms of PE or DVT and were seen for an in-hospital visit. Of these, 13 and 12 received Doppler ultrasounds or pulmonary CT angiography, respectively, of whom only one patient was diagnosed with symptomatic PE. Of 51 (3.3%) patients who died after discharge, two deaths were attributed to VTE corresponding to a 45-day cumulative rate of symptomatic VTE of 0.2% (95%CI 0.1%-0.6%; n = 3). There was no evidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in these patients. Other deaths after hospital discharge included myocardial infarction (n = 13), heart failure (n = 9), and stroke (n = 9).

Conclusions: We did not observe a high rate of symptomatic VTE in COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. Routine extended thromboprophylaxis after hospitalization for COVID-19 may not have a net clinical benefit. Randomized trials may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836837PMC
February 2021

Applying Membrane Distillation for the Recovery of Nitrate from Saline Water Using PVDF Membranes Modified as Superhydrophobic Membranes.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 24;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 73441-81746, Iran.

In this study, a flat sheet direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) module was designed to eliminate nitrate from water. A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was used in a DCMD process at an ambient pressure and at a temperature lower than the boiling point of water. The electrical conductivity of the feed containing nitrate increased, while the electrical conductivity of the permeate remained constant during the entire process. The results indicated that the nitrate ions failed to pass through the membrane and their concentration in the feed increased as pure water passed through the membrane. Consequently, the membrane was modified using TiO nanoparticles to make a hierarchical surface with multi-layer roughness on the micro/nanoscales. Furthermore, 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorododecyltrichlorosilane (FTCS) was added to the modified surface to change its hydrophobic properties into superhydrophobic properties and to improve its performance. The results for both membranes were compared and reported on a pilot scale using MATLAB. In the experimental scale (a membrane surface area of 0.0014 m, temperature of 77 °C, nitrate concentration of 0.9 g/Kg, and flow rate of 0.0032 Kg/s), the flux was 2.3 Kgmh. The simulation results of MATLAB using these data showed that for the removal of nitrate (with a concentration of 35 g/Kg) from the intake feed with a flow rate of 1 Kg/s and flux of 0.96 Kgmh, a membrane surface area of 0.5 m was needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760171PMC
November 2020

Low-dose angiotensin AT receptor β-arrestin-biased ligand, TRV027, protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Pharmacol Rep 2020 Dec 22;72(6):1676-1684. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Recruitment of β-arrestin to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), initially described to cause receptor desensitization, has recently been shown to take active roles in cell signaling. We investigated the effects of TRV027, an angiotensin AT receptor β-arrestin-biased ligand, as well as losartan and valsartan on cisplatin-induced kidney injury.

Method: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with angiotensin receptor ligands (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) with or without cisplatin, and kidney variables were monitored using animal SPECT, histopathology, and serum parameters.

Results: TRV027, losartan, and valsartan did not alter renal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) uptake, histopathological manifestations of kidney injury, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine or Na and K levels, per se. However, when rats co-treated with cisplatin and either of the AT receptor blockers at higher doses, we observed aggravation of cisplatin-induced reduction of radiotracer uptake but improvement of cisplatin-induced hypokalemia, and insignificant effect on histological findings. Furthermore, we noted an additional increase in cisplatin-induced augmentation of BUN and creatinine levels in cisplatin plus valsartan group. TRV027 (1 mg/kg/day) inhibited cisplatin adverse effects on radiotracer uptake, kidney histology, BUN, and creatinine as well as electrolyte levels, but it failed to produce protective effects at higher dose (10 mg/kg/day).

Conclusion: Low-dose TRV027 may offer potential benefits in kidney injury due to cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00172-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Formation of a Stable Bridge between Two Disjoint Nanotubes with Single-File Chains of Water.

J Phys Chem B 2020 Sep 16;124(38):8340-8346. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1211, United States.

It was recently demonstrated that stable water bridges can form between two relatively large disjoint nanochannels, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), under an applied pressure drop. Such bridges are relevant to fabrication of nanostructured materials, drug delivery, water desalination devices, hydrogen fuel cells, dip-pen nanolithography, and several other applications. If the nanotubes are small enough, however, then one has only single-file hydrogen-bonded chains of water molecules. The distribution of water in such nanotubes manifests unusual physical properties that are attributed to the low number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed in the channel since, on average, each water molecule in a single-file chain forms only 1.7 HBs, almost half of the value for bulk water. Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that stable bridges can form even between two small disjoint CNTs that contain single-file chains of water. The structure, stability, and properties of such bridges and their dependence on the applied pressure drop and the length of the gap between the two CNTs are studied in detail, as is the distribution of the HBs. We demonstrate, in particular, that the efficiency of flow through the bridge is at maximum at a specific pressure difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c05331DOI Listing
September 2020

Assessing the effect of MitoQ and Vitamin D3 on ovarian oxidative stress, steroidogenesis and histomorphology in DHEA induced PCOS mouse model.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 28;6(7):e04279. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) continues to be one of the most complex reproductive and endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Recent reports have identified close interaction of Vitamin D deficiency and oxidative stress (OS) in exacerbating the pathophysiology of PCOS. This current study aims at assessing the combine effect of MitoQ and Vitamin D3 on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) induced PCOS. Following successful induction of PCOS using DHEA, mice were organized into five groups ( = 8) namely: Negative Control (NC), Vitamin D3 Vehicle (VDV), Vitamin D3 (VD), MitoQ (MQ), Vitamin D3 plus MitoQ (V+M) and DHEA, ethanol and distilled water, Vitamin D3, MitoQ and Vitamin D3 plus MitoQ were respectively administered for 20 consecutive days. The study also included positive control (PC) group ( = 8) in which no treatment was applied. Treatment effects were assessed using hormonal assays, biochemical assays, Real-Time PCR, western blotting and histological analysis. Combination of Vitamin D3 and MitoQ significantly reduced levels of estradiol, progesterone, FSH, LH, LH/FSH, SOD and MDA. The expression rate of mRNAs of 3β-HSD, Cyp19a1, Cyp11a1, StAR, Keap1, HO-1 and Nrf2 were also significantly low in V+M group. Moreover, the histomorphological inspection of ovaries from this group revealed many healthy follicles at various stages of development including few atretic follicles, pre-antral and antral follicles and many corpora lutea. The characteristics observed in this group were in many ways similar to that of the PC group. The combination of MitoQ and Vitamin D3 may be potential candidate to ameliorate PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393412PMC
July 2020

A dinuclear rhenium complex in the electrochemically driven homogeneous and heterogeneous H/CO-reduction.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jun;49(24):8367-8374

Universität Göttingen, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Tammannstr. 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

A dinculear Re(CO)3 complex with a proton responsive phenol unit and a pyrene anchor in the ligand backbone was investigated in the electrochemical CO2/H+ conversion in solution and adsorbed on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on an GC electrode surface. The pyrene group unit is introduced at the end of the ligand synthesis via a coupling reaction, which allows for a versatile ligand modification in order to tune the electronic properties or to introduce various anchor groups for heterogenisation at a late stage. The redox chemistry of the pyrene-α-diimine-Re(CO)3 complex, 1, was investigated in N,N-dimethylformamide (dmf), including IR-spectroelectrochemical (IR-SEC) characterisation of the short lived, reduced species. Subsequently, the electrochemical H+/CO2-reduction catalysis in dmf/water was investigated. The complex catalyses syngas formation yielding CO and H2 with similar rates, namely in Faraday yields of 45% and 35%, respectively. Since the similar complex without the pyrene anchor in the backbone, I, prefers CO2 over H+ reduction, the formation of syngas was rationalised by the small differences in the redox properties and pKa values of the phenol-pyrene unit in regard to phenol unit as in I. Subsequently, the complex was adsorbed on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on a GC electrode surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed coating of the electrode. The immobilised complex was utilised in the electrochemical CO2/H+ reduction in dmf/water, however, the complex quickly desorbed under reductive conditions, likely due to the good solubility of the reduced species. Water as a solvent prevents desorption as confirmed by XPS, however, then a preference for H2 formation over syngas formation was observed under electrocatalytic conditions. Thus, these experiments show, that the results obtained in aqueous organic solution are not easily transferable to the heterogeneous systems operating in water due to changes in the reaction rates for competing pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt00381fDOI Listing
June 2020

The Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on Apoptosis and nNOS Immunoreactivity Following Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid Injections in Rats.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2020 Jan-Feb;11(1):41-48. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Kainic Acid (KA) is an ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist. KA can induce neuronal overactivity and excitotoxicity. Rosmarinic Acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-neurodegenerative, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to assess the effect of RA on apoptosis, nNOS-positive neurons number, as well as Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunoreactivity, following intrahippocampal Kainic acid injection in rats.

Methods: The study rats were randomly assigned to three groups of sham, KA (KA was injected into the right side of the hippocampus) and KA+RA (a dose of 10 mg/kg/day through a gavage needle for one week before KA injection). Then, histopathological changes, including apoptosis [Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay], nNOS-positive neurons number, as well as COX-2 and MAPK immunoreactivity were evaluated in the hippocampus.

Results: In the RA pretreated group, nNOS-positive neurons and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly reduced compared to the KA group (P<0.05). COX-2and MAPK immunoreactivity demonstrated no significant changes compared to the KA group. They indicated a significant higher reactivity for COX-2 (P<0.01) and MAPK (P<0.005) versus the sham group.

Conclusion: RA had neuroprotective effects, compared to KA, through reduced apoptosis and nNOS-positive neurons, but not MAPK and COX-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.9.10.340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253813PMC
January 2020

Attitudes and Practice of Health Care Workers about Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Isfahan, Iran.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2020 Mar-Apr;25(2):111-116. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health School, and Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) play a key role in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention program, care and treat People Living with HIV (PLHIV). The evaluation of the attitude and performance among HCWs is regarded as one effective method for preventing the (HIV) spreading. This study was aimed to assess the attitude and practice of HCWs about HIV in Isfahan.

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 350 eligible participants from five academic hospitals, three academics dental clinics and six health centers by the convenience multistage sampling. A standard questionnaire was used to evaluate HIV attitudes among the HCWs in Isfahan. The variables were compared between males and females by Chi-square and -test. In addition, linear and logistic regression was utilized to investigate the factors affecting attitude.

Results: Respondents had a moderate level of attitude toward PLHIV About 2.00% of the respondents had a good attitude. Marital status (β=-11.79, = 0.048) was associated with attitude. Among women, wearing gloves was associated with attitude (β=5.96, = 0.041).

Conclusions: HIV attitude was not satisfactory among the HCWs in Isfahan. Therefore, the necessary measures and training are needed to improve the attitudes of health personnel and reduce stigma and discrimination toward PLHIV in health systems. Also, it is recommended to strongly monitor HIV infection control guidelines and instruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_67_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055188PMC
February 2020

Medicinal Plants as Potential Hemostatic Agents.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2020 ;23(1):10-23

School of Traditional Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: Medicinal plants with a variety of phytochemical ingredients remain a potential source for new drug discovery. The use of medicinal herbs in a wide range of diseases and symptoms, such as bleeding, is prevalent in traditional and ethno medicine worldwide. Thus, this work provides a comprehensive review of medicinal plants or their isolated compounds, with respect to their ethno-medicinal use, which have demonstrated the stimulating effect on the hemostasis process.

Methods: The relevant studies were withdrawn from electronic databases including Pubmed, EMBASE and Web of Science with a structured search methodology.

Results: The total of 17 medicinal plants with hemostatic activity were extracted. The most frequently studied plant families were Compositae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Bioactive compounds exerting hemostatic activity included tannins, iridoid glycosides, glycoconjugate, lignan, saponins and phenolic compounds. The most attributed mechanisms include coagulation stimulation via increasing the factor XII activity and plasma fibrinogen levels, the fibrinolysis inhibition, vascular or smooth muscle constriction and platelet aggregation. The most important adverse effects of high dose extract or isolated compounds administration were hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

Conclusion: This review provides a list of medicinal plants with hemostatic activity that could be used as valuable sources of new plant-based hemostatic agents. Furthermore, this could be practical in detecting possible interactions of plants with anticoagulant, antiplatelet, fibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30446DOI Listing
January 2020

Gold nanoparticles promote a multimodal synergistic cancer therapy strategy by co-delivery of thermo-chemo-radio therapy.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2020 Mar 25;145:105235. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Multimodal cancer therapy has become a new trend in clinical oncology due to potential generation of synergistic therapeutic effects. Herein, we propose a multifunctional nanoplatform comprising alginate hydrogel co-loaded with cisplatin and gold nanoparticles (abbreviated as ACA) for triple combination of photothermal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (thermo-chemo-radio therapy). The therapeutic potential of ACA was assessed in combination with 532 nm laser and 6 MV X-ray against KB human mouth epidermal carcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that tri-modal thermo-chemo-radio therapy using ACA induced a superior anticancer efficacy than mono- or bi-modality treatments. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in KB cells treated with tri-modal therapy was increased by 4.4-fold compared to untreated cells. The gene expression analysis demonstrated the up-regulation of Bax pro-apoptotic factor (by 4.5-fold) and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic factor (by 0.3-fold). The massive cell injury and the appearance of morphological characteristics of apoptosis were also evident in the micrograph of KB cells caused by thermo-chemo-radio therapy. Therefore, ACA nanocomplex can be offered as a promising platform to combine photothermal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thereby affording an opportunity for combating chemo- and radio-resistant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105235DOI Listing
March 2020

Hemostatic activity of aqueous extract of Myrtus communis L. leaf in topical formulation: In vivo and in vitro evaluations.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 23;249:112398. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Myrtus communis L. (MC) is a well-known medicinal plant in traditional Persian medicine, which contains a large amount of phenolic compounds (mainly hydrolyzable tannins). As mentioned in ancient literature, MC was widely used to control bleeding in every part of the body. Nevertheless, there is no pharmacological study on the anti-hemorrhagic activity of this plant till now.

Aim Of The Study: The current in vivo and in vitro study aimed at evaluating the hemostatic activity of M. communis aqueous leaf extract (MCE) in topical formulation.

Materials And Methods: Two parameters of bleeding time and amount in tail bleeding model were measured in vivo in rats treated with MCE (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% w/v), 5% M. communis aqueous leaf extract gel (G), tannic acid (TA) (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), normal saline (NS), and the Monsel's solution (MS), a commercial hemostatic agent. Also, the effect of 5% MCE and 5% TA on PT (prothrombin time) and aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) as well as protein precipitation and platelet aggregation were assessed in vitro.

Results: In the rat-tail bleeding model, bleeding time and amount significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by the application of 5% MCE solution on the cut tail compared with the NS group. The bleeding time and amount in the MS group were not significantly different from those of the 5% MCE group. Platelet microaggregates were detected by fluorescent microscope. PT and aPTT values increased >120 s and >180 s by 5% MCE, respectively. Also, protein precipitation and significant reduction in serum proteins were observed in the 5% MCE group.

Conclusion: The current study provided new insights into the hemostatic effect of MCE, which may be partially mediated by platelet aggregation activity. Hence, it could be evaluated as the resource of new plant origin hemostatic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112398DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2019 14;12:2107-2115. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is accompanied by elevated inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia which all contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Saffron as a complementary medicine and source of antioxidants could play a role in alleviating diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of saffron supplementation as an adjunct therapy in T2D.

Patients And Methods: This randomized controlled trial included 80 T2D patients with a mean age of 54.1 years. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to take either saffron tablets (100 mg/day; n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and after the intervention period to quantify glycemic factors, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Anthropometric indices and dietary intakes were also measured at baseline and at study end.

Results: Compared with placebo, saffron supplementation resulted in significant decreases in waist circumference (<0.001) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other indices, including anthropometric parameters, serum insulin, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity indices, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total antioxidant capacity, and tumor necrosis factor-α between the study groups (>0.05).

Conclusion: Overall, 12 weeks of saffron supplementation in diabetic patients had beneficial effects on waist circumference and serum MDA levels. However, saffron did not influence other evaluated cardio metabolic risk markers in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S216666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798815PMC
October 2019

An approach to optimize the location of LNAPL recovery wells using the concept of a LNAPL specific yield.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Oct 2;26(28):28714-28724. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Leakage of hydrocarbon fuel (light nonaqueous-phase liquid, LNAPL) from petroleum processing facilities and storage tanks may result in significant subsurface contamination. Remediating the contaminated areas represent considerable challenges, especially when remediation resources are limited and site data are incomplete. A reasonable management strategy under this scenario may be to identify sites where LNAPL recovery operations should be located that would provide the largest LNAPL recovery initially while minimizing the LNAPL remaining in the subsurface (entrapped and residual LNAPL), which may serve as future sources for groundwater contamination. To accomplish this objective, we use estimates of subsurface recoverable and total LNAPL specific volumes and LNAPL transmissivities to generate GIS maps that can be combined to highlight locations where to develop LNAPL recovery operations. When the approach is applied to a LNAPL-contaminated area in Iran, we were able to narrow the locations for potential LNAPL recovery operations. Specifically, we combine maps of the LNAPL specific yield, an introduced term, and the LNAPL transmissivity where the LNAPL specific yield is the ratio of the recoverable to total LNAPL specific volumes. The LNAPL specific yield is a relative measure of the amount of LNAPL that potentially can be recovered while minimizing residual LNAPL in soils. The approach can be applied to sites where the recoverable and total LNAPL specific volumes and LNAPL transmissivities can be estimated using data from boreholes in the contaminated area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06052-7DOI Listing
October 2019

The effect of saffron ( L.) supplementation on blood pressure, and renal and liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2019 Jul-Aug;9(4):322-333

Department of Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Microalbuminuria and hypertension are the risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, and increased levels of liver enzymes are prevalent among diabetic patients. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of supplementation on nephropathy indices, liver enzymes, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Materials And Methods: This placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed among 80 T2D patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to either (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) groups and treated with and or placebo for 12 weeks, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum urea, creatinine, 24-hr urine albumin, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), physical activity, and dietary intakes were measured and blood samples were taken at baseline and after the 12‑week intervention to assess the differences between the two groups.

Results: supplementation compared with the placebo resulted in a significant reduction of SBP (P<0.005). However, changes in other indices including liver enzymes, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hr urine albumin, and DBP were not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). Also, no significant changes in dietary intakes and physical activity were seen between the two groups.

Conclusion: This report shows that daily supplementation with 100 mg powder improved SBP. However, it did not considerably improve DBP, nephropathy indices and liver functions in T2D patients after 12 weeks of administration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612249PMC
July 2019

Efficient Transport Between Disjoint Nanochannels by a Water Bridge.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 May;122(21):214506

Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615, Iran.

Water channels are important to new purification systems, osmotic power harvesting in salinity gradients, hydroelectric voltage conversion, signal transmission, drug delivery, and many other applications. To be effective, water channels must have structures more complex than a single tube. One way of building such structures is through a water bridge between two disjoint channels that are not physically connected. We report on the results of extensive molecular dynamics simulation of water transport through such bridges between two carbon nanotubes separated by a nanogap. We show that not only can pressurized water be transported across a stable bridge, but also that (i) for a range of the gap's width l_{g} the bridge's hydraulic conductance G_{b} does not depend on l_{g}, (ii) the overall shape of the bridge is not cylindrical, and (iii) the dependence of G_{b} on the angle between the axes of two nonaligned nanochannels may be used to tune the flow rate between the two.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.214506DOI Listing
May 2019

Assessment of the protective effect of KN-93 drug in systemic epilepsy disorders induced by pilocarpine in male rat.

J Cell Biochem 2019 09 9;120(9):15906-15914. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aims: Epileptic seizures occur as a consequence of a sudden imbalance between the stimuli and inhibitors within the network of cortical neurons in favor of the stimulus. One of the drugs that induce epilepsy is pilocarpine. Systemic injection of pilocarpine affects on muscarinic receptors. Increasing evidence has addressed the implication of KN-93 by blocking Ca /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and also reducing neuron decay. So, we aimed to evaluate the potential preventive effects of KN-93 in systemic epilepsy disorders induced by pilocarpine.

Materials And Methods: In this animal study, male rats were divided into five groups including treatment group (KN-93 with the dose of 5 mM/10 µL dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before inducing epilepsy by 380 mg/kg pilocarpine) KN-93 group (received 5 mM KN-93), control group, epilepsy group (received 380 mg/kg pilocarpine Intraperitoneal), and sham group (received 10 µL DMSO). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring its indicators including the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, glutathione (GSH), as well as the antioxidant activity of catalase. In addition, serum levels of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined.

Results: Pretreatment with KN-93 significantly reduced oxidative stress index by reducing the concentration of MDA, nitrite, and increasing the level of GSH. In addition, low concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were observed in hippocampus supernatant of KN-93 pretreated rats in comparison with the pilocarpine groups. Moreover, administration of KN-93 improved neuronal density and attenuated the seizure activity and behavior.

Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that KN-93 can effectively suppress oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, KN-93 is able to attenuate seizure behaviors by preventing its effects on neuron loss, so, it is valuable for the treatment of epileptic seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28864DOI Listing
September 2019

Clostridium difficile isolated from faecal samples in patients with ulcerative colitis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 30;19(1):361. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Pathobiology and Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is widely identified worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients with UC at an inflammatory bowel disease clinic in Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted from April 2015 to December 2015, 85 UC patients were assessed for C.difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile isolates were characterized based on their toxin profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis (MLST) and PCR ribotyping were performed to define the genetic relationships between different lineages of toxigenic strains.

Results: The prevalence of C. difficile isolates was 31.8% (27/85) in patients, of those 15 patients (17.6%) had CDI. Three different sequence types (STs) identified based on MLST among the toxigenic isolates, that is ST54 (33.3%), ST2 (53.3%), and ST37 (13.6%). C. difficile strains were divided into four different PCR-ribotypes (012, 014, 017 and IR1). The most common ribotype was 014 accounting for 48.3% (7/15) of all strains. The strains isolated during the first episode and recurrence of CDI usually belonged to PCR ribotype 014 (ST2). A high rate of CDI recurrence (14.1%, 12/85) experienced in UC patients. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with non-toxigenic C. difficile strains was frequent among patients with mild disease. All C. difficile isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, and vancomycin, 86 and 67% of isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. There was no correlation between the toxin type and antibiotic resistance (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Overall CDI is rather prevalent in UC patients. All patients with CDI experienced moderate to severe disease and exposed to different antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. Close monitoring and appropriate management including early detection and fast treatment of CDI will improve UC outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3965-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6492486PMC
April 2019

Treatment planning for spinal radiosurgery : A competitive multiplatform benchmark challenge.

Strahlenther Onkol 2018 09 25;194(9):843-854. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate the quality of treatment plans of spinal radiosurgery derived from different planning and delivery systems. The comparisons include robotic delivery and intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) approaches. Multiple centers with equal systems were used to reduce a bias based on individual's planning abilities. The study used a series of three complex spine lesions to maximize the difference in plan quality among the various approaches.

Methods: Internationally recognized experts in the field of treatment planning and spinal radiosurgery from 12 centers with various treatment planning systems participated. For a complex spinal lesion, the results were compared against a previously published benchmark plan derived for CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) using circular cones only. For two additional cases, one with multiple small lesions infiltrating three vertebrae and a single vertebra lesion treated with integrated boost, the results were compared against a benchmark plan generated using a best practice guideline for CKRS. All plans were rated based on a previously established ranking system.

Results: All 12 centers could reach equality (n = 4) or outperform (n = 8) the benchmark plan. For the multiple lesions and the single vertebra lesion plan only 5 and 3 of the 12 centers, respectively, reached equality or outperformed the best practice benchmark plan. However, the absolute differences in target and critical structure dosimetry were small and strongly planner-dependent rather than system-dependent. Overall, gantry-based IMAT with simple planning techniques (two coplanar arcs) produced faster treatments and significantly outperformed static gantry intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and multileaf collimator (MLC) or non-MLC CKRS treatment plan quality regardless of the system (mean rank out of 4 was 1.2 vs. 3.1, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: High plan quality for complex spinal radiosurgery was achieved among all systems and all participating centers in this planning challenge. This study concludes that simple IMAT techniques can generate significantly better plan quality compared to previous established CKRS benchmarks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-018-1314-2DOI Listing
September 2018

Nanojunction Effects on Water Flow in Carbon Nanotubes.

Sci Rep 2018 May 17;8(1):7752. Epub 2018 May 17.

Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089-1211, USA.

We report on the results of extensive molecular dynamics simulation of water imbibition in carbon nanotubes (CNTs), connected together by converging or diverging nanojunctions in various configurations. The goal of the study is to understand the effect of the nanojunctions on the interface motion, as well as the differences between what we study and water imbibition in microchannels. While the dynamics of water uptake in the entrance CNT is the same as that of imbibition in straight CNTs, with the main source of energy dissipation being the friction at the entrance, water uptake in the exit CNT is more complex due to significant energy loss in the nanojunctions. We derive an approximate but accurate expression for the pressure drop in the nanojunction. A remarkable difference between dynamic wetting of nano- and microjunctions is that, whereas water absorption time in the latter depends only on the ratios of the radii and of the lengths of the channels, the same is not true about the former, which is shown to be strongly dependent upon the size of each segment of the nanojunction. Interface pinning-depinning also occurs at the convex edges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26072-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958144PMC
May 2018

Matrine Induction of ROS Mediated Apoptosis in Human ALL B-lymphocytes Via Mitochondrial Targeting

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Feb 26;19(2):555-560. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies among children, characterized by mass production of leukemic blasts. Chemotherapy is the first step in routine treatment, although it may evoke considerable side effects. Matrine, an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb, Sophora alopecuroides flavescens Ait, may be protective. Several investigations have indicated pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in a diverse range of cancer cells. Methods: Matrine’s anti-cancer effects and associated mechanisms were assessed in human ALL B-lymphocytes, focusing on parameters of inflammatory change and apoptosis. Results: Treatment of ALL B-lymphocytes with matrine augmented ROS generation, and caused mitochondrial swelling and a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Significant up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were also noted. Conclusion: Our results suggest that matrine may be a potential anticancer agent. However, additional studies are needed to clarify involved mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.2.555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980949PMC
February 2018

Ethnographic Exploration of Empowerment to Improve Elderly Residents' Quality of Life.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2017 Sep-Oct;22(5):414-419

Social Determinant of Health Research Centre, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Evidence underscores that empowerment is central to improve the elderly residents' quality of life. In truth, empowerment is a process through which individuals gain better control over their life. The aim of this study was to explore how perceived empowerment influence on the quality of life among elderly Malay residents.

Materials And Methods: A focus ethnographic approach was employed in a Malaysian residential home between May 2011 and January 2012. Data were gathered from participant observations, field notes, in-depth interviews, and exploring related documents.

Results: The analysis of the data gathered in the current study resulted in the development of three themes - social life and its requirements, caregivers' skills empowerment, and listening and supporting.

Conclusions: Findings of the study provide new insights that are useful in charting new guideline for care providers and policy makers to improve the elderly residents' quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_70_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5637154PMC
October 2017

Impact of radiation technique, radiation fraction dose, and total cisplatin dose on hearing : Retrospective analysis of 29 medulloblastoma patients.

Strahlenther Onkol 2017 Nov 8;193(11):910-920. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Purpose: To analyze the incidence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulting from different radiation techniques, fractionation dose, mean cochlear radiation dose (D), and total cisplatin dose.

Material And Methods: In all, 29 children with medulloblastoma (58 ears) with subclinical pretreatment hearing thresholds participated. Radiotherapy (RT) and cisplatin had been applied sequentially according to the HIT MED Guidance. Audiological outcomes up to the latest follow-up (median 2.6 years) were compared.

Results: Bilateral high-frequency SNHL was observed in 26 patients (90%). No significant differences were found in mean hearing threshold between left and right ears at any frequency. A significantly better audiological outcome (p < 0.05) was found after tomotherapy at the 6 kHz bone-conduction threshold (BCT) and left-sided 8 kHz air-conduction threshold (ACT) than after a combined radiotherapy technique (CT). Fraction dose was not found to have any impact on the incidence, degree, and time-to-onset of SNHL. Patients treated with CT had a greater risk of SNHL at high frequencies than tomotherapy patients even though D was similar. Increase in severity of SNHL was seen when the total cisplatin dose reached above 210 mg/m, with the highest abnormal level found 8-12 months after RT regardless of radiation technique or fraction dose.

Conclusion: The cochlear radiation dose should be kept as low as possible in patients who receive simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The risk of clinically relevant HL was shown when D exceeds 45 Gy independent of radiation technique or radiation regime. Cisplatin ototoxicity was shown to have a dose-dependent effect on bilateral SNHL, which was more pronounced in higher frequencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-017-1205-yDOI Listing
November 2017

Detection of QTL for greasy fleece weight in sheep using a 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism chip.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Dec 11;49(8):1657-1662. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Aquatic Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box -578, Sari, Iran.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have introduced an influential tool in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing economically important traits in sheep. To identify QTL associated with greasy fleece weight, a GWAS with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in a Baluchi sheep population. Association with greasy fleece weights was tested using the software Plink. The results of our GWAS provided three novel SNP markers and candidate genes associated with greasy fleece weight. A total of three chromosome-wide significant associations were detected for SNP on chromosomes 17 and 20 affecting greasy fleece weight across the four shearing. One of the significant SNP markers was located within ovine known genes namely FAM101A. Further investigation of these identified regions in validation studies will facilitate the identification of strong candidate genes for wool production in sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1373-xDOI Listing
December 2017

A two-scale method for fast estimation of the charge-carrier diffusion coefficient in nano-porous semi-conductors.

J Phys Condens Matter 2017 Jan 14;29(2):025901. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615, Iran.

Current numerical methods that simultaneously take into account both spatial and energy disorders in charge-carrier transport in semi-conductor nano-porous structures are exact but involve intensive computations. Here, we will describe a two-scale simulation approach that incorporates all the relevant data on the morphology as well as the microscopic transport model. To test this method, we carried out extensive computer simulations for estimation of the charge-carrier diffusion coefficient in structures of different local and global morphologies. Excellent agreement was found between the results of our proposed model and the results emerged from full-scale calculations. The speed-up in the computations is almost four orders of magnitude. As such, this method provides us with a fast and straightforward approach to separate the role of local and global morphology on the charge-carrier transport and hence might be helpful in future designing of devices like dye-sensitized solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/29/2/025901DOI Listing
January 2017

Asymptomatic faecal carriage of ESBL producing enterobacteriaceae in Hungarian healthy individuals and in long-term care applicants: A shift towards CTX-M producers in the community.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2016 Jul 16;48(7):557-9. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

a Department of Medical Microbiology , University of Debrecen , Debrecen , Hungary ;

Background Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy individuals was examined and compared to previous results obtained in such individuals a few years earlier. Methods Faecal samples from 779 individuals screened for employment purposes and from 225 applicants to long-term care (LTC) were screened between November 2013 and May 2014. Results The overall rate of faecal carriage was 3.0% (30/1004). The carriage rate was significantly higher in applicants for LTC (5.3% vs 2.3%; p = 0.019). All isolates carried CTX-M ESBLs, with an overwhelming dominance of blaCTX-M-15 (84.4%) in both groups and in both E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The prevalences were comparable to those in the earlier study, but a marked decrease of the diversity of ESBL genes in E. coli from the employment screening group was found, suggesting that the ESBL-producing isolates originating from diverse sources are being replaced by highly successful blaCTX-M-15 producing strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/23744235.2016.1155734DOI Listing
July 2016

Comparison of rates of fecal colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria among patients in different wards, outpatients and medical students.

Microbiol Immunol 2016 May;60(5):285-94

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Debrecen.

Because asymptomatic carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers is a risk factor for infection, data on colonization dynamics are important when planning infection control. This study investigated fecal colonization with ESBL producers among inpatients, outpatients and medical students and compares the characteristics of ESBL producers among these groups. Carriage rates were investigated in 5581 fecal samples; 4343 from inpatients (330, 1397, 619 and 1864 from adult ICUs [intensive care units], adult non-ICUs, pediatric ICUs and pediatric non-ICUs, respectively), 814 from outpatients and 424 from screening of medical students. ESBL producers were characterized by co-resistance, integrons carried, and aminoglycoside resistance and ESBL genes. Dynamic regression models were built to identify relationships between combinations of time series of monthly antibiotic consumption, prevalence of carriers and infected subjects. Inpatients, ICU patients and adults showed higher prevalence than outpatients, non-ICU patients or children (7.4%, 9.3% and 12.0% vs. 3.1%, 6.1% and 4.1%, respectively). Klebsiella pneumoniae was more frequent in ICU patients; dominance of CTX-M-15 producers was more marked in adult than in pediatric inpatients. ESBL carriage was shown to be a consequence of infection in adults in the time-series analysis; antibiotic consumption had little effect. The epidemiology of colonization with ESBL producers differed between pediatric ICU, adult ICU and adult non-ICU patients. In adults, carriage of ESBL producers seems to be the consequence of infection, especially in ICU patients; the main source of colonization is nosocomial acquisition. In contrast, children are less likely to acquire colonizer strains in hospitals; importation of ESBL producers by colonized children seems to be significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12373DOI Listing
May 2016

Relationship between erb-B2 mRNA Expression in Blood and Tissue of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Breast Cancer Patients and Clinicopathological Characteristics of the Tumors.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(1):249-54

Molecular Biology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR for detecting breast cancer-associated gene expression in the peripheral blood have the potential to modify breast cancer (BC) staging and therapy. In this regard, we evaluated the potential of erb-B2 molecular marker in BC detection and analyzed the expression of erb-B2 mRNA in the peripheral blood and fresh tissue samples of 50 pretreated female BC patients and 50 healthy females by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. We also assessed the correlation of erb-B2 mRNA marker positivity in peripheral blood and tumor tissue samples with clinical and pathological factors in BC patients in order to evaluate its prognostic value. It was shown that there is a significant difference between healthy females and BC patients with expression of the erb-B2 molecular marker (p<0.01). A significant difference between the expression of erb-B2 in the peripheral blood and tissue samples of BC patients (p<0.01) and the frequency of circulating erb-B2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood and in tissue was detected by RT-PCR. No correlation was found between erb-B2 mRNA expression in blood or tumor tissue samples and lymph node, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor size, patient's age, ki67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PGR), P53, and HER-2 status. However, in a small subset of 31 BC patients we found that expression of erb-B2 in peripheral blood or in both peripheral blood and tumor tissue was directly correlated with lympho-vascular invasion and perineural invasion as poor prognostic features. The highest rates of erb-B2 expression in peripheral blood or tumor tissue were in the ER and PR negative and HER-2 positive group. This study suggests that the application of the RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for erb-B2 molecular marker detection would provide a higher detection rate, especially in early stage BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.1.249DOI Listing
December 2016

Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse to retail stage in Isfahan, Iran.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2015 Oct;12(10):864-6

4 Food Security Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan, Iran .

To determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse through to retail stage, a total of 750 samples of feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were collected from cattle, camels, goats, and sheep in Isfahan, Iran. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were 20 (13.3%), 23 (15.3%), and 11 (7.3%), respectively; while C. difficile was isolated from 79 (26.3%) retail samples. Twenty-nine (3.8%) isolates were toxigenic, with most toxigenic isolates (n = 17, 5.6%) identified from the retail stage. All toxigenic isolates harbored tcdA and tcdB; however, all were negative for cdtB. The 29 isolates were classified into 21 different ribotypes. This study revealed evidence of existence of toxigenic C. difficile in farm animal feces and meat in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1910DOI Listing
October 2015