Publications by authors named "Fatema Khaton"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Bangladesh related to novel coronavirus infection.

IJID Reg 2022 Mar 2;2:198-203. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst household members in 32 districts of Bangladesh to build knowledge about disease epidemiology and seroepidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were assessed in people between April and October 2020.

Results: The national seroprevalence rates of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were estimated to be 30.4% and 39.7%, respectively. In Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 35.4% in non-slum areas and 63.5% in slum areas. In areas outside of Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 37.5% in urban areas and 28.7% in rural areas. Between April and October 2020, the highest seroprevalence rate (57% for IgG and 64% for IgM) was observed in August. IgM antibody was more prevalent in younger participants, while older participants had more frequent IgG seropositivity. Follow-up specimens from patients with COVID-19 and their household members suggested that both IgG and IgM seropositivity increased significantly at day 14 and day 28 compared with day 1 after enrolment. : SARS-CoV-2 had spread extensively in Bangladesh by October 2020. This highlights the importance of monitoring seroprevalence data, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants over time.
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March 2022

Covishield vaccine induces robust immune responses in Bangladeshi adults.

IJID Reg 2022 Jun 29;3:211-217. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses after Covishield vaccination for 6 months after vaccination.

Design: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 in 381 adults given the Covishield vaccine at baseline (=119), 1 month (=126) and 2 months (=75) after the first dose, 1 month after the second dose (=161), and monthly for 3 additional months.

Results: Over 51% of participants were seropositive at baseline (before vaccination with Covishield), and almost all participants (159/161) became seropositive 1 month after the second dose. Antibody levels peaked 1 month after receipt of the second dose of vaccine, and decreased by 4 months after the first dose; the lowest responses were found 6 months after the first dose, although antibody responses and responder frequencies remained significantly higher compared with baseline (<0.0001). Compared with younger participants, older participants had lower antibody responses 6 months after the first dose of vaccine (<0.05). Participants who had previous SARS-CoV-2 infection showed robust higher antibody responses after vaccination.

Conclusions: These findings help to elucidate the longevity of vaccine-specific antibody responses following vaccination with Covishield, and provide information relevant to the planning of booster doses after the initial two doses of vaccine.
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June 2022

Disease characteristics and serological responses in patients with differing severity of COVID-19 infection: A longitudinal cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 01 4;16(1):e0010102. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Background: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 ranges from asymptomatic to severe disease and can cause fatal and devastating outcome in many cases. In this study, we have compared the clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters across the different disease spectrum of COVID-19 in Bangladeshi patients.

Methodology/principal Findings: This longitudinal study was conducted in two COVID-19 hospitals and also around the community in Dhaka city in Bangladesh between November 2020 to March 2021. A total of 100 patients with COVID-19 infection were enrolled and classified into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe cases (n = 25/group). In addition, thirty age and sex matched healthy participants were enrolled and 21 were analyzed as controls based on exclusion criteria. After enrollment (study day1), follow-up visits were conducted on day 7, 14 and 28 for the cases. Older age, male gender and co-morbid conditions were the risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease. Those with moderate and severe cases of infection had low lymphocyte counts, high neutrophil counts along with a higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at enrollment; this decreased to normal range within 42 days after the onset of symptom. At enrollment, D-dimer, CRP and ferritin levels were elevated among moderate and severe cases. The mild, moderate, and severe cases were seropositive for IgG antibody by day 14 after enrollment. Moderate and severe cases showed significantly higher IgM and IgG levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 compared to mild and asymptomatic cases.

Conclusion/significance: We report on the clinical, biochemical, and hematological parameters associated with the different severity of COVID-19 infection. We also show different profile of antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in relation to disease severity, especially in those with moderate and severe disease manifestations compared to the mild and asymptomatic infection.
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January 2022

A phase I/II study to evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of Hillchol®, an inactivated single Hikojima strain based oral cholera vaccine, in a sequentially age descending population in Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2021 07 1;39(32):4450-4457. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh(icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as part of an integrated control program, both in highly endemic settings and during cholera epidemics. The available and internationally recommended WHO-prequalified OCVs (Dukoral, Shanchol, Euvichol) contain multiple heat and formalin-killed V. cholerae strains of Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. in technical collaboration with University of Gothenburg, Sweden has developed a new single strain OCV, Hillchol. This vaccine consists of formaldehyde-inactivated whole cell El Tor V. cholerae O1 bacteria engineered into the Hikojima serotype for stable expression of both the Ogawa (AB) and Inaba (AC) LPS antigens on the bacterial surface. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this novel and potentially much less expensive OCV in comparison with Shanchol.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority, age-descending clinical trial of OCV (Hillchol vs. Shanchol) in the Mirpur area of Dhaka city from July 2016 to May 2017. This study was carried out in three different age cohorts (1-<5, 5-17 and ≥18 years old). Two doses of vaccine were given at 14 days intervals to 560 healthy participants.

Findings: No serious adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences in the rates of adverse events between the test vaccine (Hillchol) and the comparator (Shanchol) group. Serum vibriocidal antibody responses in all age groups combined were comparable for all the O1 Ogawa (59% vs. 67%; 90% CI of difference: -14.55, -0.84) and Inaba (70% vs. 71%; 90% CI of difference: -7.24, 5.77) serotypes, showing that the Hillchol vaccine was non-inferior to Shanchol. This new vaccine was also non-inferior to Shanchol in the different age strata.

Conclusion: The safety and immunogenicity profile of the new OCV Hillchol is comparable to Shanchol in persons residing in a cholera-endemic setting. number: NCT02823899.
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July 2021

O1 transmission in Bangladesh: insights from a nationally representative serosurvey.

Lancet Microbe 2020 12;1(8):e336-e343

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Pandemic from cholera-endemic countries around the Bay of Bengal regularly seed epidemics globally. Without reducing cholera in these countries, including Bangladesh, global cholera control might never be achieved. Little is known about the geographical distribution and magnitude of O1 transmission nationally. We aimed to describe infection risk across Bangladesh, making use of advances in cholera seroepidemiology, therefore overcoming many of the limitations of current clinic-based surveillance.

Methods: We tested serum samples from a nationally representative serosurvey in Bangladesh with eight -specific assays. Using these data with a machine-learning model previously validated within a cohort of confirmed cholera cases and their household contacts, we estimated the proportion of the population with evidence of infection by O1 in the previous year (annual seroincidence) and used Bayesian geostatistical models to create high-resolution national maps of infection risk.

Findings: Between Oct 16, 2015, and Jan 24, 2016, we obtained and tested serum samples from 2930 participants (707 households) in 70 communities across Bangladesh. We estimated national annual seroincidence of O1 infection of 17·3% (95% CI 10·5-24·1). Our high-resolution maps showed large heterogeneity of infection risk, with community-level annual infection risk within the sampled population ranging from 4·3% to 62·9%. Across Bangladesh, we estimated that 28·1 (95% CI 17·1-39·2) million infections occurred in the year before the survey. Despite having an annual seroincidence of O1 infection lower than much of Bangladesh, Dhaka (the capital of Bangladesh and largest city in the country) had 2·0 (95% CI 0·6-3·9) million infections during the same year, primarily because of its large population.

Interpretation: Serosurveillance provides an avenue for identifying areas with high O1 transmission and investigating key risk factors for infection across geographical scales. Serosurveillance could serve as an important method for countries to plan and monitor progress towards 2030 cholera elimination goals.

Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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December 2020