Publications by authors named "Farzaneh Lotfipour"

55 Publications

A minireview on nanoparticle-based sensors for detection of coronaviruses.

Bioanalysis 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center & Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 5165665811, Iran.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a class of viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in birds and mammals. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome are pathogenic human viruses. The ongoing coronavirus causing a pandemic of COVID-19 is a recently identified virus from this group. The first step in the control of spreading the disease is to detect and quarantine infected subjects. Consequently, the introduction of rapid and reliable detection methods for CoVs is crucial. To date, several methods were reported for the detection of coronaviruses. Nanoparticles play an important role in detection tools, thanks to their high surface-to-volume ratio and exclusive optical property enables the development of susceptible analytical nanoparticle-based sensors. The studies performed on using nanoparticles-based (mainly gold) sensors to detect CoVs in two categories of optical and electrochemical were reviewed here. Details of each reported sensor and its relevant analytical parameters are carefully provided and explained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2021-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407278PMC
August 2021

A View on Polymerase Chain Reaction as an Outstanding Molecular Diagnostic Technique in Periodontology.

Biomed Res Int 2021 19;2021:9979948. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Deputy of Food and Drug Administration, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: This study presents a discussion on the fundamentals of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its use as a diagnostic tool in periodontology.

Materials And Methods: A computer-aided as well as hand-made search in PubMed and Scopus indexed journals (relevant to the topic) was done by keywords of molecular technique in periodontology, PCR, applications of PCR, and PCR in periodontics. Only the papers in the English language and outlining PCR and its association with periodontology were collected and utilized to provide a succinct review. There was no limitation for publication time.

Results: The results of our search showed that PCR has turned into a standard in diagnosis in the field of periodontology. A variety of researches has demonstrated that its sensitive, and specific characteristics make it a quick and effective technique of recognition, identification, and quantification of microorganisms. Identification of various immunoinflammatory markers at the mRNA expression level as well as ascertaining gene-related polymorphisms can also be performed.

Conclusions: The mechanisms of periodontal disease can further become clarified using PCR. . PCR as a diagnostic method can play a main part in the validation of the clinical diagnosis of periodontal disease indicating the reason, pathogenesis, clinical steps, progress, and prognosis of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9979948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315861PMC
July 2021

Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Curcumin-Containing Nanoscaffolds.

Stem Cells Int 2021 17;2021:1520052. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The diverse pleiotropic pharmacological effects of curcumin nanoformulations have turned it into an attractive natural compound in different health-related problems. A great body of evidence has shown the impact of curcumin and its nanoformulations on the differentiation of stem cells. The current review highlights cellular and molecular mechanisms connected with the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the scaffolds benefiting from the presence of nanocurcumin pointing toward the role of inhibitory or stimulant signal transduction pathways in detail. Moreover, the effects of different concentrations as well as the structural modifications of curcumin on the differentiation of MSCs have been addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1520052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313343PMC
July 2021

A novel method for the development of plasmid DNA-loaded nanoliposomes for cancer gene therapy.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Drug Applied Research Center & Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

We aimed to develop a simple yet novel method to prepare plasmid DNA-loaded nanoliposomes for cancer gene therapy. Murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) pDNA-loaded nanoliposomes were prepared via novel freeze-drying of a monophase solution method. The physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency of the prepared nanoliposomes in murine CT-26 colon carcinoma cells were evaluated. Furthermore, tumor progression and survival rate in CT-26 colon carcinoma-bearing BALB/c mice subsequent to direct intratumoral injections were investigated over a period of 40 days. Using this preparation method, nanoliposomes with particle size of around 300 nm and zeta potential of 96.5 mV were obtained. The transmission electron microscope results showed that the liposomes were nano-sized and almost spherical. The agarose gel retardation assay revealed the pDNA encapsulation in the nanoliposomes. The nanoliposomes with 72.4% encapsulation efficiency and low cell toxicity could significantly improve mIL-12 expression by approximately 25-fold relative to the naked mIL-12 pDNA. There was a significant tumor growth inhibition after repeated injections of mIL-12 pDNA-loaded nanoliposomes. This is the first study on the freeze-drying of a monophase solution method as a simple yet novel technique for the preparation of pDNA-loaded nanoliposomes. Given the ease of preparation method and promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics, this investigation demonstrates advances in pDNA lipid formulation for cancer gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-021-01034-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct quantitative detection of host cell residual DNA in recombinant Filgrastim by qPCR.

Anal Biochem 2021 Sep 30;629:114296. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Food & Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Control, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Host cell residual DNA is considered as an impurity in recombinant biopharmaceuticals. This study aimed to develop a direct qPCR method to quantify E. Coli residual DNA in recombinant Filgrastim. The specific primers were designed to amplify E. Coli's 16S-rDNA genomic region, which encodes the 16S-rRNA. The developed qPCR method showed that the designed primer has specifically amplified the target genome without any secondary reaction. The designed primer was also able to amplify the target gene as a representative of residual DNA in the drug matrix. Results show that the amount of residual DNA in Filgrastim is undetectable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2021.114296DOI Listing
September 2021

Combination of solvent extraction with deep eutectic solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the analysis of aflatoxin M in cheese samples using response surface methodology optimization.

J Sep Sci 2021 Apr 17;44(7):1501-1509. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

A new extraction procedure based on combination of a solvent extraction and deep eutectic solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been introduced for the extraction of aflatoxin M from cheese samples. In this method, acetonitrile, deionized water, and n-hexane are added onto the sample and vortexed. Owning to different affinities of the substances in cheese toward the mentioned solvents, an efficient and selective extraction of the analyte is done in the acetonitrile phase. After centrifugation, the acetonitrile phase is removed and mixed with a new hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent prepared from N,N-diethanol ammonium chloride and carvacrol as an extraction solvent. The mixture is injected into deionized water, and a cloudy solution is obtained. Eventually, an aliquot of the organic phase is injected into high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. After optimizing the effective parameters with the response surface methodology and a quadratic model, limits of detection and quantification were 0.74 and 2.56 ng/kg, respectively. The obtained extraction recovery and enrichment factor were 94% and 94, respectively. Also, intra- (n = 6) and interday (n = 4) precisions were less than or equal to 8.6% at a concentration of 5 ng/kg. The suggested method was applied to determine aflatoxin M in different cheese samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202001183DOI Listing
April 2021

Antimicrobial Activity of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded Seed Oil against .

Pharm Nanotechnol 2020 ;8(6):485-494

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), due to their impressive benefits, have recently been considered in different areas. Besides, NLC loaded with essential oils is attractive for finding more effective antimicrobial products, especially against common bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis).

Objective: This study aims to prepare and characterize NLCs encapsulated with Punica granatum (P. granatum) seed oil (PGS oil-loaded NLCs) and examine the antimicrobial effect of this combination against S. epidermidis.

Methods: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were prepared using a hot melt homogenization method. Later, they were characterized by determining particle size distribution (particle size analyzer), morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and zeta potential (surface charge of NLCs). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of PGS oil-loaded NLCs were assessed and compared with seed oil emulsion of P. granatum against S. epidermidis.

Results: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were spherical shaped nanoparticles, with a mean size of 102.10 nm and narrow size distribution (PDI = 0.26). The antibacterial assay showed PGS oil-loaded NLCs to have a higher in vitro antimicrobial activity than seed oil emulsion of P. granatum.

Conclusion: To conclude, NLCs may be a favorable carrier to develop new antimicrobial agents. Lay Summary: The lipid nanoparticles such as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) appeared as products first on the cosmetic market. Their advantages help them to be used in different healthcare and cosmetic products. With regard to previous studies, Punica granatum (P. granatum) extract shows antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that could be a valuable natural source against the wide ranges of bacteria. Then, P. granatum seed oil (PGS oil-loaded NLCs) prepared in this study can be used in dental and skin-related materials as a new natural antimicrobial product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738508999201105142945DOI Listing
September 2021

Preparation and characterization of a novel thermosensitive and bioadhesive cephalexin nanohydrogel: a promising platform for topical antibacterial delivery.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2020 06 22;17(6):881-893. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Impetigo is a common and highly contagious bacterial skin infection that mostly affects young children and infants. Herein, we report the development of a thermosensitive and bioadhesive hydrogel-forming system containing cephalexin-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) suitable for antibacterial drug delivery.

Methods: The nanohydrogel was formulated using drug-loaded NPs and characterized by its physicochemical characteristics. Antibacterial activities of the cephalexin NPs and nanohydrogel were examined against (). The drug permeation study was performed using rat skin. Finally, this formulation was tested for antibacterial activity using superficial skin infections in rats.

Results: The mean size and entrapment efficiency of the NPs were found to be 178 nm and 58%, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy analysis verified the formation of spherical NPs. The drug-loaded NPs showed an enhanced eradication effect against according to the declined MIC values in comparison with the untreated drug. The permeation profile of the cephalexin nanohydrogel showed a slow release pattern for 8 h. When applied on rat skin for 6 days, the nanohydrogel exhibited a superior antibacterial activity with normal hair growth and skin appearance as compared to the plain drug hydrogel.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that the nanohydrogel could serve as a valuable drug delivery platform against superficial bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425247.2020.1764530DOI Listing
June 2020

A brief overview on nano-sized materials used in the topical treatment of skin and soft tissue bacterial infections.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2019 12 9;16(12):1313-1331. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

: Skin and soft tissue infections are a significant clinical problem that can happen anywhere on the body. Bacteria are the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans. Despite the fact that there is a lot of antimicrobial agents and antibiotics for elucidating bacterial infections, the prevention and control of infectious diseases continue to be one of the greatest challenges for public health worldwide. At the present time, an alarming increase in multidrug resistance instantly requests to find suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Therefore, drug resistance has been attempted to be resolved by the development of new classes of antimicrobial agents or targeted delivery systems for antibacterial drugs using nanotechnology.: The present review summarizes the emerging topical efforts to support the use of nano-sized materials as a new opportunity to combat today's skin infectious diseases.: Nano-sized materials can overcome the stratum corneum barrier and deliver drugs specifically to bacterial skin infections with trivial side effects. Depending on the physicochemical characteristics of nano-scaled materials, they can specifically be selected to target bacterial pathogens and also to get into the skin layers. These systems can overcome the antibiotic-resistance mechanisms and help us to the design of novel topical formulations that will make administration of antibacterial compounds safer, easier and more convenient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425247.2020.1693998DOI Listing
December 2019

Freeze-thaw-induced cross-linked PVA/chitosan for oxytetracycline-loaded wound dressing: the experimental design and optimization.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Apr 8;14(2):175-189. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran.

Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic for the treatment of the infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Among novel formulations applied for damaged skin, hydrogels have shown to be superior as they can provide a moist environment for the wound. The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate the hydrogels of oxytetracycline consisted of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan polymers. A study design based on 4 factors and 3 levels was used for the preparation and evaluation of hydrogels formed by freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle using PVA and chitosan as a matrix-based wound dressing system. Furthermore, an experimental design was employed in order to study the effect of independent variables, namely drug amount (X, 500-1000 mg), the amount of PVA (X, 3.33-7.5%), the amount of chitosan (X, 0.5-1%), and F-T cycle (X, 3-7 cycles) on the dependent variables, including encapsulation efficiency, swelling index, adsorption of protein onto hydrogel surface, and skin permeation. The interaction of formulation variables had a significant effect on both physicochemical properties and permeation. Hydrogel microbial tests with sequential dilution method in Muller-Hinton broth medium were also carried out. The selected hydrogel (F6) containing 5% PVA, 0.75% chitosan, 1000 mg drug, and 3 F-T cycles was found to have increased encapsulation efficiency, gel strength, and higher skin permeation suitable for faster healing of wounds. Results showed the biological stability of oxytetracycline HCl in the hydrogel formulation with a lower dilution of the pure drug. Thus, oxytetracycline-loaded hydrogel could be a potential candidate to be used as a wound dressing system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.253365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791175PMC
April 2019

Evaluation of Herbal Mouthwashes Containing Zataria Multiflora Boiss, Frankincense and Combination Therapy on Patients with Gingivitis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial.

Galen Med J 2019 15;8:e1366. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Dental plaques as adhesive microbial aggregates on tooth surfaces are considered the first stage of tooth decay as well as gingivitis. Accordingly, the effect of different antimicrobial mouthwashes on removing dental plaques and preventing their formation has been evaluated in various studies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of herbal mouthwashes containing hydro-alcoholic extract of Zataria multiflora (ZM), Frankincense (FR), and a combination of both (ZM+FR) and compare it with chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash in subjects with gingivitis.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial a total of 140 patients with gingivitis were divided into four groups including CHX (control group), ZM, FR, and ZM+FR groups. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were measured in days 1, 14, and 21.

Results: All three herbal types of mouthwash significantly improved plaque, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding throughout days 14 to 21 (P<0.001). There was no difference between herbal mouthwash with CHX groups. CHX mouthwash showed the most side effects (54.3%), while ZM mouthwash showed the least side effects and the highest consumer satisfaction (5.7% and 94%, respectively).

Conclusion: All of the herbal mouthwashes can be good candidates for controlling gingivitis. Comparing with CHX mouthwash, herbal mouthwashes have lower side effects and negligible alcohol content. Among the herbal mouthwashes, ZM outperforms FR and FR+ZM due to its lower side effects and higher levels of patients' satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31661/gmj.v8i0.1366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343817PMC
July 2019

An update on calcium carbonate nanoparticles as cancer drug/gene delivery system.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2019 04 7;16(4):331-345. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

c Faculty of Pharmacy , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

Introduction: In recent years, the applications of calcium carbonate (CaCO) nanoparticles (NPs) have gained extensive interest as targeted drug/gene delivery systems to cancerous tissues and cells due to their accessibility, low cost, safety, biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, and slow biodegradability.

Areas Covered: Drug-loaded CaCO NPs (CCNPs) have been reviewed. An updated search on the current state of CCNPs as cancer drug/gene delivery systems with a focus on their special properties including pH-sensitivity, biodegradability, and sustained release performance has been also assessed.

Expert Opinion: Based on the reviewed literature, CCNPs, because of their superior features, will have a great aiding role in safe and efficient cancer treatment in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425247.2019.1587408DOI Listing
April 2019

Improvement of dermal delivery of tetracycline using vesicular nanostructures.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Oct;13(5):385-393

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran.

The objective of this investigation was to study the potential use of nanoliposomes and nanotransfersomes in dermal delivery of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) for acne treatment. Vesicular nanostructures were prepared by thin film hydration method and evaluated for their size, zeta potential, morphology, and entrapment efficiency. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of TC-loaded vesicles were evaluated and compared with TC aqueous solution against . drug release and drug permeation through the excised rat skin were performed to assess drug delivery efficiency. Particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of prepared nanoliposomes and nanotransfersomes were found to be 75 and 78 nm, 17 and 7 mV, and 45 and 55%, respectively. Antimicrobial analysis indicated that there was no difference between vesicular formulations and aqueous solution of TC. drug release study indicated that nanoliposomes could release TC 2.6 folds more than nanotransfersomes, and skin permeation study showed that the permeability of TC-loaded nanotransfersomes was 1.6 times higher than nanoliposomes which was also confirmed by fluorescence microscope imaging. These findings concluded that nanoliposomal and especially nanotransfersomal formulations could be proposed as the potential approach for better therapeutic performance of TC against acne.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.236831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082035PMC
October 2018

Disinfection effect of microwave radiation on Bacillus subtilis as indicator organism on contaminated dental stone casts under dry and wet conditions.

GMS Hyg Infect Control 2017 8;12:Doc09. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Dental School, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.

The disinfection of dental stone casts using microwave radiation has been shown, but doubts remain regarding its efficacy under various conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave disinfection on wet and dry dental stone casts contaminated by a resistant microorganism. In this in vitro study, 34 stone half-casts were prepared, contaminated with and divided into two groups. After drying the specimens of one group for 15 minutes using 450 W microwave energy, all the wet and dry specimens were exposed to 900 W microwave energy for 5 minutes. Specimens were then individually transferred to nutrient broth culture medium and after 10 minutes, one milliliter from each tube was cultured in nutrient agar media for 24 hours, and the colonies were counted in CFU/mL. Data were analyzed using multifactorial ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Casts in both wet and dry groups were disinfected to a high level (6 log), with no statistically significant differences between them (P<0.05). According to the results, microwave irradiation can disinfect dental stone casts to a high degree, irrespective of moisture level. However, the result should be confirmed by exploring with other species of resistant microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/dgkh000294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550743PMC
August 2017

An in vitro ethnopharmacological study on : a wound healing agent.

Bioimpacts 2017 26;7(2):75-82. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Traditionally root is being used as an effective wound healing agent especially for pus-filled wounds both in human and stocks in the western north of Iran. Regarding the subject we decided to study roots essential oil (PFE) for its antimicrobial and wound healing activities. The in vitro wound healing activity of PFE was evaluated in the mouse fibroblast cell line L929 using MTT assay of cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. Scratch assay as an in vitro model of wound healing assay was also conducted in this study. Moreover, the type I collagen content was used as an indicator of progress in wound healing process using Sircol collagen assay. Besides, PFE was subjected to GC/MS to identify the chemical constituents, and antimicrobical property was also evaluated against and using agar dilution method. GC/MS analysis showed that the monoterpene hydrocarbones dominated in PFE, amounting to a total percentage of 95.1% with the major constituents: β-Phellandrene (32.1%), m-Tolualdehyde (26.2%), and δ-3-carene (25.8%). PFE inhibited the growth of S. aureus and with the MIC value of 20 µg/mL. In addition, at the second day of treatment, PFE at concentrations of 4 and 16 µg/mL significantly (<0.001) enhanced the migration rate of L929 cells by 87.05±2.4 and 63.5±0.08 %, respectively. Moreover, the collagen production by L929 cells was increased greatly (<0.001). It is proposed that the excellent antimicrobial activity along with the significant increase of migration rate and collagen production by fibroblast cells might be associated with the high content and synergistic effect of the monoterpens, corroborating the traditional usage of this plant as a wound healing agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/bi.2017.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5524988PMC
April 2017

The effects of gene therapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the regression of tumor masses in fibrosarcoma mouse model.

J Cancer Res Ther 2017 Apr-Jun;13(2):362-366

Immunology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Introduction: Cytokine gene therapy is one of the cancer treatment strategies. Recently, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as an important cytokine in activating dendritic cells and boosting the anti-tumor immune responses, has been utilized as an immunotherapeutic agent in cancer gene therapy. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the GM-CSF gene therapy effects in regression of tumor masses in fibrosarcoma mouse model.

Materials And Methods: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of GM-CSF, WEHI-164 tumor cells were transfected with murine GM-CSF plasmid. For cytokine production by transfected cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used. Fibrosarcoma mouse model established with transfected cells which were injected subcutaneously into Balb/c mice. Tumor sizes were measured by caliper. Mice were sacrificed and the tumors were extracted. The expression of GM-CSF was studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting. The expression of Ki-67 (a tumor proliferative marker) in tumor masses was studied by immunohistochemical staining.

Results: The group treated with GM-CSF indicated a decrease in tumor mass volume (P = 0.001). The results of western blotting and real-time PCR showed that GM-CSF expression increased in the group treated with GM-CSF (with a relative expression of 1.36). Immunohistochemical staining showed that Ki-67 expression has reduced in the group treated with GM-CSF.

Conclusion: Monotherapy with GM-CSF has therapeutic effects on the regression of tumor masses in the fibrosarcoma mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.159083DOI Listing
April 2018

Bioactivity and Phytochemical Screening of Extracts from Rhizomes of rech. f. Growing in Iran.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(1):306-314

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The current study evaluated the general toxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of extracts obtained from the rhizomes of (Labiatae) as well as analyzed the potent extracts using GC-MS. Extracts of in n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) were prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity of samples was determined by disc diffusion and brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used to assess general toxicity. The cytotoxicity of each extract was determined by MTT assay against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), human lung carcinoma (A549) and a normal cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC). The MeOH extract showed significant antioxidant activity and the n-hexane and DCM extracts showed promising activity against gram-positive species when compared with amikacin as a standard. Moreover, the n-hexane extract displayed the most potent activity in general toxicity assay. The results showed that all three extracts have cytotoxic effects against the A549 cell line. In the case of HT29 cell lines, only the DCM extract exhibited cytotoxicity. Interestingly, none of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity against the HUVEC cell line. The bioassay-guided identification of constituents showed the presence of fatty acids and steroids as the compounds responsible for bioactivity in the non-polar extracts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423256PMC
January 2017

Evaluation of Various Biological Activities of the Aerial Parts of Growing in Iran.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(1):277-289

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The current study was assigned to evaluate the total phenol, total flavonoid content (TPC, TFC) and antioxidant properties of extracts from the aerial parts of (). Extracts were also tested by preliminary phytochemical screening as well as cytotoxic activity against , MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and SW-480 (colon carcinoma) and L-929 (normal) cell lines along with antimicrobial characteristic. DPPH, MTT and Brine shrimp lethality tests and disc diffusion method were carried out to determine the biological activities of the different extracts of . In addition, the extracts which had more potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activity were further analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. 40% methanol-water (from MeOH extract) fraction showed higher amounts of TPC, TFC and antioxidant property. Findings of the study for general toxicity effect showed that dichloromethane (DCM) and MeOH extracts had weak to moderate effects. Furthermore, DCM extract indicated the most potent anti-proliferative activity against cancer cell lines. No evidence of antibacterial activity was determined. On the other hand, analysis of the potent extract DCM in cytotoxic assay showed the presence of phytol and -oleic acid in GC-MS. Furthermore, NMR analysis of potent methanolic fractions in antioxidant tests revealed the presence of iridoids and phenolics. Generally, the results of TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions were in agreement with each other.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423253PMC
January 2017

Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy vs. 2.5% NaOCl against -infected Root Canals Using Real-time PCR Technique.

J Clin Exp Dent 2017 Apr 1;9(4):e539-e544. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Dentist, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Bacteria like can produce intra- and extra-radicular biofilms. Theoretically, the adjustable penetration ability of lasers enables better access to root canal system. Therefore the aim of the present study was to compare the ability of photoactivated laser and 2.5% NaOCl irrigation solution to eliminate from the root canals by real-time PCR technique.

Material And Methods: Sixty extracted human upper central incisors were selected and sterilized in an autoclave. The root canals were infected with (PTCC 1237, Persian Type Culture Collection, Iran) and then incubated for 24 hours. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups. No intervention was made in the control group (group 1). In group 2, laser therapy was performed with a power of 100 mW by diode laser for 120 seconds. In group 3, the canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl; then all the samples were sonicated in 15 mL of normal saline in test tubes in order to isolate the bacteria. DNA extraction was performed followed by real-time PCR technique for all the samples.

Results: Inhibition of bacterial growth in all the experimental samples was significantly more than that in the control group. There was a significant difference between photodynamic therapy and 2.5% NaOCl. The effect of NaOCl in all the samples was better than photodynamic therapy. The results of the mean CT (cyclic threshold) were 40, 30.2 and 15.35 for 2.5% NaOCl, photodynamic therapy and control group, respectively.

Conclusions: Based on the results of this experimental study, 2.5% NaOCl eliminated from infected root canals more effectively compared to photodynamic therapy. Photoactivated laser, Enterococcus faecalis, antibacterial agents, sodium hypochlorite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.53526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5410674PMC
April 2017

Gene therapy based on interleukin-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2016 Nov;19(11):1238-1244

Immonuology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a cytokine has been proved to have a critical role in stimulating the immune system and has been used as immunotherapeutic agents in cancer gene therapy. Chitosan as a polymer, with high ability of binding to nucleic acids is a good candidate for gene delivery since it is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-allergenic polysaccharide. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cells transfected with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the regression of fibrosarcoma tumor cells (WEHI-164) in vivo.

Materials And Methods: WEHI-164 tumor cells were transfected with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles and then were injected subcutaneously to inoculate tumor in BALB/c mice. Tumor volumes were determined and subsequently extracted after mice sacrifice. The immunohistochemistry staining was performed for analysis of Ki-67 expression (a tumor proliferation marker) in tumor masses. The expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting.

Results: The group treated with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles indicated decreasing of tumor mass[r1] volume (P<0.001). The results of western blotting and real-time PCR showed that the IL-12 expression was increased in the group. Immunohistochemistry staining indicated that the Ki-67expression was reduced in the group treated with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

Conclusion: IL-12 gene therapy using chitosan nanoparticles has therapeutic effects on the regression of tumor masses in fibrosarcoma mouse model.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126226PMC
November 2016

Anti Pneumococcal Activity of Azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 Nano-Formulations.

Adv Pharm Bull 2016 Sep 25;6(3):455-459. Epub 2016 Sep 25.

Food & Drug Safety Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Bacterial pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by different types of bacteria. Azithromycin (AZI), an azalide antibiotic, is widely used to manage pneumococcal infections. Studies have shown that antibiotics in nanocarriers may lead to increased antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity. The aim of this work was to valuate in vitro antibacterial performance azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 nano-formulations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique and the in vitro antibacterial performance against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were assessed using agar dilution method. Nanofibers in the sizes about 100-300 nm in diameter and micro scale in length and nanobeads in the range of 100-500 nm were achieved. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) showed an enhancement in the antimicrobial effect of AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers (40 µg/ml) compare to untreated AZI solution (>160 µg/ml) against S. pneumonia. The MIC value for AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers against S. aureus was >128 µg/ml, same as that of the untreated AZI solution. The enhanced efficiency of AZI in nanofibers could be related to the more adsorption opportunity of nanofibers to S. pneumonia capsulated cell wall which provides an antibiotic depot on the bacterial surface compared to S. aureus. AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers with enhanced antimicrobial effect against S. pneumonia can be considered as a candidate for in vivo evaluations in antibiotic therapy of Pneumococcal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2016.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071810PMC
September 2016

Evaluation of the Effect of Psyllium on the Viability of in Alginate-Polyl Lysine Beads.

Adv Pharm Bull 2016 Sep 25;6(3):337-343. Epub 2016 Sep 25.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.; Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions. Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads. Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2016.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071796PMC
September 2016

An Overview on Novel Microbial Determination Methods in Pharmaceutical and Food Quality Control.

Adv Pharm Bull 2016 Sep 25;6(3):301-308. Epub 2016 Sep 25.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.; Food & Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology. The main focus is on the application of rapid methods in microbial quality control of pharmaceutical products. Reviewed literature showed that rapid methods and automation in microbiology is an advanced area for studying and applying of improved methods in the early detection, and characterization of microorganisms and their products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrials as well as environmental monitoring and clinical applications. It can be concluded that rapid methods and automation in microbiology should continue as potent and efficient technologies to develop the novel tests to be performed in the future because of the ever-increasing concerns about the safety of food and pharmaceutical products. However the main issues to be considered are the scale up of developed methods and the regulatory requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2016.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071793PMC
September 2016

Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles: preparation, solid state characterization, and evaluation of antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017 May 25;45(3):535-543. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

d Faculty of Pharmacy, Drug Applied Research Center , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO) nanoparticles were prepared via a w/o microemulsion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro drug release profiles as well as antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were also evaluated. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the nanoparticles and was confirmed by streak cultures. The mean particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency were calculated to be 116.09 nm, 20.49% and 44.05%, respectively. PXRD and FTIR studies confirmed that both vaterite and calcite polymorphs of CaCO were formed during the preparation process. In vitro release profiles of the nanoparticles showed slow release pattern for 12 h. The drug-loaded nanoparticles showed similar MICs against S. aureus compared to untreated drug. However, a preserved antimicrobial effect was observed for drug-loaded nanoparticles compared to untreated drug after 2 days of incubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2016.1161637DOI Listing
May 2017

Gene therapy with IL-12 induced enhanced anti-tumor activity in fibrosarcoma mouse model.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016 Dec 13;44(8):1988-1993. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

a Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

Context Immunotherapy is among the most promising modalities for treatment of cancer. Recently, interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been used as an immunotherapeutic agent in cancer gene therapy. IL-12 can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and boost anti-tumor immune responses. Objective In the current study, we have investigated if IL-12 gene therapy can lead to the regression of tumor mass in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Material and methods To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of IL-12, WEHI-164 tumor cells were transfected with murine-IL12 plasmids using Lipofectamine. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to confirm IL-12 expression in transfected cells. The fibrosarcoma mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of transfected cells to Balb/C mice. Mice were sacrificed and the tumors were extracted. Tumor sizes were measured by caliper. The expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ was studied with real-time PCR and western blotting. The expression of Ki-67(a tumor proliferation marker) in tumor mass was studied by immunohistochemistry staining. Results and discussion The group treated with IL-12 showed a significant decrease in tumor mass volume (P: 0.000). The results of real-time PCR and western blotting showed that IL-12 and IFN-γ expression increased in the group treated with IL-12 (relative expression of IL-12: 1.9 and relative expression of IFN-γ: 1.766). Immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ki-67 expression was reduced in the group treated with IL-12. Conclusion IL-12 gene therapy successfully led to regress of tumor mass in the fibrosarcoma mouse model. This may serve as a candidate therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2015.1129618DOI Listing
December 2016

Efficacy and Physicochemical Evaluation of an Optimized Semisolid Formulation of Povidone Iodine Proposed by Extreme Vertices Statistical Design; a Practical Approach.

Iran J Pharm Res 2015 ;14(4):1015-29

Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. ; Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

One of the most significant issues in pharmaceutical industries, prior to commercialization of a pharmaceutical preparation is the "preformulation" stage. However, far too attention has been paid to verification of the software assisted statistical designs in preformulation studies. The main aim of this study was to report a step by step preformulation approach for a semisolid preparation based on a statistical mixture design and to verify the predictions made by the software with an in-vitro efficacy bioassay test. Extreme vertices mixture design (4 factors, 4 levels) was applied for preformulation of a semisolid Povidone Iodine preparation as Water removable ointment using different PolyEthylenGlycoles. Software Assisted (Minitab) analysis was then performed using four practically assessed response values including; Available iodine, viscosity (N index and yield value) and water absorption capacity. Subsequently mixture analysis was performed and finally, an optimized formulation was proposed. The efficacy of this formulation was bio-assayed using microbial tests in-vitro and MIC values were calculated for Escherichia coli, pseudomonaaeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Results indicated the acceptable conformity of the measured responses. Thus, it can be concluded that the proposed design had an adequate power to predict the responses in practice. Stability studies, proved no significant change during the one year study for the optimized formulation. Efficacy was eligible on all tested species and in the case of staphylococcus aureus; the prepared semisolid formulation was even more effective.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673929PMC
December 2015

Efficacy of Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts: Virkon versus Sodium Hypochlorite.

J Dent (Tehran) 2015 Mar;12(3):206-15

Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the disinfection efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxygenic acid (Virkon) solutions for dental stone casts contaminated with microbial strains.

Materials And Methods: A total of 960 spherical stone beads with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared and used as carriers of bacterial inoculums. They were individually inoculated by soaking in broth culture media containing each of the four understudy microorganisms. Different concentrations of Virkon and hypochlorite solutions were prepared using distilled water and then were sprayed on the surfaces of dental casts contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The pour plate technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. Microbicidal effect (ME) was calculated according to the log10 of control colony counts minus the log10 of the remaining colony counts after the antimicrobial procedure. Statistical difference was assessed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Man Whitney U tests with a significance of 95%.

Results: We observed different bactericidal effects of Virkon at various concentrations; 1% Virkon killed S. aureus, P aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, while 3% Virkon solution was required to kill B. subtilis. For S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, no significant difference was observed between 1% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite (P >0.05). For B. subtilis, the efficacy of 3% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite was not significantly different (P >0.999).

Conclusion: According to the obtained results for Virkon and based on its low toxicity and good environmental compatibility, it may be recommended as an antimicrobial disinfectant for dental stone casts as non-critical items.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663311PMC
March 2015

Efficient Inactivation of Multi-Antibiotics Resistant Nosocomial Enterococci by Purified Hiracin Bacteriocin.

Adv Pharm Bull 2015 Sep 19;5(3):393-401. Epub 2015 Sep 19.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Purpose: Because of the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, a number of infectious diseases have become a major concern to treat in health care services worldwide. This situation is worsened by the fact that very limited progress has been made in developing new and potent antibiotics in recent years. In this context antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent new potential therapeutic compounds with bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against closely related bacterial strains.

Methods: In this study, a collection of enterococci (n=170) from clinical sources were investigated for their potential to inhibit multiresistant nosocomial enterococci from Iranian hospitals.

Results: Four isolates produced antimicrobial peptides that inhibited all the antibiotic resistant enterococci. This included three Enterococcus faecium isolates producing combinations of enterocin A, B and L50 AB. The most potent antagonism was produced by E. faecalis HO91. Purification and subsequent characterization by MALDI-TOF MS, Edman degradation and DNA-sequencing revealed that the antimicrobial compound was Hiracin. The purified Hiracin was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 12 multiresistant enterococcal isolates from clinical samples. The results demonstrated that Hiracin is highly effective towards enterococci which were resistant even to antibiotics from four distinct classes.

Conclusion: The present research addresses Hiracin as a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics in treatment of multiresistant enterococcal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2015.054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616886PMC
September 2015

Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Jan 4;58:1269-78. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections.

Methods: A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis.

Results: The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections.

Discussion: All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.08.070DOI Listing
January 2016

Study of the Efficacy of Real Time-PCR Method for Amikacin Determination Using Microbial Assay.

Adv Pharm Bull 2015 Jun 1;5(2):181-8. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: Microbial assay is used to determine the potency of antibiotics and vitamins. In spite of its advantages like simplicity and easiness, and to reveal the slight changes in the molecules, the microbial assay suffers from significant limitations; these methods are of lower specificity, accuracy and sensitivity. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of real time-PCR technique in comparison with turbidimetric method for microbial assay of amikacin.

Methods: Microbial determination of amikacin by turbidimetric method was performed according to USP. Also amikacin concentrations were determined by microbial assay using taq-man quantitative PCR method. Standard curves in different concentration for both methods were plotted and method validation parameters of linearity, precision and accuracy were calculated using statistical procedures.

Results: The RT-PCR method was linear in the wider concentration range (5.12 - 38.08 for RT-PCR versus 8.00 - 30.47 for turbidimetric method) with a better correlation coefficient (0.976 for RT-PCR versus 0.958 for turbidimetric method). RT-PCR method with LOQ of 5.12 ng/ml was more sensitive than turbidimetric method with LOQ of 8.00 ng/ml and the former could detect and quantify low concentrations of amikacin. The results of accuracy and precision evaluation showed that the RT-PCR method was accurate and precise in all of the tested concentration.

Conclusion: The RT-PCR method described here provided an accurate and precise technique for measurement of amikacin potency and it can be a candidate for microbial determination of the antibiotics with the same test organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2015.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517082PMC
June 2015
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