Publications by authors named "Farzad Fanaei"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spatio-seasonal variation, distribution, levels, and risk assessment of airborne asbestos concentration in the most industrial city of Iran: effect of meteorological factors.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2;28(13):16434-16446. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Like other dangerous pollutants in the air, asbestos has negative and adverse effects on human and animal health. The present study is designed to determine the concentration of asbestos in the air of the most industrial city of Iran (Karaj) in 2018-2019. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from different areas of the air of Karaj during a year with an SKC pump and flow of 6 L/min for 8 h and in 45 days, and a total of 68 samples of asbestos fibers were collected. Then, the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast microscope (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eventually, the health effects of asbestos fibers were evaluated by the IRIS EPA method. The average concentration of asbestos fibers was 1.84 f/L PCM and 18.16 f/L SEM. Also, the results of statistical correlation analysis indicated that asbestos fibers are positively correlated with wind speed but negatively correlated with the other three parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and pressure). On the other hand, the average annual risk of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Karaj for all samples was in the range of 4.32 × 10 to 1.81 × 10 which in some places had more danger than the recommended risk range. According to the EPA guidelines, carcinogenicity acceptable levels are in the range of 10 and 10. Values higher than 10 have more carcinogenic risk and values lower than 10 have a lower carcinogenic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11941-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers in an urban ambient air of Mashhad City, Iran: levels, spatial distribution and seasonal variations.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 14;18(2):1239-1246. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Asbestos, as with other pollutants in the air, has adverse effects on the health of human beings and animals. Today, the relationship between presence of asbestos fibers in the air breathed by humans and developing serious diseases such as lung cancer (asbestosis) and mesothelioma has been proven. The objectives of this study were to monitor the levels of asbestos fibers in ambient air of Mashhad, Iran during 2018, and to draw its Geographic Information System (GIS) distribution map for the city. In this descriptive study, 13 sampling points in Mashhad city were chosen. Sampling of asbestos was carried out for 3 hour during summer and winter at 2018. Sampling of asbestos was performed using MCE (Mixed Cellulose Ester) membrane filters (pour size 0.45 µm; diameter: 25 mm) and cassette holder and peripheral pump. The samples were the analyzed by the phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method (NIOSH7400). Also, to investigate the type of asbestos and for more accurate counting of fibers, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis was utilized. Meteorological parameter were recorded through portable devices. To draw the graphs, Excel, R and Arc GIS software were used. Results showed that the mean asbestos fiber concentrations were equal to 11.40 ± 2.14 and 14.38 ± 2.52 f/L in summer and winter, respectively. The maximum level of asbestos fiber was detected in the station of Baitolmoghaddas square by 26.64 ± 2.14 and 19.3 SEM f/L in winter and summer, respectively. High concentration of asbestos fiber observed in this study can be attributed to the heavy traffic, the presence of prominent industries in the vicinity of the study area, and topographic features. The results from this research recommends that suitable controlling policies should be regulated to reduce both ambient air asbestos and its adverse health endpoints in Mashhad.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00541-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721955PMC
December 2020

Development and implementation of water safety plans for groundwater resources in the southernmost city of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 8;18(2):629-637. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The transfer of water from the source to the consumption point is always associated with the possibility of contamination in any of its various components. To resolve this problem, the World Health Organization has considered a water safety plan. The purpose of this study is to implement water safety plan in the water supply system of Bukan city. This study was performed on Bukan's water supply system in 2019-20 using a software to guarantee the quality of the water safety plan and the WHO and IWA guidelines. The software checklists were prepared and after confirming the validity of the translation and its facial and content validity, it was completed based on the records of the Water and Sewerage Company and interviews with experts. Out of a total of 440 points of full-application of the program and 392 points for the reviewed phases, 183.6 points were acquired and 43.7% of WSP-coordinated implementation was observed. The highest percentage of WSP-coordinated implementation (75.2%) was assigned to the validation stage with the highest point, and the support program stage had the lowest percentage of performance (1.1%). Among the major components of the water supply system, the final consumption point received the most attention from the system. Given the lifespan of the introduction and use of WSP in the world, it was expected that better results would be obtained from evaluating the implementation and progress of this approach in Bukan's water supply system. However, the implementation rate of this program in this city compared to other cities in Iran, showed that according to the implementation time (one year), the obtained results are relatively convincing and good and the water supply system has a moderate level of safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00488-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721941PMC
December 2020

Use of toenail-bounded heavy metals to characterize occupational exposure and oxidative stress in workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés.

Environ Geochem Health 2020 Oct 24. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Tobacco smoke is known for releasing metals in indoor air of waterpipe/cigarette cafés. However, the worker exposure to metals, and its association with oxidative stress in these cafés are still unclear. To this end, 54 workers and 38 customers from waterpipe/cigarette cafés (the exposed group), 30 workers from non-smoking cafés (the control group 1 (CG_1)) and 32 individuals from the general population (the control group 2 (CG_2)) were selected and toenails samples were then taken from them. Our findings revealed a significant difference in terms of toenail-bounded metal levels between the exposure and control groups (CG_1 and CG_2) (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). This study has also indicated that "type of tobacco" could be considered as a predictor for toenail-bounded heavy metals. Furthermore, our research's results suggest that toenail-bounded heavy metals are positively and significantly correlated with urinary levels of 8- hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, as a biomarker for the degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidative stress). Therefore, it can be concluded that workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés are at high risks of adverse health of DNA oxidative degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00751-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of photocatalytic pretreatment on the biodegradation of n-hexane vapours in a biofilter.

MethodsX 2020 10;7:100991. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-hexane are not completely biodegradable by a single biofilter. So, in the present study, a photoreactor system packed with scoria granules coated with TiO, as a pretreatment unit, was used for increasing the removal efficiency of n-hexane by a biofilter during an operation period of 191 days. The inlet and outlet concentration of n-hexane was analyzed with a gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The results indicated that the removal efficiency of the single biofilter with input concentrations of 0.18 - 1 g/m at empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30, 60, and 120 s was 10.06%, 21.45%, and 46.8%, respectively. When the photoreactor was used as a pretreatment system, the removal efficiency of the combined system in corresponding EBRTs was improved to 39.79%, 63.08%, and 92.60%, respectively. The results proved that the combined system provided higher removal efficiencies than the single biofilter. Thus, the application of the photoreactor as a pretreatment step was much effective in increasing the removal efficiency of n-hexane from the polluted air by the biofilter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374606PMC
July 2020

Concentrations and mortality due to short- and long-term exposure to PM in a megacity of Iran (2014-2019).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 2;27(30):38004-38014. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

The present study aimed to survey the spatial and temporal trends of ambient concentration of PM and to estimate mortality attributed to short- and long-term exposure to PM in Isfahan from March 2014 to March 2019 using the AirQ software. The hourly concentrations of PM were obtained from the Isfahan Department of Environment and Isfahan Air Quality Monitoring Center. Then, the 24-h mean concentration of PM for each station was calculated using the Excel software. According to the results, the annual mean concentration of PM in 2014-2019 was 29.9-50.9 μg/m, approximately 3-5 times higher than the WHO guideline (10 μg/m). The data showed that people of Isfahan in almost 58% to 96% of the days of a year were exposed to PM higher than the WHO daily guideline. The concentrations of PM in cold months such as October, November, December and January were higher than those in the other months. The zoning of the annual concentrations of PM in urban areas showed that the highest PM concentrations were related to the northern, northwestern, southern and central areas of the city. On average, from 2014 to 2019, the number of deaths due to natural mortality, lung cancer (LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke associated with ambient PM were 948, 16, 18, 281 and 60, respectively. The present study estimated that on average, 14.29% of the total mortality, 17.2% of lung cancer (LC), 15.54% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 17.12% of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 14.94% of stroke mortalities were related to long-term exposure to ambient PM. So provincial managers and politicians must adopt appropriate strategies to control air pollution and reduce the attributable health effects and economic losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09695-zDOI Listing
October 2020