Publications by authors named "Faris F Aba Alkhayl"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prospective Role of Bioactive Molecules and Exosomes in the Therapeutic Potential of Camel Milk against Human Diseases: An Updated Perspective.

Life (Basel) 2022 Jul 4;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Biology, College of Science, The United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates.

Camel milk (CM) constitutes an important dietary source in the hot and arid regions of the world. CM is a colloidal mixture of nutritional components (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals) and non-nutritional components (hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and exosomes). Although the majority of previous research has been focused on the nutritional components of CM; there has been immense interest in the non-nutritional components in the recent past. Reckoning with these, in this review, we have provided a glimpse of the recent trends in CM research endeavors and attempted to provide our perspective on the therapeutic efficacy of the nutritional and non-nutritional components of CM. Interestingly, with concerted efforts from the research fraternities, convincing evidence for the better understanding of the claimed traditional health benefits of CM can be foreseen with great enthusiasm and is indeed eagerly anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12070990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318805PMC
July 2022

Design of a Multi-Epitopes Based Chimeric Vaccine against Using Pan-Genome and Reverse Vaccinology Approaches.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

(EC) is a significant emerging pathogen that is occasionally associated with lung infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. In light of the fact that there is currently no approved vaccine or therapeutic option for the treatment of EC, the current study was developed to concentrate on applications based on modern computational approaches to design a multi-epitope-based peptide vaccine (MEBEPV) expressing the antigenic determinants prioritized from the EC genome. Integrated computational analyses identified two potential protein targets (phosphoporin protein-PhoE and putative outer-membrane porin protein) for further exploration on the basis of pangenome subtractive proteomics and immunoinformatic in-depth examination of the core proteomes. Then, a multi-epitope peptide vaccine was designed, which comprised shortlisted epitopes that were capable of eliciting both innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the cholera toxin's B-subunit, which was used as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation. To ensure maximum expression, the vaccine's 3D structure was developed and the loop was refined, improving the stability by disulfide engineering, and the physicochemical characteristics of the recombinant vaccine sequence were found to be ideal for both in vitro and in vivo experimentation. Blind docking was then used for the prediction of the MEBEPV predominant blinding mode with MHCI, MHCII, and TLR3 innate immune receptors, with lowest global energy of -18.64 kJ/mol, -48.25 kJ/mol, and -5.20 kJ/mol for MHC-I, MHC-II, and TLR-4, respectively, with docked complexes considered for simulation. In MD and MMGBSA investigations, the docked models of MEBEPV-TLR3, MEBEPV-MHCI, and MEBEPV-MHCII were found to be stable during the course of the simulation. MM-GBSA analysis calculated -122.17 total net binding free energies for the TLR3-vaccine complex, -125.4 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and -187.94 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. Next, MM-PBSA analysis calculated -115.63 binding free energy for the TLR3-vaccine complex, -118.19 for the MHC I-vaccine complex, and -184.61 for the MHC II-vaccine complex. When the vaccine was tested in silico, researchers discovered that it was capable of inducing both types of immune responses (cell mediated and humoral) at the same time. Even though the suggested MEBEPV has the potential to be a powerful contender against -associated illnesses, further testing in the laboratory will be required before it can be declared safe and immunogenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227637PMC
June 2022

Discovery of Rift Valley fever virus natural pan-inhibitors by targeting its multiple key proteins through computational approaches.

Sci Rep 2022 06 3;12(1):9260. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, 51452, Saudi Arabia.

The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus and pathogenic to both humans and animals. Currently, no proven effective RVFV drugs or licensed vaccine are available for human or animal use. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatment options to control this viral infection. RVFV glycoprotein N (GN), glycoprotein C (GC), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins are attractive antiviral drug targets due to their critical roles in RVFV replication. In present study, an integrated docking-based virtual screening of more than 6000 phytochemicals with known antiviral activities against these conserved RVFV proteins was conducted. The top five hit compounds, calyxin C, calyxin D, calyxin J, gericudranins A, and blepharocalyxin C displayed optimal binding against all three target proteins. Moreover, multiple parameters from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/GBSA analysis confirmed the stability of protein-ligand complexes and revealed that these compounds may act as potential pan-inhibitors of RVFV replication. Our computational analyses may contribute toward the development of promising effective drugs against RVFV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13267-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163866PMC
June 2022

Immunoinformatics and Biophysics Approaches to Design a Novel Multi-Epitopes Vaccine Design against .

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Apr 19;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

Due to the misuse of antibiotics in our daily lives, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major health problem. Penicillin, the first antibiotic, was used in the 1930s and led to the emergence of AMR. Due to alterations in the microbe's genome and the evolution of new resistance mechanisms, antibiotics are losing efficacy against microbes. There are high rates of mortality and morbidity due to antibiotic resistance, so addressing this major health issue requires new approaches. is a Gram-positive cocci and is capable of causing opportunistic infections and sepsis. is resistant to several antibiotics and does not currently have a licensed vaccine. In this study, we used bacterial pan-genome analysis (BPGA) to study pan-genome and applied a reverse immunology approach to prioritize vaccine targets against . A total of 15,444 core proteins were identified by BPGA analysis, which were then used to identify good vaccine candidates considering potential vaccine filters. Two vaccine candidates were evaluated for epitope prediction including the superoxide dismutase and gamma-glutamyl transferase protein. The epitope prediction phase involved the prediction of a variety of B-Cell and T-cell epitopes, and the epitopes that met certain criteria, such as antigenicity, immunogenicity, non-allergenicity, and non-toxicity were chosen. A multi-epitopes vaccine construct was then constructed from all the predicted epitopes, and a cholera toxin B-subunit adjuvant was also added to increase vaccine antigenicity. Three-dimensional models of the vaccine were used for downward analyses. Using the best-modeled structure, binding potency was tested with MHC-I, MHC-II and TLR-4 immune cells receptors, proving that the vaccine binds strongly with the receptors. Further, molecular dynamics simulations interpreted strong intermolecular binding between the vaccine and receptors and confirmed the vaccine epitopes exposed to the host immune system. The results support that the vaccine candidate may be capable of eliciting a protective immune response against and may be a promising candidate for experimental in vitro and in vivo studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146471PMC
April 2022

Advances in designing of polymeric micelles for biomedical application in brain related diseases.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Jul 6;361:109960. Epub 2022 May 6.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India; Faculty of Health, Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

In recent years, unique physicochemical properties of amphiphilic block copolymers have been utilized to design the polymeric micelles for brain-specific delivery of drugs, proteins, peptides and genes. Their unique properties such as nano-size, charge-switching ability, stimuli-responsive cargo release, flexible structure, and self-assembly enable them to overcome limitations of conventional dosage forms that include rapid drug release, drug efflux, and poor brain bioavailability, and poor stability. These limitations hinder their therapeutic efficacy in treating brain diseases. Their ease of functionalization and enhanced penetration and retention effect make them suitable nanocarriers for the diagnosis of various brain diseases. In this context, the present manuscript provides an insight into the progress made in the functionalization of micelles such as the incorporation of stimuli-sensitive moieties in copolymers, conjugation of cargo molecules with the core-forming block via responsive smart linkers, and conjugation of active ligands and imaging moieties with the corona forming block for brain targeting and imaging. Further, the review also expounds on the role of polymeric micelles in delivering neurotherapeutic to the brain. Some patents related to polymeric micelles formulated for brain delivery are also enlisted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109960DOI Listing
July 2022

The effect of krill oil supplementation on skeletal muscle function and size in older adults: A randomised controlled trial.

Clin Nutr 2022 06 20;41(6):1228-1235. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of krill oil supplementation, on muscle function and size in healthy older adults.

Methods: Men and women, aged above 65 years, with a BMI less than 35kg/m2, who participated in less than 1h per week of structured self-reported exercise, were enrolled in the study (NCT04048096) between March 2018 and March 2020. Participants were randomised to either control or krill oil supplements (4g/day) for 6 months in this double blind randomised controlled trial. At baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months, knee extensor maximal torque was measured as the primary outcome of the study. Secondary outcomes measured were grip strength, vastus lateralis muscle thickness, short performance physical battery test, body fat, muscle mass, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-Reactive Protein, neuromuscular (M-Wave, RMS and voluntary activation), and erythrocyte fatty acid composition.

Results: A total of 102 men and women were enrolled in the study. Ninety-four participants (krill group (26 women and 23 men) and placebo group (27 women and 18 men)) completed the study (mean (SD): age 71.2 (5.1) years and weight 71.8 (12.3) kg). Six months supplementation with krill oil resulted in, an increase in knee extensor maximal torque, grip strength and vastus lateralis muscle thickness, relative to control (p<0.05). The 6-month treatment effects were 9.3% (95%CI: 2.8, 15.8%), 10.9% (95%CI: 8.3, 13.6%) and 3.5% (95%CI: 2.1, 4.9%) respectively. Increases in erythrocyte fatty acid profile were seen with krill oil for EPA 214% (95%CI: 166, 262%), DHA 36% (95%CI: 24, 48%) and the omega-3 index 61% (95%CI: 49, 73%), relative to control (p < 0.05). Krill oil resulted in an increased, relative to control (p < 0.05), M-Wave of 17% (95%CI: 12.7, 38.1%) but there was no effect of krill oil on RMS, voluntary activation, or on any other secondary outcomes such as performance of the short performance physical battery test or quality of life.

Conclusion: Krill oil supplementation for 6 months results in statistically and clinically significant increases in muscle function and size in healthy older adults.

Clinicaltrials:

Gov Identifier: NCT04048096.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2022.04.007DOI Listing
June 2022

Muscle protein synthesis and muscle/metabolic responses to resistance exercise training in South Asian and White European men.

Sci Rep 2022 02 15;12(1):2469. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

The aims of the current study, therefore, were to compare (1) free-living MPS and (2) muscle and metabolic adaptations to resistance exercise in South Asian and white European adults. Eighteen South Asian and 16 White European men were enrolled in the study. Free-living muscle protein synthesis was measured at baseline. Muscle strength, body composition, resting metabolic rate, VO and metabolic responses (insulin sensitivity) to a mixed meal were measured at baseline and following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Free-living muscle protein synthesis was not different between South Asians (1.48 ± 0.09%/day) and White Europeans (1.59 ± 0.15%/day) (p = 0.522). In response to resistance exercise training there were no differences, between South Asians and White Europeans, muscle mass, lower body strength or insulin sensitivity. However, there were differences between the ethnicities in response to resistance exercise training in body fat, resting carbohydrate and fat metabolism, blood pressure, VO and upper body strength with responses less favourable in South Asians. In this exploratory study there were no differences in muscle protein synthesis or anabolic and metabolic responses to resistance exercise, yet there were less favourable responses in several outcomes. These findings require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-06446-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847359PMC
February 2022

An in silico hierarchal approach for drug candidate mining and validation of natural product inhibitors against pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme in the antibiotic-resistant Shigella flexneri.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 03 29;98:105233. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

Shigella flexneri is the main causative agent of the communicable diarrheal disease, shigellosis. It is estimated that about 80-165 million cases and > 1 million deaths occur every year due to this disease. S. flexneri causes dysentery mostly in young children, elderly and immunocompromised patients, all over the globe. Recently, due to the emergence of S. flexneri antibiotic resistance strains, it is a dire need to predict novel therapeutic drug targets in the bacterium and screen natural products against it, which could eliminate the curse of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, in current study, available antibiotic-resistant genomes (n = 179) of S. flexneri were downloaded from PATRIC database and a pan-genome and resistome analysis was conducted. Around 5059 genes made up the accessory, 2469 genes made up the core, and 1558 genes made up the unique genome fraction, with 44, 34, and 13 antibiotic-resistant genes in each fraction, respectively. Core genome fraction (27% of the pan-genome), which was common to all strains, was used for subtractive genomics and resulted in 384 non-homologous, and 85 druggable targets. Dihydroorotase was chosen for further analysis and docked with natural product libraries (Ayurvedic and Streptomycin compounds), while the control was orotic acid or vitamin B13 (which is a natural binder of this protein). Dynamics simulation of 50 ns was carried out to validate findings for top-scored inhibitors. The current study proposed dihydroorotase as a significant drug target in S. flexneri and 4-tritriacontanone & patupilone compounds as potent drugs against shigellosis. Further experiments are required to ascertain validity of our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105233DOI Listing
March 2022

Core-Proteomics-Based Annotation of Antigenic Targets and Reverse-Vaccinology-Assisted Design of Ensemble Immunogen against the Emerging Nosocomial Infection-Causing Bacterium .

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 12 24;19(1). Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

is a ubiquitous Gram-negative emerging pathogen that causes hospital-acquired infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It is a multi-drug-resistant bacterium; therefore, an effective subunit immunogenic candidate is of great interest to encounter the pathogenesis of this pathogen. A protein-wide annotation of immunogenic targets was performed to fast-track the vaccine development against this pathogen, and structural-vaccinology-assisted epitopes were predicted. Among the total proteins, only three, A0A1T3FLU2, A0A1T3INK9, and A0A1V3U124, were shortlisted, which are the essential vaccine targets and were subjected to immune epitope mapping. The linkers EAAK, AAY, and GPGPG were used to link CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes and an adjuvant was also added at the N-terminal to design a multi-epitope immunogenic construct (MEIC). The computationally predicted physiochemical properties of the ensemble immunogen reported a highly antigenic nature and produced multiple interactions with immune receptors. In addition, the molecular dynamics simulation confirmed stable binding and good dynamic properties. Furthermore, the computationally modeled immune response proposed that the immunogen triggered a strong immune response after several doses at different intervals. Neutralization of the antigen was observed on the 3rd day of injection. Conclusively, the immunogenic construct produces protection against ; however, further immunological testing is needed to unveil its real efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8750920PMC
December 2021

Insights into the Binding of Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Wild Type and B.1.620 Variant with hACE2 Using Molecular Docking and Simulation Approaches.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia.

Recently, a new variant, B.1620, with mutations (S477N-E484K) in the spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD) has been reported in Europe. In order to design therapeutic strategies suitable for B.1.620, further studies are required. A detailed investigation of the structural features and variations caused by these substitutions, that is, a molecular level investigation, is essential to uncover the role of these changes. To determine whether and how the binding affinity of ACE2-RBD is affected, we used protein-protein docking and all-atom simulation approaches. Our analysis revealed that B.1.620 binds more strongly than the wild type and alters the hydrogen bonding network. The docking score for the wild type was reported to be -122.6 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol, while for B.1.620, the docking score was -124.9 +/- 3.8 kcal/mol. A comparative binding investigation showed that the wild-type complex has 11 hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge, while the B.1.620 complex has 14 hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge, among which most of the interactions are preserved between the wild type and B.1.620. A dynamic analysis of the two complexes revealed stable dynamics, which corroborated the global stability trend, compactness, and flexibility of the three essential loops, providing a better conformational optimization opportunity and binding. Furthermore, binding free energy revealed that the wild type had a total binding energy of -51.14 kcal/mol, while for B.1.628, the total binding energy was -68.25 kcal/mol. The current findings based on protein complex modeling and bio-simulation methods revealed the atomic features of the B.1.620 variant harboring S477N and E484K mutations in the RBD and the basis for infectivity. In conclusion, the current study presents distinguishing features of B.1.620, which can be used to design structure-based drugs against the B.1.620 variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10121310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698945PMC
December 2021

Garlic Extract Alleviates Trastuzumab-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Through Its Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antihyperlipidemic Effects.

J Inflamm Res 2021 27;14:6305-6316. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, 51452, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Trastuzumab is a new biological drug that has been used to treat breast and gastric cancer; however, its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity limit its use. Garlic has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of garlic on trastuzumab-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model.

Methods: Twenty rats were divided into four equal groups as vehicle control (G1), garlic (G2), trastuzumab (G3), and trastuzumab+garlic (G4). All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks of treatment, followed by blood collection and excision of liver tissues for further analyses. The liver specimens were processed for histopathological (HP), immunohistochemical (expression of TNF-α and PCNA), immunofluorescent expression of Chk2 and p53, biochemical, and flow cytometry investigations to evaluate the extent of hepatocyte injury. The biochemical analysis was conducted for the activity of tissue antioxidants (GPX1, CAT, and SOD2), serum lipid profile, and liver enzymes, whereas ROS was performed by flow cytometry.

Results: The results revealed remarkable structural changes in hepatocytes of G3 with significant increases in the numbers of inflammatory cells and positive PCNA cells, area % of collagen fibers, and immuno-expression of TNF-α, as well as a significant reduction in the nuclear expression of Chk2. In addition, significant reductions were noticed in the antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, and GPX1) activity of G3. In contrast, the levels of lipid profile tests (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDLC, and HDLC), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), and ROS revealed significant increases in rats of G3. Likewise, garlic administration in G4 restored all mentioned changes to their average levels deviated by trastuzumab.

Conclusion: Based on the current results, garlic demonstrates hepatoprotective effects against trastuzumab-induced toxicity in rats. The study suggested for the first time that the coadministration of garlic with trastuzumab for treating breast or gastric cancer can augment their efficacy with minimal toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S339092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8636847PMC
November 2021

Discovery of Novel Inhibitors From Medicinal Plants for V-Domain Ig Suppressor of T-Cell Activation.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:716735. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is an immune checkpoint and is a type I transmembrane protein. VISTA is linked to immunotherapy resistance, and it is a potential immune therapeutic target, especially for triple-negative breast cancer. It expresses at a high concentration in regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and its functional blockade is found to delay tumor growth. A useful medicinal plant database for drug designing (MPD3), which is a collection of phytochemicals from diverse plant families, was employed in virtual screening against VISTA to prioritize natural inhibitors against VISTA. Three compounds, Paratocarpin K (PubChem ID: 14187087), 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-(trimethylazaniumyl)propanoate (PubChem ID: 3861164), and 2-[(5-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanylmethyl]-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PubChem ID: 6494266), having binding energies stronger than -6 kcal/mol were found to have two common hydrogen bond interactions with VISTA active site residues: Arg54 and Arg127. The dynamics of the compound-VISTA complexes were further explored to infer binding stability of the systems. Results revealed that the compound 14187087 and 6494266 systems are highly stable with an average RMSD of 1.31 Å. Further affirmation on the results was achieved by running MM-GBSA on the MD simulation trajectories, which re-ranked 14187087 as the top-binder with a net binding energy value of -33.33 kcal/mol. In conclusion, the present study successfully predicted natural compounds that have the potential to block the function of VISTA and therefore can be utilized further in experimental studies to validate their real anti-VISTA activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.716735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576517PMC
October 2021

Thyme oil alleviates Ova-induced bronchial asthma through modulating Th2 cytokines, IgE, TSLP and ROS.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 8;140:111726. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Bronchial asthma (BA) is a heterogeneous allergic respiratory disease with diverse inflammatory symptoms, pathology, and responses to treatment. Thyme is a natural product which is consisted of multiple phenolic compounds of therapeutic significance for treatment of cough and bronchitis. This study evaluated the efficacy of thyme oil against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced BA in an experimental rabbit model. Forty male rabbits were divided into four equal groups [control group (G1), OVA (G2), thyme oil (G3), and OVA plus thyme oil (G4)]. Animals were treated for 30 days, and clinical, histopathological (HP), histochemical (HC), immunohistochemical (IHC), morphometric, biochemical and flow cytometry methods were performed, followed by statistical analysis. All used methods revealed normal structure of the lung tissues in rabbits of G1 and G3. In contrast, the clinical examination of G2 rabbits revealed an obvious increase in the respiratory rate, sneezing and wheezing, whereas the HP, HC and IHC techniques exhibited substantial inflammatory changes in the peribronchio-vascular lung tissues with thinning, degeneration, apoptosis (using the TUNEL assay), necrosis, and shedding of the airway epithelium. Furthermore, the morphometric results confirmed significant increases in the numbers of inflammatory cells, goblet cells, eosinophils and apoptotic cells from (12, 0, 2, 2 cells) to (34,10, 16, 18 cells) respectively, as well as the area percentage of collagen fiber deposition and immunoexpression of eotaxin-1/10 high power fields. Additionally, the biochemical results revealed significant increases in the serum levels of TSLP, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IgE and eotaxin-1 cytokines from (140, 40, 15, 38, 120, 100, 48) pg./ml to (360, 270, 130, 85, 365, 398, 110) pg./ml respectively, while analysis of ROS by flow cytometry revealed remarkable oxidative stress effects in G2 rabbits. On the other hand, treatment of rabbits with thyme oil in G4 substantially alleviated all OVA-induced alterations. Overall, our findings indicate for the first time that thyme oil can ameliorate OVA-induced BA via its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects on the lung tissues of rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111726DOI Listing
August 2021

The effect of short-duration resistance training on insulin sensitivity and muscle adaptations in overweight men.

Exp Physiol 2019 04 10;104(4):540-545. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the time course of muscular adaptations to short-duration resistance exercise training? What is the main finding and its importance? Short-duration resistance training results in early and progressive increases in muscle mass and function and an increase in insulin sensitivity.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of resistance exercise training, composed of one set of each exercise to voluntary failure, on insulin sensitivity and the time course of adaptations in muscle strength/mass. Ten overweight men (age 36 ± 8 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 89 ± 14 kg; body mass index 29 ± 3 kg m ) were recruited to the study. Resistance exercise training involved three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session involved one set of nine exercises, performed at 80% of one-repetition maximum to volitional failure. Sessions lasted 15-20 min. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and post-intervention. Vastus lateralis muscle thickness, knee-extensor maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (measured between 0 and 50, 0 and 100, 0 and 200, and 0 and 300 ms) were measured at baseline, each week of the intervention, and after the intervention. Resistance training resulted in a 16.3 ± 18.7% (P < 0.05) increase in insulin sensitivity (Cederholm index). Muscle thickness, maximal isometric torque and one-repetition maximum increased with training, and at the end of the intervention were 10.3 ± 2.5, 26.9 ± 8.3, 18.3 ± 4.5% higher (P < 0.05 for both) than baseline, respectively. The rate of torque development at 50 and 100 ms, but not at 200 and 300 ms, increased (P < 0.05) over the intervention period. Six weeks of single-set resistance exercise to failure results in improvements in insulin sensitivity and increases in muscle size and strength in young overweight men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087435DOI Listing
April 2019
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