Publications by authors named "Farid Benzerouk"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Smoking and diabetes interplay: A comprehensive review and joint statement.

Diabetes Metab 2022 Jun 29;48(6):101370. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Outpatient Addiction Center, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Evidence shows that smoking increases the risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes in the general population. Among persons with diabetes, smoking has been found to increase the risk of all-cause mortality and aggravate chronic diabetic complications and glycemic control. The current paper, which is a joint position statement by the French-Speaking Society on Tobacco (Société Francophone de Tabacologie) and the French-Speaking Society of Diabetes (Société Francophone du Diabète), summarizes the data available on the association between smoking and diabetes and on the impact of smoking and smoking cessation among individuals with type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes mellitus. It also provides evidence-based information about the pharmacological and behavioral strategies for smoking cessation in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2022.101370DOI Listing
June 2022

Validity and usefulness of the short form of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R SF) among patients with schizophrenia.

Addict Behav 2022 06 19;129:107251. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Research Group on Alcohol and Dependences, INSERM & University of Picardy Jules Verne, Amiens, France; Institute of Psychiatry and Addictions, Paris, France.

Objective: Drinking motives are considered to be major predictors of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. However, these motives have been poorly investigated in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the present study among patients with schizophrenia was twofold: 1) assess the validity of the short form of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R SF); and 2) investigate the relationship between drinking motives and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Method: A total of 179 patients with schizophrenia were approached to participate in the study. DSM-5 criteria were used to identify patients with comorbid AUD (AUD+; n = 42) and non-abstainers patients without comorbid AUD (AUD-; n = 71).

Results: A confirmatory factor analysis conducted on items of the DMQ-R SF for the whole sample revealed adequate goodness-of-fit values, while internal consistency indices were globally satisfactory. Group comparisons revealed higher use of alcohol and other substances, as well as stronger drinking motives among AUD + patients, while groups were comparable concerning clinical features of schizophrenia, including psychotic symptom dimensions and severity. Regression analysis showed that the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score was significantly associated with two internal drinking motives: enhancement and coping.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that the DMQ-R SF is a reliable tool for assessing drinking motives among patients with schizophrenia. Enhancement and coping motives seem to play a major role in comorbid AUD among these patients. Community-based and clinical treatment programs should take the drinking motives of dual-diagnosis patients into consideration, in order to improve their outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107251DOI Listing
June 2022

Contributing roles of depression, anxiety, and impulsivity dimensions in eating behaviors styles in surgery candidates.

J Eat Disord 2021 Nov 8;9(1):148. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Psychiatry Department, Reims University Hospital, EPSM Marne, 51100, Reims, France.

Background: Even if bariatric surgery is considered the most effective therapeutic approach, it is not equally successful among individuals suffering from severe obesity and candidates for this weight loss surgery. Among the factors that influence postsurgical outcomes, eating behaviors styles are known to play a key role in relapses. The aim of our study was to assess eating behaviors styles and several modulating psychopathological factors in patients suffering from severe obesity.

Methods: Patients seeking bariatric surgery (N = 127) completed a set of standardized tools assessing eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), comorbid psychiatric conditions (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), depression, and anxiety scores (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and impulsivity scores (UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale).

Results: We detected significant correlations between DEBQ Emotional Eating (EmoE) and depression, state and trait anxiety, and all dimensions of impulsivity. Significant correlations were also present between DEBQ External Eating (ExtE) and depression, state and trait anxiety and UPPS-P positive urgency, lack of perseverance and sensation seeking. Regression analyses identified sex (female), trait anxiety, and lack of perseverance as explanatory factors for EmoE, and depression severity score and positive urgency for ExtE.

Conclusions: EmoE might be a means of dealing with negative emotions and/or intrusive thoughts, while ExtE might result from a mechanism associated with depression. These results should help to improve patients' outcomes by defining specific therapeutic targets in psychological interventions. After bariatric surgery, some patients regain weight. This is likely due to various factors, including a return of maladaptive eating styles, such as emotional eating (which occurs as a response to negative emotions, like depression, anxiety, anger, sadness, and discouragement), external eating (which refers to the tendency to eat in response to positive external cues, regardless of internal signals of hunger and satiety), and restraint eating (implying to make efforts to develop and maintain strategies to control calories intake, associated with weight loss after lifestyle intervention). Our goal in this research project was to explore associated factors (particularly depression, anxiety, and impulsivity) to these eating styles in patients suffering from obesity prior to bariatric surgery. Individuals seeking bariatric surgery were asked questions about their eating styles and their levels of depression, anxiety, and impulsivity using standardized questionnaires. We found that emotional eating might be a means of dealing with negative emotions and/or intrusive thoughts (e.g. about food or body dissatisfaction), while external eating might result from a mechanism associated with depression. We detected no association between restraint eating and any of the dimensions of impulsivity, nor depression and anxiety. Therapies aimed at improving patients' abilities to regulate negative affects seem promising among subjects suffering from obesity and those seeking bariatric surgery. If well learned, these therapies might also help them to maintain weight loss after surgery by limiting maladaptive eating styles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-021-00503-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573893PMC
November 2021

Faux Pas Recognition and Executive Processes in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder: Toward an Investigation of Interindividual Heterogeneity.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Feb;37(3):608-620

Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Laboratoire Cognition, Santé, Société (C2S), Reims, France.

Objective: Impairment of executive functions (EF) has been documented for decades in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD), while more recent studies have also reported impaired theory of mind. Both have been associated with negative outcomes, particularly a high risk of relapse. However, the interrelatedness of EF and theory of mind impairments remains subject to debate.

Method: About 19 AUD outpatients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were asked to complete measures of motor inhibition, mental flexibility, and updating to assess EF, and the faux pas test to assess theory of mind.

Results: As expected, patients' mean performances on EF and faux pas measures were poorer than those of HC. Correlational analyses revealed that executive processes were differentially related to faux pas subscores. Additional single-case analyses corroborated the strong association between EF and faux pas interpretation, as patients with AUD mostly had congruent performances (i.e., both EF and faux pas impaired or both EF and faux pas preserved).

Conclusions: This study highlights the interrelatedness of EF and faux pas performances in AUD, but also emphasizes the incomplete overlap of the cognitive processes involved in these tasks, with heterogeneous patterns of association. Based on these findings, tailored cognitive rehabilitation programs that simultaneously target EF and faux pas recognition could be developed to favor patients' social inclusion and reduce the risk of relapse. Results also argue in favor of systematic screening for EF and theory of mind impairments among AUD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acab072DOI Listing
February 2022

Neural correlates of semantic ambiguity resolution in paucisymptomatic bipolar disorder patients.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 10 31;316:111346. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Pôle Universitaire de Psychiatrie, CHU de Reims, EPSMM, Reims, France; Cognition Health and Society Laboratory (EA 6291), University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France; Faculty of Medicine, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

In addition to symptoms specifically related to mood dysregulation, patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show frequent alterations in formal thought organization. A disruption in semantic processing, notably in semantic inhibition, is one of the possible mechanisms that might explain this modified organization. However, to date, little is known about these mechanisms and their underlying neural substrates. This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of the semantic inhibition process in BD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Seventeen BD patients and 17 matched controls were recruited and underwent a 3T MRI scan. A semantic ambiguity resolution task was used during the scan to explore semantic inhibition. Whole-brain analyses were conducted on 13 BD patients and 16 controls. When compared to controls, BD patients had stronger activation in the bilateral temporal areas and right middle frontal gyrus, and less activation in the right hippocampus, parahippocampal area, and bilateral precunei. The present study revealed an altered fronto-temporo-parietal semantic inhibition network in BD patients that could reflect compensative mechanisms or modified semantic processing inducing abnormal thought organization, which has a major impact on the occupational and social functioning of the BD population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111346DOI Listing
October 2021

Component process analysis of verbal memory in a sample of students with a binge drinking pattern.

Addict Behav Rep 2020 Dec 3;12:100323. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

INSERM U1247 GRAP, Research Group on Alcohol and Drugs, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Background: Many studies have emphasized the harmful impact of binge drinking on several cognitive functions, including memory. However, the exact nature of the memory processes involved is still unknown. The present study was designed to assess verbal working memory and verbal episodic memory, especially its encoding, storage and retrieval processes, in binge drinking to identify the processes impacted by this behavior.

Methods: Participants were 48 community-recruited college students aged 18-25 years and categorized as either binge drinkers (BDs) or social drinkers (SDs). They were assessed with (a) subtests of the Wechsler scale (digit span, letter-number sequencing) measuring verbal working memory, and (b) a modified version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), which measures verbal episodic memory functioning in various conditions of encoding (controlled) and recollection (free recall, cued recall, and recognition).

Results: Verbal working memory was unaffected by binge drinking, whereas verbal episodic memory performances were reduced. In particular, analysis of the modified FCSRT scores suggested that BDs had less proficient storage and retrieval processes. Furthermore, correlational analyses indicated that the proficiency of these memory components was negatively correlated with several indicators of binge drinking behavior.

Conclusions: Results suggest that binge drinking behavior affects the storage and recollection processes of verbal episodic memory. The academic failure described in binge drinkers could be partly related to this harmful effect. Our results on the negative impact of binge drinking on memory should be used to develop information campaigns targeting students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752726PMC
December 2020

Heterogeneity of Executive Function Abilities in Recently Detoxified Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder: Evidence from a Cluster Analysis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 01 25;45(1):163-173. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

From the, Laboratoire Cognition Santé, Société (C2S - EA 6291), (FS, FB, AH, AK, FG), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Background: Impairments of executive functions (EF) have been consistently reported in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), mostly in studies which were based on comparisons of means between groups. However, given the high heterogeneity in AUD patients, this approach could actually cover a wide range of EF patterns. In the present study, we addressed the paucity of the literature about cognitive heterogeneity in AUD by applying a cluster analytical approach on EF measures.

Methods: Seventy-eight withdrawn AUD patients and 77 healthy Control participants completed measures targeting a variety of EF components. We then used cluster analysis to identify subgroups of AUD patients. Furthermore, the AUD subgroups were compared to the Control group to establish their specific EF patterns.

Results: Findings showed that AUD patients could be divided into 3 clusters based on their EF performances. A first cluster accounting for half of the AUD sample was characterized by unimpaired EF (Cluster 1). The 2 other clusters displayed major EF deficits but differed regarding the deficient EF component. While Cluster 2 was mainly impaired on measures of rule deduction and mental flexibility, Cluster 3 was mainly characterized by a lower processing speed and impaired inhibition of an ongoing motor response. Differences in EF performances of AUD patients could be related to differences in premorbid cognitive reserve, impulsiveness patterns, and withdrawal complications.

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of the cognitive heterogeneity in AUD by showing that AUD patients display substantially different EF patterns. Future studies should try to go beyond mere group comparisons to further deepen our understanding about cognitive differences between AUD patients. In the long run, this could lead to more personalized prevention and treatment programs specifically tailored to the patient's impairments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14517DOI Listing
January 2021

Neural Responses to the Implicit Processing of Emotional Facial Expressions in Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Alcohol 2021 Feb;56(2):166-174

Cognition Health and Society Laboratory (EA 6291), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 57 rue Pierre Taittinger, 51571 Reims, France.

Aims: Emotional processing is a crucial ability in human and impairments in the processing of emotions are considered as transdiagnostic processes in psychopathology. In alcohol use disorder, numerous studies have investigated emotional processing and showed emotional deficits related to the perpetuation of alcohol use. Recent studies have also explored this topic in binge drinking, but few studies are available. In this paper, we explored whether emotional difficulties in binge drinking may be extended to implicit emotion processing.

Methods: We compared 39 binge drinkers (BD) and 40 non-binge drinkers who performed a gender categorization task while faces represented emotional expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness. Emotional brain responses were assessed thanks to functional magnetic resonance imaging. Emotional versus non-emotional conditions were first contrasted in the whole sample and groups were then compared.

Results: Emotional condition led to differential activations than non-emotional condition, supporting the validity of the paradigm. Regarding group comparisons, BD exhibited higher activations in the left posterior cerebellum (anger processing) and the right anterior cingulate (fear processing) as well as lower activations in the left insula (happiness), the right post-central gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus (sadness processing).

Conclusions: Beyond emotional identification, BD presented differential brain responses following the implicit processing of emotions. Emotional difficulties in binge drinking might be related to a more automatic/unconscious processing of emotions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agaa093DOI Listing
February 2021

Contributions of Emotional Overload, Emotion Dysregulation, and Impulsivity to Eating Patterns in Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Seeking Bariatric Surgery.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Psychiatry Department, Reims University Hospital, EPSM Marne, 51100 Reims, France.

Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) is very frequently observed in patients considered for weight loss surgery and seems to influence their outcome critically. Literature highlights a global emotional overload in individuals with BED, but little is known on the mechanisms involved. The present study aimed to focus on emotion regulation, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety in people with and without BED and fulfilling inclusion criteria for bariatric surgery. Doing so, we sought to individualize factors related to BED. Then, we examined the contribution of depression, anxiety, emotion regulation difficulties, and impulsivity to inappropriate eating behaviors observed in patients with BED.

Methods: A sample of 121 individuals (79.3% female, mean age: 40.82 ± 9.26, mean current body mass index (BMI): 44.92 kg/m ± 7.55) seeking bariatric surgery were recruited at the Champagne Ardenne Specialized Center in Obesity in Reims, France from November 2017 to October 2018. They were stratified as with or without BED according to the binge eating scale. Characteristics identified in univariate analyses as differentiating the two groups were then included in multivariable analyses.

Results: Multivariable analyses showed that limited access to emotional regulation strategies was significantly associated with BED. Furthermore, inappropriate eating behaviors were independently associated with age, depression severity, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity in BED group.

Conclusions: The present findings are indicative of an association between emotion deficit and BED in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. Patients with BED could benefit from the addition of an emotion regulation intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650699PMC
October 2020

The Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0: Validation Among Non-Clinical and Clinical French-Speaking Samples and Comparison With the Full Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0.

Front Psychiatry 2020 8;11:480671. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

Objectives: The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) was designed to assess food addiction using a shorter version than the YFAS 2.0. We lack data about the psychometric properties of the mYFAS 2.0 in patients with obesity, as well as studies comparing the psychometric properties of the mYFAS 2.0 versus the full YFAS 2.0. This study aimed to validate the French-language mYFAS 2.0 in a non-clinical population (study 1, n = 250), to determine the yet unknown psychometric properties of this scale in patients with obesity (study 2, n = 345), and to compare the full YFAS 2.0 and the mYFAS 2.0 in terms of food addiction (FA) prevalence and symptoms detection in both populations.

Method: Study 1 included 250 non-clinical individuals (non-underweight and non-obese persons screened negative for eating disorders). Study 2 included 345 bariatric surgery candidates recruited in three centers (Québec, Canada; Reims and Tours, France). The mYFAS 2.0 structure was investigated using confirmatory factorial analyses with tetrachoric correlations. Convergent validity was tested using the full YFAS 2.0, the Binge Eating Scale (both studies), the revised 18-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (study 1), the Beck Depression Inventory (study 2), and the body mass index (BMI; both studies).

Results: The mYFAS 2.0 was unidimensional, and had adequate (study 1: KR-20 = .78) and acceptable (study 2: KR-20 = .73) internal consistency. In study 1, the mYFAS 2.0 had good convergent validity with the YFAS 2.0, BMI, binge eating, cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating; in study 2, the mYFAS 2.0 had good convergent validity with the YFAS 2.0, binge eating, depression, but not BMI. Participants endorsed fewer symptoms with the mYFAS 2.0 than with the YFAS 2.0; FA prevalences were similar between questionnaires in the non-clinical, but not in the clinical sample. A FA 'diagnosis' and risk of binge eating disorder were associated but did not completely overlap.

Conclusions: The mYFAS 2.0 has close psychometric properties to the YFAS 2.0 in non-clinical and clinical samples. However, the use of the mYFAS 2.0 in bariatric surgery candidates might lead to a significant underestimation of FA prevalence and number of FA symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.480671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509420PMC
September 2020

Disentangling the role of social cognition processes at early steps of alcohol abuse: The influence of affective theory of mind.

Addict Behav 2020 03 23;102:106187. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Cognition Health and Society Laboratory (EA 6291), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 57 rue Pierre Taittinger, 51571 Reims, France; Pôle Universitaire de Psychiatrie, EPSM Marne, 8 Rue Roger Aubry, Reims, France; INSERM U1247 GRAP, Research Group on Alcohol and Drugs, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Chemin du Thil, Amiens, France. Electronic address:

Excessive alcohol use among adolescents has become a pressing challenge among Western societies. Accordingly, one of the current research objectives is to identify the processes associated with this harmful habit. Although numerous studies have underlined the role of executive and motivational processes, few have explored emotional and interpersonal abilities at early steps of alcohol abuse. The present study evaluated the role of two social cognition processes, namely theory of mind (ability to infer others' mental states at cognitive and affective levels) and empathy (ability to understand others' feelings at cognitive and affective levels) in adolescents' alcohol consumption. Two hundred and two adolescents (13-20 years old) performed a behavioral task evaluating theory of mind and filled in questionnaires measuring personal data, empathy, alcohol consumption (alcohol abuse and specific binge drinking), as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms. Findings showed that cognitive and affective empathy were negatively associated with alcohol consumption in youth whereas affective theory of mind was related to specific binge drinking. Importantly, affective theory of mind predicted binge drinking in adolescents, even after controlling for age, gender, and education level. These results emphasized the role of social cognition in early alcohol abuse and showed that, beyond inhibition, interpersonal abilities might precipitate excessive drinking in youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106187DOI Listing
March 2020

Disentangling the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Problematic Alcohol Use Among College Students: Evidence From a Cluster Analytic Approach.

Alcohol Alcohol 2020 Mar;55(2):196-203

Laboratoire CRP-CPO (EA7273), Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Chemin du Thil, 80025 Amiens Cedex 1, France.

Aims: Investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and alcohol use among college students has yielded discrepant results. We hypothesized that these discrepancies could originate from a potential heterogeneity of self-esteem patterns among young adult with an alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Methods: A community sample of 343 college students was recruited and categorized with or without AUD using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test cut-offs. College students were compared on the dimensions of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) as well as mood, impulsiveness, alcohol- and other substance-related measures, including drinking motives.

Results: A cluster analysis conducted among college students with AUD highlighted two subgroups characterized by contrasting patterns on the CSEI: one group with a high level of self-esteem and low levels of anxiety and depression symptoms and one group with a low level of self-esteem and high levels of impulsiveness, mood symptoms and drinking to cope motives.

Conclusion: Findings caution against assuming that AUD is associated with low self-esteem, as reported in previous studies. These results rather emphasize a heterogeneity of self-esteem in college students, showing that high self-esteem was also related to AUD. Implications of these results are major for prevention purposes and clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agz097DOI Listing
March 2020

[Agitation and hallucinations following a poisoning by tricyclics: Two case reports].

Therapie 2020 May - Jun;75(3):311-314. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Pôle universitaire de psychiatrie adulte, centre hospitalier universitaire de Reims, rue du général Koenig, 51100 Reims, France; Laboratoire cognition, santé, socialisation, université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51100 Reims, France. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2019.03.011DOI Listing
March 2022

Disrupted Fear and Sadness Recognition in Binge Drinking: A Combined Group and Individual Analysis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 09 8;43(9):1978-1985. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Cognition Health and Society Laboratory (EA 6291), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Background: Binge drinking is a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, associated with cognitive and cerebral impairments. Indeed, various cognitive processes have been identified as disrupted in binge drinking, ranging from perceptive to executive functions, but emotional processes have conversely been little investigated. Particularly, it is unclear to what extent binge drinkers (BD) present difficulties to recognize and categorize the emotions expressed by other individuals. Such an exploration would, however, offer a more comprehensive view of the deficits associated with alcohol-related disorders and potentially involved in the maintenance of this harmful habit.

Methods: Fifty-two BD and 42 control participants performed an emotional task assessing the ability to recognize 6 basic emotions (i.e., anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness). Accuracy score and detection threshold were collected for each emotion. To explore the extent of emotion recognition difficulties, 2 analyses were conducted: (i) classical repeated measures analyses of variance, to compare groups' performance, and (ii) multiple single-case analyses (i.e., Crawford's t-tests), to determine the percentage of BD presenting genuine emotion recognition deficits. Correlations were also performed between alcohol consumption characteristics and emotional recognition scores.

Results: BD presented reduced performance for the recognition of fear and sadness. Multiple single cases highlighted that these deficits respectively concerned 21.15 and 15.38% of the binge drinking sample, and the relation between binge drinking and reduced sadness detection was supported by correlational analyses.

Conclusions: These findings show that binge drinking is associated with a disrupted processing of emotional stimuli. By identifying heterogeneity in the impairments presented by BD, the present results also underline the usefulness of a combined group and individual Analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14151DOI Listing
September 2019

Food addiction, in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery, is associated with higher prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders and past mood disorders.

Psychiatry Res 2018 09 20;267:473-479. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

CHRU de Tours, Center Spécialisé pour la prise en charge de l'Obésité sévère, 2 boulevard Tonnellé, Tours Cedex 9 37044, France; CHRU de Tours, Équipe de Liaison et de Soins en Addictologie & Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, 2 boulevard Tonnellé, Tours Cedex 9 37044, France; Université François Rabelais de Tours, EA 2114 «Psychologie des Âges de la Vie», 3 rue des Tanneurs, Tours 37000, France. Electronic address:

The current cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of the food addiction (FA) phenotype and its association with psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. It also investigates the eating behavior characteristics associated with FA and the association between FA and loss of control over specific foods high in sugar, salt and/or fat. We included 128 bariatric surgery candidates and we assessed FA (YFAS 2.0), mood and anxiety disorders, suicidality, eating disorders (current bulimia nervosa and current anorexia nervosa), alcohol and tobacco use disorders (MINI 5.0.0, beck depression inventory, AUDIT, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence) and eating behavior (DEBQ). Prevalence of FA in our sample was 25%. FA was significantly associated with higher prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders and past mood disorders, higher current suicidality but not with eating disorders and alcohol use disorder. FA was significantly associated with higher emotional eating, and with loss of control over consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and/or salt, but not of fruits, vegetables or grain products. Our results provide arguments for considering psychiatric disorders and suicidality in FA and for considering FA as an addictive disorder in obese patients, with many risk factors in common with other addictions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.087DOI Listing
September 2018

Cloninger's Temperament and Character Dimensions of Personality and Binge Drinking Among College Students.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2017 Nov 23;41(11):1970-1979. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

INSERM ERi24 GRAP, Research Group on Alcohol and Pharmacodependences, Jules Verne Picardie University, Amiens, France.

Background: Temperament and character dimensions of personality remain largely unexplored in young adults exhibiting binge drinking (BD) patterns. Moreover, the available studies do not consider gender differences and dismiss possible personality heterogeneity among binge drinkers. In this study, we aimed to compare temperament and character dimensions between young binge drinkers and age- and sex-matched social drinkers. We further applied cluster analysis to investigate the potential heterogeneity of personality patterns among BD college students.

Methods: This study included 200 university students of 18 to 24 years of age, who were recruited via an invitation to take an alcohol use survey. These participants included 100 individuals (50 females and 50 males) with a BD pattern, and 100 participants (50 females and 50 males) with a social drinking (SD) pattern. These subjects were evaluated with regard to their use of alcohol and other substances, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, mood, and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory.

Results: Between-group comparisons revealed that both male and female binge drinkers were characterized by high levels of novelty seeking, and low levels of persistence and self-directedness. However, cluster analyses within the binge drinker group revealed 2 distinct groups that differed between males and females. These groups shared similarities with Cloninger's type I (high harm-avoidance) and II (high novelty-seeking) alcoholism typology.

Conclusions: The present findings support the subdivision of binge drinkers according to gender and personality dimensions. Male and female binge drinkers should not be considered a unitary group, but rather a population of individuals that encompasses at least 2 distinct personality patterns. These findings have major implications for prevention and treatment approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13497DOI Listing
November 2017

Association study between reward dependence and a functional BDNF polymorphism in adult women offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

Psychiatr Genet 2015 Oct;25(5):208-11

aDepartment of Psychiatry, Robert Debré Hospital bC2S Laboratory (EA 6291), Reims Champagne-Ardenne University, Reims cCMME, Saint-Anne Hospital dNSERM U894, Psychiatry and Neurosciences Centre eParis Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris fDepartment of Psychiatry, Corentin-Celton Hospital, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.

Thirty-five healthy adult women offspring of alcohol-dependent probands (AWOA) were compared with 63 healthy controls to test whether personality dimensions on the Temperament and Character Inventory questionnaire were associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in offspring. We found a significantly lower reward dependence score in AWOA compared with the controls. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism may be involved in this difference as the lower reward dependence score was found only in AWOA carrying the Val allele.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YPG.0000000000000099DOI Listing
October 2015

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

Alcohol 2013 Jun 10;47(4):271-4. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Hôpital Robert Debré, 51100 Reims, France.

Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.03.001DOI Listing
June 2013

Executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands: toward a cognitive endophenotype?

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013 Jan 14;37 Suppl 1:E356-63. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Reims University Hospital, Reims, France.

Background: Executive function (EF) impairment in alcohol dependence (AD) has been related to the toxic effects of alcohol on frontal lobes. However, this impairment could be partially present before the onset of the disease and might constitute a vulnerability factor. Although a considerable body of research has investigated executive functioning among AD patients, much less attention has been directed toward high-risk individuals. Most studies were carried out among children or adolescents, and very few were conducted in adults. The aim of this study was to examine EF in a group of adult offspring of AD individuals.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-five nonalcoholic adults with (family history positive [FHP]) or without (family history negative [FHN]) family history of AD were included in the study. All participants were screened for past and current psychiatric diagnoses, and alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use. They were compared on self-rated impulsiveness using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and EF using a neuropsychological test battery.

Results: Group comparison revealed that FHP participants had significantly higher BIS-11 scores than the FHN participants, while neuropsychological examination revealed lower EF scores for FHP participants. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the number of AD family members was a predictor of EF results, whereas impulsiveness was not.

Conclusions: Nonalcoholic adult offspring of AD individuals showed increased impulsiveness and decreased EF, suggesting weakness of 2 distinct neurobehavioral decision systems. Findings support evidence that EF weaknesses may qualify as a suitable endophenotype candidate for AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01903.xDOI Listing
January 2013
-->