Publications by authors named "Farid A Dorkoosh"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fabrication, Optimization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Intra-vitreal Implant of Budesonide Generally Made of PHBV.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2020 Nov 9;21(8):314. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Drug delivery to vitreous in comparison with drug delivery to the other parts of the eye is complicated and challenging due to the existence of various anatomical and physiological barriers. Developing injectable intra-vitreal implant could be beneficial in this regard. Herein, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) implants were fabricated and optimized using response surface method for budesonide (BZ) delivery. The acquired implants were characterized in regard to the stability of the ingredients during fabrication process, drug loading amount, and drug release pattern (in PBS-HA-A and in vitreous medium). According to this research and statistical analysis performed, first HV% (hydroxyvalerate) then molecular weight and ratio of PEG as pore former affect respectively release rate and burst strength of BZ with different coefficients. Drug release profile in rabbit eye correlated well with that of in vitro (R = 0.9861, p ˂ 0.0001). No significant changes were seen in ERG waves, intraocular pressure, and histological studies during the in vivo part of the project. Using 8% HV, 20% PEG/PHBV, and higher molecular weight PEG (i.e., 6000), the optimum formulation was achieved. Toxicity and biocompatibility of the optimized formulation, which were evaluated in vivo, indicated the suitability of design implant for intra-vitreal BZ delivery. Grapical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01828-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Development of Octreotide-Loaded Chitosan and Heparin Nanoparticles: Evaluation of Surface Modification Effect on Physicochemical Properties and Macrophage Uptake.

J Pharm Sci 2019 09 10;108(9):3036-3045. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-645, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Octreotide (OCT) is a therapeutic peptide which is administered for the treatment of acromegaly. The purpose of this study was to design a new polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated nanoparticle (PEG-NP) to overcome the short half-life and poor stability of OCT. The developed PEG-NPs were compared with non-PEGylated NPs with respect to their size, morphological characteristics, loading efficiency, release profile, and macrophage uptake. The OCT-loaded NPs and PEG-NPs were prepared by ionic complexion of chitosan (Cs) with either heparin (Hp) or PEGylated heparin (PEG-Hp). The chemical structure of PEG-Hp was confirmed by IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Morphological analyses by scanning electron microscopy showed that NPs and PEG-NPs have a uniform shape. Dynamic laser scattering measurements indicated that hydrodynamic diameter of NPs and PEG-NPs were 222.5 ± 10.0 nm and 334.9 ± 6.7 nm, respectively. NPs and PEG-NPs had a positive zeta potential of about 32.5 ± 1.1 mv and 20.6 ± 2.4 mv, respectively. Entrapment efficiency was 61.4 ± 1.0% and 55.7 ± 2.4% for NPs and PEG-NPs, respectively. Compared with the NPs, the PEG-NPs exhibited a slower release profile. Subsequently, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled chitosanCs was synthesized and used to evaluate the stealth characteristic of PEG-NPs. In vitro macrophage uptake of fluorescently labeled NPs was measured by flow cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2019.05.002DOI Listing
September 2019

Preparation of Mesalamine Nanoparticles Using a Novel Polyurethane- Chitosan Graft Copolymer.

Pharm Nanotechnol 2017 ;5(3):230-239

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University, Abhar. Iran.

Background: Chitosan nanoparticle, a potential vehicle, is used as a hydrophilic carrier system since it can deliver drugs to specific sites and also control the drug release rate. Moreover, controlled release systems are designed to minimize systemic absorption and to achieve optimum delivery of the biologically active mesalamine to the distal small intestine and the colon.

Objective: The current study investigated the development of new nanoparticulate drug delivery systems based on polyurethane-chitosan copolymers. The copolymer shows good biodegradablity and biocompatiblity properties and thus can be considered as a potential carrier for drug delivery systems.

Method: In this work, Polyurethane was obtained from the condensation reaction between polypropylene glycol (PPG) as prepolymerpolyol, 1, 4-butanediol (BD) as diol, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) as chain extender and also isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI). The synthesized polyurethane was grafted onto the prepared chitosan through a covalent binding and preparation of nanoparticles was done further through a coprecipitation process. The particle size of the prepared samples was evaluated with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique.

Results: The obtained particle size of the samples was 80±0.05 nm. Characterization of the synthesized chitosan-polyurethane copolymer was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy, 13CNMR and 11HNMR spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized polyurethane-chitosan copolymers and the amount of the loaded drug were also examined using SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. Moreover, drug release behavior was examined in PBS (pH 7.4) at 37°C. It was concluded that the mesalamine release from polyurethane-chitosan was sustained and no initial burst release (burst effect) was observed and the percentage of mesalamine released from nanoparticles was 92.19±0.2% within 72 hrs.

Conclusion: The results of the drug loaded nanoparticles showed that the drug loading process was performed successfully. As a result, polyurethane-chitosan copolymer can be a good candidate for drug delivery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738505666171103120026DOI Listing
July 2019

Preparation, Optimization and Physicochemical Characterization of Aripiprazole Loaded Nano-porous in situ Forming Implant.

Pharm Nanotechnol 2017 ;5(2):138-147

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran P.O. Box 14155-645, Iran, and Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-56131, Iran.

Background: Multiple applications of antipsychotic agents are the main obstacle in the treatment of schizophrenia. Due to behavioral abnormalities, low compliance is observed in most of the psychotic patients. Designing of new drug delivery systems to overcome compliance problem seems to be necessary. In situ forming implants are a suitable choice for the delivery of antipsychotic agents due to their easy administration process and sustained release kinetics.

Objective: In this study, a novel poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) based nanoporous in situ implant system is developed for delivery of aripiprazole.

Methods: Entrapment efficiency, drug loading, rheological features, morphological characteristics and release profile of nano-porous in situ implant system are analyzed in this study.

Results: Entrapment efficiency and drug loading coefficient were modeled and impact of different experimental parameters was analyzed using D-optimal study. Entrapment efficiency and drug loading were optimized at 99.32% and 75.23%, respectively. Rheological analyses demonstrated that the developed formulation is a highly cross-linked gel with possible capability for controlled delivery of aripiprazole. According to the FTIR studies, aripiprazole was intact within polymer networks. SEM and light microscopic analyses proved the acceptable morphological characteristics of in situ gels. Release studies demonstrated a biphasic pattern of release. After initial burst release, a sustained pattern was observed for 18 days. The release data was fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model and release pattern was found out to be Fickian. In addition, the release profile was compared with novel pluroniccarrageenan based hydrogel system.

Conclusion: PHBV based in situ forming implant seems to be a novel formulation for delivery of Aripiprazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738505666170522153930DOI Listing
June 2019

Development and Validation of a Rapid RP-HPLC-DAD Analysis Method for the Simultaneous Quantitation of Paclitaxel and Lapatinib in a Polymeric Micelle Formulation.

Sci Pharm 2016 Apr-Jun;84(2):333-45. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran P.O. Box 14155-645, Iran; Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-56131, Iran.

A robust and rapid analysis method was developed and validated for the simultaneous assay of paclitaxel (PTX) and lapatinib (LPT) in a polymeric micelle formulation as a novel drug delivery system using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The assay was performed using the C18 MZ-Analytical Column (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm, OSD-3) which was protected with the C18 pre-column (5 μm, 4.0 × 4.6 mm, OSD-3). The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water (70/30; V/V) with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and detection wavelength of 227 nm. Accuracy was reported as the relative error and was found to be less than 6.8%. The interday assay was evaluated to be 3.22% and 5.76% RSD for PTX and LPT, respectively. The intraday precision was found to be at its maximum value of 5.83% RSD. The limit of detection for both PTX and LPT was found to be 1 µg/mL by means of the newly developed method. The limit of quantitation for PTX and LPT was found to be 5 µg/mL. The calibration curves for both drugs were linear in the concentration range of 5 to 80 μg/mL. In vitro release for both drugs from the polymeric micelle was evaluated using the newly developed analysis method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1507-03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871185PMC
May 2016

Hyaluronic acid-coated liposomes for targeted delivery of paclitaxel, in-vitro characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

J Control Release 2016 05 9;229:10-22. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-56131, Iran; Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-56131, Iran. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Chemotherapy is regarded as the most essential strategy in inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells. Paclitaxel is a widely used taxane; however, the side effects of available Cremophor-based formulations and also the limitations of passive targeting uncovered an essential need to develop tumor-specific targeted nanocarriers. A hyaluronic acid targeted liposomal formulation of paclitaxel was prepared in which, hyaluronic acid was electrostatistically attracted to the surface of liposomes. Liposomes, had a particle size of 106.4±3.2nm, a weakly negative zeta potential of -9.7±0.8mV and an acceptable encapsulation efficiency of 92.1±1.7%. The release profile of liposomes in buffer showed that 95% of PTX was released during 40h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis showed the greater cellular internalization of coumarin-loaded liposomes compared to free coumarin. MTT assay on 4T1 and T47D cells demonstrated the stronger cytotoxic activity of liposomes in comparison to free paclitaxel. Cell cycle analysis showed that cells were mainly blocked at G2/M phases after 48h treatment with liposomes. In vivo real time imaging on 4T1 tumor-bearing mice revealed that the liposomal formulation mainly accumulated in the tumor area. Liposomes also had better antitumor efficacy against Cremophor-based formulation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid targeted paclitaxel liposome can serve as a promising targeted formulation of paclitaxel for future cancer chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.03.012DOI Listing
May 2016

Nanoparticulate fingolimod delivery system based on biodegradable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV): design, optimization, characterization and in-vitro evaluation.

Pharm Dev Technol 2017 Nov 11;22(7):860-870. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

a Department of Pharmaceutics , Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

This study was focused on the fabrication, statistical optimization and in vitro characterization of poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles loaded with fingolimod. PHBV-based fingolimod nanoparticles were prepared by single and double evaporation methods; the incorporation efficiency of fingolimod was higher with the single emulsion evaporation method in the nanosize range particles. Fingolimod HCL was neutralized with NaOH in order to slow down the release of the highly soluble fingolimod. The encapsulation efficiency of neutralized fingolimod was much higher (53-73%) due to the insoluble form of the drug used in encapsulation. It was found that the amount of fingolimod, concentration of PHBV and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) would influence the encapsulation efficiency significantly. The effect of these parameters on the Particle size, PdI, loading capacity and loading efficacy was studied. The optimum conditions were 1.32% PHBV, 0.42% PVA and 5 mg fingolimod. The average size of optimized nanoparticles which measured with the aid of the Box-Behnken experimental design was 250 nm and entrapment efficiency of 73(%). Drug-release from the nanospheres over a four-week period has shown a characteristic triphasic release pattern with an initial burst effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10837450.2015.1108982DOI Listing
November 2017

Liposomal formulation for co-delivery of paclitaxel and lapatinib, preparation, characterization and optimization.

J Liposome Res 2016 Sep 12;26(3):175-87. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

a Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran and.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most promising natural anticancer agents with a wide therapeutic range which is limited by its hydrophobic nature, low therapeutic index and more importantly, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Lapatinib (LPT) is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor with a significant potential to inhibit p-glycoproteins which form one of the main groups of proteins responsible for efflux pump mediated MDR. To overcome the PTX related MDR, a novel liposomal formulation was optimized for co-delivery of PTX and LPT by applying the D-optimal response surface methodology. The encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of the optimized formulation for LPT and PTX was 52 ± 3% and 68 ± 5, respectively. The optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution with the average of 235 ± 12 nm. The transmission electron microscopy image showed that liposomes were round in shape and discrete. The release profile exhibited 93% and 71% drug release for PTX and LPT after 40 h in the sink condition. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated the conversion of both drugs from crystalline state to molecular state in the optimized lyophilized formulation. The cytotoxicity of the prepared formulation was studied against 4T1 murine mammary cells. The liposomal formulation showed better cytotoxicity in comparison to the binary mixture of free drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08982104.2015.1070174DOI Listing
September 2016

Hyaluronic acid based micelle for articular delivery of triamcinolone, preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Int J Pharm 2015 Jul 5;489(1-2):218-25. Epub 2015 May 5.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Medical Biomaterial Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A novel triamcinolone loaded polymeric micelle was synthesized based on hyaluronic acid and phospholipid for articular delivery. The newly developed micelle was characterized for physicochemical properties including size, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and also morphology by means of transmission electron microscopy. The biocompatibility of micelle was explored by histopathological experiment in rat model. Also biological fate of micelle was investigated in rat by means of real time in vivo imaging system. Triamcinolone loaded micelle was in the size range of 186 nm with negative zeta potential charge. Micelles were spherical in shape with core shell like structure. Triamcinolone was released from micelle during 76 h with almost low burst effect. DSC analysis showed the conversion of crystalline triamcinolone from its crystalline state. Histopathological analysis showed no evidence of tissue damage or phagocytic accumulation in knee joint of rat. The real time in vivo imaging analysis suggested at least three days retention time of micellar system in knee joint post injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.05.001DOI Listing
July 2015

Development and Validation of Rapid Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC-DAD Method for the Quantification of Lapatinib and Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Degraded Products.

J Chromatogr Sci 2015 Jul 9;53(6):932-9. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-645, Tehran, Iran

A rapid, simple and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay method was developed and validated for quantitative analysis of lapatinib (LPT) in bulk pharmaceuticals. The newly developed method was assessed using a C18 MZ-Analytical column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm, OSD-3), which was protected by a (5 µm, 4.0 × 4.6 mm, OSD-3) pre-column with mobile phase that was composed of acetonitrile and water (70/30, v/v) and a detection wave length of 227 nm. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, specificity and system suitability. Forced degradation studies were also performed for LPT to determine the stability-indicating aspect of developed method. The method was found to be specific for LPT in the presence of degradation products. The retention time of LPT was ∼4 min. Accuracy of the method was found to be 2.20% bias for all tested samples. The inter- and intra-day precision of the novel method were found to be 2.84 and 2.78%, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-80 µg/mL with a regression coefficient of 0.9990. The limits of detection and quantification were also found to be 1 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in order to better characterize degraded products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmu150DOI Listing
July 2015

Synthesis and optimization of a novel polymeric micelle based on hyaluronic acid and phospholipids for delivery of paclitaxel, in vitro and in-vivo evaluation.

Int J Pharm 2014 Nov 20;475(1-2):163-73. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-56131, Iran; Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Tehran 14399-56131, Iran. Electronic address:

Novel polymeric micelles were synthesized based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and phospholipids (PEs) including 1,2-dimiristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) and 1,2-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE). The newly developed micelles evaluated for the physicochemical properties including structural analysis by means of FTIR. Micelles were optimized for delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The D-optimal design was applied in order to reach micelles with high entrapment efficiency (EE %) and minimum size, simultaneously. In this design the independent variables were the co-polymer type, the drug to polymer ratio and the formulation temperature, whereas the dependent variables were EE% and micelle size. The EE% of the optimized micelles was 46.8% and 59.9% for HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles, respectively. The size of the optimized micelles was in the range of around 250 nm. In vitro release study of the optimized micelles showed that PTX was released from HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles as long as 23 h and 34 h, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed a conversion of the crystalline PTX molecules into the amorphous form in the micelles. In vivo real time image analysis showed that micellar system was mostly accumulated in the liver, spleen and heart. Accelerated stability studies represented that PTX loaded micelle formulations were stable both physically and chemically at least in 6 months' time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.08.030DOI Listing
November 2014

Nanoparticles of quaternized chitosan derivatives as a carrier for colon delivery of insulin: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

Int J Pharm 2008 May 5;356(1-2):259-66. Epub 2008 Jan 5.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to develop insulin nanoparticulate systems by using chitosan (CS), triethylchitosan (TEC) and dimethyl-ethylchitosan (DMEC, a new quaternized derivative of chitosan) for colon delivery. The nanoparticles were prepared by the polyelectrolyte complexation (PEC) method. Particle size distribution, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the nanoparticles were determined using dynamic light scattering technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to observe the morphology of the nanoparticles. It was found that the nanoparticles carried positive charges and showed a size distribution in the range of 170-270 nm with spherical morphology and smooth surface structure. The amount of insulin loaded into the nanoparticles was determined by measuring the association efficiency and also the content of insulin in the nanoparticles. Insulin loading was found to be more than 80% for all of the nanoparticles. In vitro release studies showed a small burst effect at the beginning and then a sustained release characteristic for 5h. Ex vivo investigations revealed better insulin transport across the colon membrane of rats for nanoparticles made with quaternized derivatives than those made of chitosan. In vivo studies in rats have showed enhanced colon absorption of insulin by using these nanoparticles compared to free insulin in diabetic rats. The insulin absorption from the rat's colon was evaluated by its hypoglycemic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.12.037DOI Listing
May 2008

Solid carriers for improved solubility of glipizide in osmotically controlled oral drug delivery system.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2007 Aug;33(8):812-23

School of pharmacy, Tehran university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to increase the solubility of glipizide (gli) by solid dispersions SDs technique with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in aqueous media. The gli-PVP solid dispersion systems was prepared by physical mixing or spray drying method, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elementary osmotic pumps (EOPs) were prepared with gli-PVP complex and the effect of the PVP percentages on the enhancing of gli dissolution rate was studied. The influences of various parameters e.g., drug- PVP ratio, level of solubility modifier, coating weight gain and diameter of drug releasing orifice on drug release profiles were also investigated. The solubility and dissolution rates of gli were significantly increased by solid dispersion using spray dried method as well as their physical mixture. The obtained results indicated that gli-PVP solid dispersion system has suitable solubility behavior in EOP tablets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639040601128753DOI Listing
August 2007

Transport of octreotide and evaluation of mechanism of opening the paracellular tight junctions using superporous hydrogel polymers in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

J Pharm Sci 2004 Mar;93(3):743-52

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of opening of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers using superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) polymers as permeation enhancers for peptide drug delivery. Moreover, the transport of octreotide across Caco-2 cell monolayers was assessed by application of SPH and SPHC polymers on Caco-2 cell monolayers. In these experiments, N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride with 60% quaternization (TMC60) was used as a positive control for opening of tight junctions. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) studies showed that all three polymers (TMC60, SPH, and SPHC) were able to decrease TEER values to approximately 30% of the initial values, indicating the ability of these polymers to open the tight junctions. Recovery TEER studies showed that the effects of the polymers on Caco-2 cell monolayers were reversible, indicating viability of the cells after incubation with polymers. Both SPH and SPHC (compared with TMC60) were able to increase the paracellular transport of octreotide by their mechanical pressures on tight junctions. The mechanistic studies showed that junctional proteins, including actin, occludin, and claudin-1, were influenced by application of SPH and SPHC polymers to the Caco-2 cell monolayers. SPH and SPHC induced clear changes in the staining pattern of all three proteins compared with the control, indicating that the expression of these proteins in the tight junctions was increased, most likely due to the mechanical pressure of the polymers on the junctional proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.10570DOI Listing
March 2004

Peroral absorption of octreotide in pigs formulated in delivery systems on the basis of superporous hydrogel polymers.

Pharm Res 2002 Oct;19(10):1532-6

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of peroral octreotide absorption using delivery systems based on superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) polymers.

Methods: Six female pigs (BW of 23.5 kg) were used in this study. SPH-based delivery systems were made of two components: 1) a conveyor system made of SPH and SPHC; 2) a core that contained octreotide. The core was inserted into the conveyor system (core inside, c.i.) or attached to the surface of the conveyor system (core outside, c.o.). Four different peroral formulations were investigated: c.i., c.o., core outside including trimethyl chitosan chloride (c.o.t.), and octreotide only in the absence of any polymer (o.o.). All formulations were placed in enteric-coated gelatin capsules (size 000) and administered perorally. Intravenous administration was used to determine bioavailability (F) values. Blood samples taken from the cannulated jugular vein were analyzed by radioimmunoassay.

Results: Peroral administration of 15 mg o.o. resulted in low F values of 1.0 +/- 0.6% (mean +/- SEM) whereas c.i. and c.o. administrations resulted in remarkably higher F values of 12.7 +/- 3.6% and 8.7 +/- 2.4%, respectively. By the addition of trimethyl chitosan chloride as an extra absorption enhancer to c.o.t., the highest bioavailability (16.1 +/- 3.3%) was achieved.

Conclusions: These novel delivery systems based on SPH and SPHC polymers are able to increase the peroral bioavailability of octreotide by mechanical fixation and increasing the retention of the dosage form at the absorption site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1020416918624DOI Listing
October 2002

Effects of superporous hydrogels on paracellular drug permeability and cytotoxicity studies in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

Int J Pharm 2002 Jul;241(1):35-45

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) as permeation enhancers for peptide drug delivery on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Moreover, the cytotoxic effects of these polymers were also studied using trypan blue test, MTT assay and propidium iodide staining. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) studies revealed that both SPH and SPHC polymers were able to decrease TEER values to about 40% of initial values, indicating the ability of these polymers to open tight junctions. Recovery studies of TEER showed that the effects of polymers on Caco-2 cell monolayers were reversible, indicating viability of the cells after incubation with polymers. Both polymers were able to enhance the transport of the hydrophilic marker 14C-mannitol up to 2.7 and 3.8-fold in comparison to the control group. The cumulative transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled dextrans with a molecular weight of 4400 Da (FD4) and 19600 Da (FD20) was enhanced by SPH and SPHC polymers by opening of tight junctions; however, this enhancement was inversely proportional to the molecular weight of marker compounds. Cytotoxicity studies confirmed that the transport enhancing properties of SPH and SPHC polymers were not caused by damage of the Caco-2 cell monolayers. The cells were able to exclude trypan blue as well as propidium iodide after incubation with SPH and SPHC polymers. MTT assay showed that the number of viable cells was higher than 95% after incubation with SPH and SPHC polymers. This indicates that the mitochondrial metabolic activities of the cells were preserved after application of the polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00115-1DOI Listing
July 2002

Peroral delivery systems based on superporous hydrogel polymers: release characteristics for the peptide drugs buserelin, octreotide and insulin.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2002 Jun;15(5):433-9

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, The Netherlands.

Novel peroral peptide drug delivery systems based on superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) have recently been developed in our laboratory. In this report the following issues were studied: release of the peptide drugs buserelin, octreotide and insulin from SPH and SPHC polymers and the developed delivery systems, stability of these peptides during the release and the integrity of insulin in the polymeric matrix of SPHC. Release studies from SPH and SPHC polymers revealed that buserelin, octreotide and insulin were released almost completely from the polymers. Peptide release rates from SPH were faster than from SPHC, due to the more porous structure of SPH polymer. All peptides studied in contact with SPHC polymer were stable under different environmental conditions (ambient temperature, 37 degrees C, light and darkness and at pH values 3.2 and 7.2). FTIR studies demonstrated that no covalent binding occurred between insulin and the polymeric SPHC matrix. Release profiles of all peptides from the developed delivery systems showed a time-controlled release profile: after a short lag time of 10-15 min, a burst release of peptides occurred during which more than 80% of peptide was released within 30-45 min. In conclusion, the present delivery systems based on SPH and SPHC show appropriate in vitro properties for application in peroral peptide drug delivery of buserelin, octreotide and insulin, and are therefore promising for further in vivo evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(02)00028-3DOI Listing
June 2002

Evaluation of superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite in porcine intestine ex-vivo: assessment of drug transport, morphology effect, and mechanical fixation to intestinal wall.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2002 Mar;53(2):161-6

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) polymers to enhance the transport of N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethylester (BAEE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4400 (FD4) across porcine intestinal epithelium ex-vivo, and to study any possible morphological damage to the epithelium by applying these polymers. In addition, the ability of these polymers to attach to the gut wall by mechanical pressure was examined by using a specifically designed centrifuge model. The transport of BAEE and FD4 across the intestinal mucosa was enhanced 2- to 3-fold by applying SPHC polymer in comparison to negative control. No significant morphological damage was observed by applying these polymers inside the intestinal lumen. Moreover, the SPH and SPHC polymers were able to attach mechanically to the intestinal wall by swelling and did not move in the intestinal lumen even when a horizontal force of 13 gms(-2) was applied. In conclusion, these polymers are appropriate vehicles for enhancing the intestinal absorption of peptide and protein drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0939-6411(01)00222-3DOI Listing
March 2002
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